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Full text of "Life and letters of Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., D.C.L., sometime Bishop of Durham"

LIBRARY sr r^rs COUM 



LIFE AND LETTERS 



>F 



BROOKE FOSS WESTCOTT 



/! 
V, i~ 



'Life and Letters 

of 

Brooke Foss Westcott 

D.D., D.C.L. 

Sometime Bishop of Durham 



]}Y HIS SON 

ARTHUR WESTCOTT 



IV I Til IL L US TRA T1ONS 



IN TWO VOLUMES 



117253 



ILontion 

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
1903 



" TI make <>f liie one luinnoninus whole, to realise ihe 
invi il.lf, t<i mtiripate the tninsfiguring majesty of the Oivine 
l'r< : worth living for." II. !'. \V. 




BISHOP WESTCOTT'S ARMS. 



VOL. II 



A 2 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER IX 

WESTMINSTER 
1883-1890 

Interview with Mr. Gladstone Installation at Westminster Visit to 
Edinburgh (University Tercentenary) Ordination of his three sons 
The Abbey threatened Deaneries offered Abbey Services Sermons 
and Lectures Guidance of visitors -Jubilee Service (1887) Social 
work (Peace and Arbitration) Dread of popularity Death of Bishop 
Lightfoot Commentary on The Epistle to the Hebrews His portrait 
and the Artist's impressions Birmingham Bishopric Scheme Affection 
for the Abbey The North Transept sculptures Letters (1884-1890) 

Page I 



CHAPTER X 

DURHAM 
1890-1893 

Nomination Election Confirmation Consecration Enthronement 
Views on Gambling -International Peace Parliamentary Congress 
The Co-operative Movement The Church Congress at Hull The 
Gospel of Life Schoolmasters' Quiet Day The Durham Coal Strike 
His successful mediation Dedication Service at Peterborough 
Death of Professor Hort Opening of the Girls' Grammar School at 
Birmingham- The Incarnation and Common Life Religious Thought 
in the West Letters (1890-1892) .... 91 

vii 



LIFK OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAPTER XI 

DURHAM (continued} 
1893-1897 

The \\Vl-h Omrch Suspensory Bill Visitation of the Cathedral Views 

"pure beer'' Last visit to the Continent The Anglican Mis- 

innary Conference Kfforts on behalf of the Deserving Unemployed 

Th'- junior clergy and foreign service Death of Archbishop Benson 

L'hri:!ian .-/ /vv/ of I. if:' Letter.- (1893-1896) . Page 171 



CHAPTER XII 



iS(jj- 1900 

-Active ini'-rest in Church Reform The Bicentenary of 
S. !'.('. K. A'isil ' Dublin -The C.hristian Social Union Memorial 
t<> ' in : M ina l\"--ctti \ isit to CambridgeCo-operative Conference 
at Auckland Castle The KituaK Controversy- -I lomcs for Aged Miners 

Srnnons on the War in South Africa The Bicentenary of S. P. G. 

1. ..... rs i 1X07-!'. ..... 245 



CHAPTER XIII 

DURHAM (continued ') 

I l)(jfj 1 < )O I 

1 . .! >l visit to < 'ainbridge C< invocation Sermon in Vork 
Mil i 1 > .!''; ni hi- \\ift.- /. (;;/:, frjnt ll'orh - Letters (1900-1901) 

3'9 

CHAPTER XIV 

\VK ItOTI A DKK.KSA.N \ND " 1 ,\"i -.KYH()DV : S 1USHOP ;; 



A.. I 1 . i by Vrchdc.icon I'outflower) : nrga 

I : Jii'l-ni.nt "f ( hnradcr Auckland students 

I'ati . ; .,i office Concentration of work 



CONTENTS ix 

Breadth of outlook As National Churchman Limitation of work- 
business habits Intelligibility Spiritual vision. As " Everybody's 
Bishop" (contributed by Mr. Thomas Burl, M.I'.) : " Everybody's 
Bishop" Interest in Co-operation "The pitmen's Bishop" The 
Strike of 1892 Conferences at Auckland Castle The Bishop as host 
Ilis knowledge of social questions Conciliation Conference in Durham 
Northumberland Miners' Cab (1894) Last address to Durham 
miners --Comparison with Shelley 1'rophet and Saint Page 360 



CHAPTER XV 

THE LAST WEEK 392 

APPENDICES 

PUBLIC TRIBUTES 407 
PRAYERS . .419 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 441 

NOTE ON HANDWRITING 449 

INDEX 4 C7 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Photogravure Portrait. From a Photograph by Elliott and 

Fry, London, 1890 . Frontispiece 

Bishop Westcott's Arms . v 

Facsimile of Letter i 3 

Sanctuary Knocker of Durham Cathedral, From a Sketch 

by Bishop Westcott . .144 

Pont du Gard. From a Sketch by Bishop Westcott . 180 

Window in Auckland Castle. From a Sketch by Bishop 

Westcott . 1 86 

Screen in Auckland Castle Chapel. From a Sketch by 

Bishop Westcott . 264 



XI 



CHAPTER IX 

WESTMINSTER 
1883-1890 

IT will be readily understood that my father's removal 
from Peterborough provoked considerable indignation 
in the circle of his friends. Into the workings of this 
feeling it would be improper to enter. But it came to 
pass that Mr. Gladstone invited my father to an inter- 
view, and expressed his earnest wish to serve him. 
The sum of that conversation is contained in these 
few words addressed to Bishop Lightfoot : 

2&thjitly 1883. 

Mr. Gladstone practically offered me in a conversation the 
Deanery of Exeter, and then most kindly went on to say that 
I might prefer (as you did was not that good of him to 
add?) a canonry to hold with Cambridge work. 

Shortly after this conversation a Westminster canonry 
became vacant through Canon Barry's acceptance of 
the See of Sydney. Dr. Barry, it will be remembered, 
was an exact contemporary of my father at Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; so that there was a special fitness 
in the bishop-elect inviting his successor to preach the 
sermon at his consecration, which took place on 1st 
VOL. II B 



2 LIFK OK BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

January 1884. On the 2nd of the following month 
my father was installed as Canon of Westminster. His 
first sermon as such was preached on 27th April, and 
was an appeal on behalf of the Church Missionary 
Society. In his text-book on that day he entered, as 
he was now beginning a new work : ITt<TTOs- o Ka\wv. 
Na< KPK NIT. 1 

The appointment had been made the occasion of 
many congratulatory letters, and had given general 
satisfaction ; but, more important, the new Canon was 
most warmly received by his colleagues at the Abbey. 
Other fellow -workers hastened to echo the welcome 
thus expressed by Dean Bradley : 

[i I/// October 1883.] 

. . . Now there seems to be no reason why I should be 
the List to say what unfeigned joy your appointment will give 
in". It would he almost impertinent to praise the selection : 
i 1 i permitted to rejoice at it. 

Between my father's installation and his first official 
act crime an interesting visit to Edinburgh ; for in 
April i;-'S.; he was invited to attend the Tercentenary 
Festival of Edinburgh I'niversity, and receive an hon. 
U.D. degree. He went there accordingly, and was the 
guest of I'rof.-ssnr Flint. Once more was his voice 
heard in Edinburgh ; for alter the banquet which was 
heM on the degree day he was called upon to respond, 
on behall ol Iheology, to the toast <i " Theology, Eaw, 
and Medicine," proposed by Lord Napier and Ettrick. 
.^ir Henry Maine subsequently responded for Eaw, and 
I'rote . -i >] Virchou fi >r Medicine. 

I IN adventures in Edinburgh an* described in letters 
to his wife, ot which the following ar framents: 



ix WESTMINSTER 3 

EDINBURGH, i6//i April 1884. 

My journey was accomplished easily, with an accompani- 
ment of two pleasant wonders a porter who even turned 
away from the coin which was ready, and a cab-driver who 
asked for his simple fare and said it was all right. After 
breakfast I took a tram to the end of Princes Street, that I 
might hunt up Thomson and the Murrays. . . . Before dinner 
Professor Flint's other visitors came three Frenchmen, all 
deputies, and all decorated. Later, Dr. Hatch came : an 
Oxford guest the Bampton lecturer who fluttered St. Mary's. 
We were very late in starting for the great function, the Lord 
Provost's reception, and when we got there entrance was 
absolutely impossible. The one narrow staircase was filled 
by people leaving, and after vain efforts we were able to 
retreat without an accident. Our French friends were tired, 
and no one encouraged my zeal to see the torch procession. 
So of the official pleasures I am as yet inexperienced. 

I7/// April. 

The main thing yesterday, indeed the centre of the whole 
festival, was the service at St. Giles'. This was perfect. 
Nothing could be more solemn or more eloquent. We met 
in the Parliament House, which is close by St. Giles'. It is a 
very fine hall, and soon became very gay with the foreign 
academic dresses and uniforms. The most gorgeous figure 
was one of our fellow-guests, M. Mezieres. He wore a robe 
of gold-coloured silk trimmed with white fur, and a tall beef- 
eater sort of cap to match. I could not recognise him. 
Others had cerise satin gowns ; others green ; stars and de- 
corations were shining everywhere. In due time marshalled 
by an officer finer than the historic drum-major of Treves 
we formed into line, I found myself with Professor Seeley, 
and so we went to the church through lines of University 
volunteers. Being close to the pulpit, I did not miss a word 
of the sermon. The service was all printed, and one prayer 
was full of echoes of our Bidding Prayer most pleasant to 
hear. The sermon l was very fine. It would, I think, have 

1 Preached by Professor Flint. 



.j LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 

satisfied you, expressing the main thought of the unity of life 
v, hidi 1 am always trying to put into words. To my great 
surprise I find that Dr. Match is an old schoolfellow. I have 
une very pleasant talks with him. I have not seen the 
Hi-hop of Durham yet. We shall, 1 suppose, meet to-day. 
Th' crush at wlnt are called receptions is almost suffocating. 

iS/// April. 

The degree and banquet day is over. ... I will only 

add one or two personal details. When we were arranged 

lor the degrees I found that Mr. Drowning was behind me: 

AC were arranged alphabetically, and the D.D.'s in the front 

r iw. After the ceremony he reached forward and spoke most 

. and louchingly ; he fairly took away my breath, yet it 

. a ;jreat pleasure to have a few words with him. He has 

pruii i<d to write out tor me the few liius of the Pope and 

do s last words. 1 1 shall treasure nothing more. 

Aft rwards 1 saw Sir J. Paget, and lie asked me to drive 

with him to the luncheon of the College of Physicians; so I 

i'h him and Sir A. ('kirk. At the luncheon I sat by 

>ir W. Thomson, \\hom I had never met at Cambridge, and 

lunch was to begin my other neighbour said, ik The 

Chairman call, d your name: say Crace." So I said the few 

r v,. rds. We had pleasant talk during lunch, and then 

i:t to .-iun my name in the University book, and bought 

h will IK: a treasure for life.'-' Afterwards 1 came 

. i:d pr< pared for the bam net. This was a wonderful 

i ' cxt S;r A. (Irani, not far from the bishop of 

M . \\i- uho had to speak \/ere in a kind of gallery, 

d the whole hall. ! '. was hard ;o speak, but 1 

t< w say, and ! said them. I 1 dieve that 

".' re h<-..rd, and v. hat I sa ; d v. ...> very v, ell ivcdved, for 

i nkful. Probably the substance will be uiven. 



' 'I h I' 'I ," 21 id It". ; ' i liiiil.i " i.: . j.jj5 I. 

inl.ur^li I ). I ). i i-vi i aft. rwnnl: :>.- 
i 



ix WESTMINSTER 5 

admirer of Browning's poetry, and had recently read a 
paper " On some Points in Browning's View ot Life," 
for which, in all probability, the poet thanked him on 
this occasion. Browning sent him shortly after this 
meeting not only the autograph passages for which he 
made request, but a line or two to himself. 

In Advent 1884 my father and mother went on a 
visit to Bishop Auckland to be present at the ordina- 
tion of their three eldest sons by Bishop Lightfoot. It 
had been his intention to go as usual to Addington for 
the Ember season, but the Archbishop forbade him 
under the circumstances to entertain the thought. He 
sent thither, however, the addresses which he had 
delivered there the previous Advent, and which were 
now printed and entitled Some Thoughts from the 
Ordinal. The Archbishop, in thanking him for " this 
kindness to the House of God," adds : " Your triple 
dedication to-morrow will be a crown of many prayers, 
and I hope a blessed handing on of holy training. It 
is a strange seal from God. We shall be with you and 
Mrs. Westcott and the three." In a letter written to 
Bishop Lightfoot my father speaks of this event as " the 
great festival of our life." In the following Advent he 
witnessed at Addington the ordination to the priesthood 
by Archbishop Benson of his two eldest sons, and on 
this occasion he delivered addresses to the candidates. 

To HIS WIFE 

ADDINGTON, i6M December 1885. 

I have got my second address nearly ready, and I must get 
on a little with tlu third to-night, i wish that one was a 

1 This paper, read before the Cambridge Browning Society, was in a 
sense the apotheosis of thru Society. It was reprinted by the London 
Browning Society, and is contained in Religious Thought in the IVe.^i. 



6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

little more fertile. However. I was told yesterday by Professor 
Tyndall that Mr. J. S. Mill wrote everything three times over. 
I marvel at such patience. 

The addresses delivered by him to ordination candi- 
dates at Addington in 1888 have also been published 
under the title Gifts for Ministry. 

In January 1885, the Dean being absent, my father 
received information of a projected dynamite out- 
rage in the Abbey. He immediately closed all the 
doors but two, which were closely guarded, and con- 
ducted a search for infernal machines all round the 
Abbe}\ Every monument and nook and corner was 
carefully explored, but happily nothing was discovered. 
The recent successful outrage in Whitehall made anxious 
precaution the more necessary. In writing to his wife 
he says : 

\YKSTMINSTEK, 26/// January 1885. 

We had an exciting morning, for in the absence of the 
I KMM I was responsible for the Abbey, and it was a public 
day. After sonic conversation 1 decided to close the chapels, 
and to leave only two doors open to the Abbey. In this way 
it can be fairly guarded. People, I hear, did not grumble. 
They rould understand the necessity too well. The Dean 
returns to-morrow, and then further counsel must be taken ; 
hut I am sure that strict care must be taken, if only to rouse 
public indignation. 

?.- th January. 

I spent in}' whole morning in looking after the Abbey. We 
have had ten detectives sent from the Home Oilice, and, as 
fui as I can s e, \ve have taken all possible precautions. 1 
: liiat as strict orders as possible \\erc given yester- 
day. No one lias grumbled. It \sould have In en impossible, or 
at least wrong, of me to leave, the Abbey at the present time. 

In explanation of this last sentence, it should be 
d i that his second dair. r hter was at this time at the 



ix WESTMINSTER 7 

point of death, and he had been summoned to Cam- 
bridge. He was able to leave for a few hours on the 
following day, but was careful to explain to those 
concerned the reason of his proposed absence from an 
Abbey service, lest he should seem to be setting a bad 
example to others in the matter of attendance on his 
duties. A few days later, when his daughter was 
pronounced to be out of danger, he wrote to her : 

WESTMINSTER, $otk January 1885. 

My dear Katie Yet another note, and to-morrow I hope 
to be at home again, and to speak face to face. The last 
week has been very strange, opening, as it were, a glimpse 
into another order, still and clear. As we are allowed to 
look on this the proportion of things is seen. Things are 
seen to be great and small as they really are. Patience and 
trust make their power and their beauty felt. 

I am always glad io have the last day's Psalms twice over. 
The closing one is a promise which we can cling to. All 
kinds of instruments and all kinds of experiences can be made 
to tell the same strain. May we ail learn it, and, as we can, 
teach it ! 

Once again, then, my dearest Katie, " Good morning." 
Give my love and thanks to Florrie 1 in especial, and to all. 
May God bless you ! Ever your most affectionate father, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

Undeterred by my father's unwillingness to accept 
the deanery of Exeter in 1883, Mr. Gladstone offered 
him the deanery of Lincoln in 1885. He wrote: 

io DOWNING STREET, WHITEHALL, 
4t/i May 1885. 

Dear Dr. Westcott I have received the permission of Her 
Majesty to propose to you that you should succeed to the 

1 Miss Florence Saunders, daughter of the late Dean Saunders of Peter- 
borough, had nursed my sister through her illness. 



8 LIFE OF BISHOP VVESTCOTT CHAP. 

vacant Deanery of Lincoln: an arrangement which I am sure 
would give great and general satisfaction. 

I know the loss which Cambridge would suffer by your 
removal, but I am encouraged in this proposal by the belief 
that it would entail no diminution, but, on the contrary, might 
provide an increase of scope for your learned and much valued 
labours. I remain, with much respect, very faithfully yours, 

W. E. GLADS-TON!-:. 

In reply my father wrote : 

. . . If I could feel that it would be right for me now to 
<eek comparative rest, there is, I think, no place which with 
all misgivings I should accept more gratefully than the Deanery 
of Lincoln. But -.vhile I have fair strength 1 believe that I 
shall be able to do better service to the Church in endeavour- 
ing to iniluence future candidates for Holy Orders at Cam- 
bridge than I could possibly hope to do at Lincoln. At the 

. t;nie I may add that 1 am most anxious to do a little 
:.:'<;v work at \\estminster. It is indeed very little that I 
have ye: been able to do there, but that little has been of 
mten- interest ; and if I prove unable to continue my work 
here (.\'i\ at Cambridge), as may be the case, I shall gladly 
give v, iiatever strength is left to me to the Abbey. 



- 



Archbishop Benson wrote to my father in this con- 
nexion, ,-nul told him thai, being sure that he would 
ic it, he was l> not unwilling that Mr. Gladstone 
should gratify his great wish to offer it 'his duty,' he 
said." 

Yet another d-.-anery was offered lo him, that of 
by Lord Salisbury in iSXo.. In making this 
oil. , 1 .ord . .iili.ibury aid : 

I am only guided b\ the knowledge oi your great eminence 
in ihcoi igi< al learning, and the idea that such a position 
might possibly be attractive- to you, as giving special oppor- 
tunities fur steady literary work. Hut of course. 1 have no 
iMean> ''1 knowing whether such a suggestion \\uiild be agree- 



ix WESTMINSTER 9 

able to you, and trust you will forgive me if I have troubled 
you to no purpose. 

At Peterborough, as has been already noted, my 
father had taken a deep and effective interest in the 
musical rendering of the Cathedral services, so that it 
was to be expected that even in the Abbey, though 
here naturally feeling was even more conservative, he 
should venture to offer some humble suggestions. The 
Paragraph Psalter was not adopted in the Abbey, 
though the Psalms used at the Jubilee Service in 1887 
were taken from it. But in one small matter at least 
his voice was heard, as the following letter to his wife 
testifies : 

St. Paul's Day, 1885. 

My last sermon of this residence has been preached, and 
my voice did not fail me. So I am thankful. Dr. Vaughan, 
I saw, was one of the congregation. We had our hymn with 
three verses in unison, and the effect was, I think, very fine 
exactly what I expected it would be. For these three verses 
scarcely a voice was silent, and then came two intermediate 
verses sung with perfect delicacy in harmony. Mr. Phillips, 
who came in to tea, was very much pleased, so that musically 
the experiment was, I trust, not a failure. 

At this time the Children's Service on Holy Inno- 
cents' Day, instituted by Dean Stanley, was an estab- 
lished usage. The Abbey was crowded on these 
occasions, although, for the reason indicated in the 
following note, the children were not specially con- 
spicuous : 

To HIS \VIFE 

Sunday ajicr Christinas^ 1885. 

I shall be very glad to be here for the service to-morrow, 
for I have never seen the Children's Service if indeed it is 



io LIFE OF BISHOP VVESTCOTT CHAP. 

still a children's service. For it is said to take two or three 
grown-up people to bring a child. I proposed a narrow hole 
lor all to go through like St. Wilfrid's at Ripon. 

Innocejits* Day, 1885. 

I have just come from the service, which was very in- 
teresting. The Abbey was crowded by half- past two, but 
the children were not conspicuous. No doubt they were 
present in numbers, but they were eclipsed. The great 
number of mechanics struck me more. The transepts were 
almost filled by them. The Dean took for his subject the 
suff- -rings of children in factories before Lord Shaftesbury's 
work. A description of England by a Spaniard who visited 
;he country in 1803 was most startling. I must look at the 
book. It is easy to see how the grandchildren of those who 
were children then should be radicals now. And what was 
tiie Church doing ? I wonder whether our eyes are open 



Tiie chief element of the Canon's work at West- 
minster was that connected with the Sunday afternoon 
sermons. lie felt very keenly the responsibility of 
prcac/ning to the large congregations which assembled 
on these occasions. The physical effort too was very 
great. He would return to his stall after the sermon 
in a ^tatc of great exhaustion, and then remain for long 
upon his knees engaged in earnest prayer. Friends 
would drop in to tea after this service, and the way in 
which my father pulled himself together to entertain 
them was a weekly wonder. 

In the preface to a volume of Westminster sermons 
entitled Sci(i/ , LyVc/.v <>/ ( 7//v'.v//,/;///r, he says :- 



N ' i one iiidrn i can teli what is the eiicd \s hi< h "the Abbey 
and the vast n >n^re:.',.it ions which gather there, eager to listen, 
produce upon one who lir>t experiences it at the close of life. 
( )l .ill places in the world, "the Abbey," I think, proclaims the 
lucial ( iospd of Christ uith the most touching eloquence. 



ix WESTMINSTER n 

It was sometimes quite a difficulty to reach the 
pulpit, as its approaches were thronged with expectant 
auditors, and I have been told that on one occasion, 
when passing through the crowded congregation, the 
sleeve of the Canon's surplice caught in an umbrella 
and pulled it to the ground. Whereupon, aware of 
the accident, he turned round to pick up the umbrella, 
and handed it to its owner with an apologetic smile, 
and then hastened in pursuit of his verger, who had 
meanwhile obtained a considerable lead. 

In the preface quoted above the following interest- 
ing statement also occurs : 

Those who are familiar with recent theories of social 
morality will recognise how much I owe to two writers who 
are not often joined together in an acknowledgment of deep 
gratitude Comte and Maurice. In the summer of 1867 I 
was able to analyse carefully the Politique Positive, and I 
found in it a powerful expression of many salient features of 
that which I have long held to be the true social embodiment 
of the Gospel, of a social idea which faith in Christ is alone 
able to realise. Two years later I read Maurice's Social 
Morality. Few books can teach nobler lessons, and I should 
feel it hard to say how much I owe to it directly and by 
suggestion. 

I have not made it any part of my purpose to quote 
reviews of my father's books, but I sympathise with 
the remark that " the two sermons on Francis of Assisi 
and George Fox are exquisite examples of the union 
of learning and eloquence, equally valuable as historical 
criticisms and spiritual exhortations." L 

Another volume containing sermons preached in 
the Abbey is entitled Christus Consummator. In these 
sermons he endeavoured to indicate " in a general out- 

1 The Academy ^ 28th January 1800. 



12 LIFE OK BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

line,' 1 "the broad lessons of the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
and then afterwards to point out a little more in detail 
some special aspects of the Person and Work of Christ 
which correspond with the wants of our position." 

Concerning this volume it was remarked that " a 

t> 

German professor, with half the amount of thought at 
his disposal, would have issued two portly volumes of 
Dogmatik." 

Besides the regular Sunday sermons, he also 
delivered some lectures on week-day afternoons. The 
substance of lectures so delivered on the Revised Ver- 
sion of the New Testament was published in The 
l-lxpositor and afterwards in a collected form. 1 

In Holy Week 1887 he preached in Hereford 
Cathedral a series of sermons entitled TJie Victory of 
tJic Cross. These are of special interest as they con- 
lain, to use his own words, ''an outline of the view of 
the .Atonement which frequent study has led me to 
regard as both scriptural and, in the highest sense of 
the word, natural." At the .same time he regretted 
that " pressure of necessary work " prevented him from 
issuing these .sermons with ''justificatory notes." 

P>esides various sermons preached in other places 
>n special occasions, including a sermon on Disciplined 
Life preached at St. James's Chapel Royal, he read 
papers at the Church Congresses at Portsmouth in 
I.SS5 and at \Volverhampton in 1887. 

At all times he was delighted to serve as guide to 
tin- Abbey to interested visitors. On more than one 
Decagon he conducted large parties of working men 
and others round the chapels and other points of in- 
terest. On the August bank holiday especially lie was 














A-^. ^Lv 




ix WESTMINSTER 13 

ever observant of the crowds of visitors, and ready to 
serve them with his special knowledge. In a letter to 
one of his sons written after the August bank holiday 
of 1884 he says : 

To-day the Abbey has been thronged by sight -seers. It 
was full at the afternoon service, and a continuous stream 
kept flowing on all day. On Saturday I had charge of a 
party of over 200 who came from Derby. It is delightful to 
see how the work-people enjoy the place. 

A correspondent to the Westminster Gazette re- 
marks concerning this feature of his work : 

It fell to the good fortune of myself and a companion to 
meet Canon Westcott, as he then was, within Westminster- 
Abbey, on the occasion of my first visit to England's Valhalla. 
Observing us surveying the scene with something of enthu- 
siasm, the Canon approached us, and, after a question or 
two, offered in a most friendly way to be our guide through a 
portion at least of the Abbey. We thanked him cordially, 
and took the opportunity of mentioning that our interest was 
aroused principally by the Catholic the Roman Catholic 
associations of the place. Was the Canon's courtesy dimin- 
ished in any way, think you, by our intimation ? On the 
contrary, it was rather intensified ; and without in the least 
trenching upon our religious susceptibilities, he laid open to 
us for close on an hour the treasures of his intimate know- 
ledge. I need not add that Westminster Abbey has always 
had an additional fascination to me for the sake of the man 
whose pleasant guidance and urbanity gave such a special 
interest to our first visit. 

The great Jubilee Service in the Abbey on 2ist 
June 1887 was an event which filled my father with 
deep joy and thankfulness. He was required to don 
for the occasion a gorgeous cope of cloth of gold 
material. These copes had originally been made up 



14 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

for the coronation of Charles II., but the fabric was 
said to be of considerably earlier date. One little cir- 
cumstance troubled him in anticipation, for he wrote 
thus to the Archbishop of Canterbury : 

I heard at a Chapter on Monday thai the Queen proposes 
to come to the Abbey in a bonnet. It would be a national 
disaster. The empire sorely needs to honour the Queen as 
Queen. 

Of the service itself he wrote as follows to a 
daughter : 

The day was perfect, and I do not think that there was 
any drawback. The whole effect of the Abbey was solemn 
and inspiring. The fear that it would lose its character was 
wholly groundless. All the great features showed even more 
magnificently fur the congregation of ten thousand which was 
gathered without crowding within it. The choir was quite 
unchanged. The reredos and group of Valence monuments 
were perfectly open and unencumbered. In spite of the 
long waiting, every one seemed to feel that the service was a 
service and not a pageant only. The "Amen" with which 
the service closes was that one which you have heard which 
begins with the faintest whisper and swells to a magnificent 
burst. Tli is worthily completed the prayers and praises and 
thanksgivings. The Archbishop said the prayers standing in 
front oi the Communion Table looking west, so that he could 
be heard well. You will read the \\hole description in the 
papers, and I saw comparatively little, though I felt the 
wonderful presences about us. The two scenes that struck 
me moht were the reception of the Queen at the west door 
and the Queen kissing her children at the end. The papers 
describe the latter, which was really overwhelming, and 1 was 
not prepared lor it. Nature has not given me the gift of 
tears, but I felt my eyes grow dim as one after another came 
to tin- Quern and she embraced them with what could be 
seen to be discriminating affection. She kissed the Princess of 
Wait s and the Crown I'linc- <s ol ( '.ermany on both cheeks. 



ix WESTMINSTER 15 

The scene at the entrance was even more brilliant, but 
less touching. The two Archbishops and the Bishop of 
London and the Dean went to the temporary entrance when 
the Queen's procession was announced. The Canons and 
the other clergy stood in two lines by the true west door. 
The vestibule in front was filled with the great officers of the 
household and the heralds in their magnificent tabards, all 
in eager excitement hastening here and there, while the 
Archbishops waited still. Carriage after carriage drove up, 
and the Princesses came in and arranged themselves in long 
lines. Then the Princes came, who had formed the Queen's 
guard, and the Prince of Wales was welcomed with homage. 
Lines of Princes were formed opposite to the Princesses. 
Then came the Queen herself. A blare of trumpets from 
the outside was answered by a blast from within, and in a 
few minutes the royal procession moved to the dais under the 
central tower, the Abbey body leading the way. Once only 
for a moment a kind of misgiving came over me. There 
was a slight rippling noise which seemed to grow rapidly, as 
the sound of a long train exploding ; but it was only the 
rustling of the leaves of the service-books, which witnessed 
the attention of the congregation. 

Everywhere, as far as I can learn, the enthusiasm was 
real and unbounded. The day will have been an immeasur- 
able blessing to the country. Untold thousands will have 
learnt, or recalled a half-forgotten lesson, that we are a nation. 

The boys all enjoyed the service immensely, and now all 
are scattering or scattered. We wish that one of the sisters 
could have been with us. However, we had more than we 
could have dared to wish for. 

While he was at Westminster my father's interest in 
social questions first became manifest. He had, how- 
ever, for years previously been an anxious student of 
such matters. The effect he produced on his hearers 
when delivering himself on such vital topics is thus 
described by Canon Scott Holland : l 
1 In The Commonwealth, 



1 6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



Tiie real and vital impression made came from the intensity 
of the spiritual passion, which forced its way out through that 
strangely knotted brow, and lit up those wonderful grey eyes, 
and shook that thin high voice into some ringing clang as of 
a trumpet. There was a famous address, at the founding of 
the Christian Social Union, delivered to us in Sion College, 
which none who were present can ever forget. Yet none of 
us can ever recall, in tlv least, what was said. No one knows. 
Only we know that we were lifted, kindled, transformed. We 
pledged ourselves ; we committed ourselves ; we were ready 
to die for the Cause; but if you asked us why, and for what, 
we could not tell you. There he was : there he spoke : the 
prophetic fire was breaking from him: the martyr - spirit 
glowed through him. We, too, were caught up. But words 
had become only symbols. There was nothing verbal to 
r'-p<>rt ur to repeat. \Ve could remember nothing, except the 
spirit which was in the words: and that was enough. 

Me took the deepest interest in what, to adapt his 
o\vn words, we mi^ht call "the application of the 
ssons of the Gospel to the problems of international 
life." 

On 5th April, 1889, a Conference of Christians, re- 
presenting various communions of Protestant Christians, 
was held under my father's chairmanship at his resi- 
dence 2 Abbey Gardens, Westminster) to consider the 
excessive Armaments of Europe. By request of the 
Conference, tlu: Chairman wrote a letter for publication 
i:i tlv Christian press calling attention to the Confer- 
IMIC and embodying the substance of its resolutions. 
'1 he f< )liowin:_r is the letter : 



.^ir About tiltcrii y ;irs ago a writer in the '/7;;.',\\' (-ailed 
attention, in an impressive ar:ide, to the armaments of 
Ktirupr. lie showed that war itself could "add but little to 



ix WESTMINSTER 17 

the burden of warlike preparations which were then carried 
on in a period of unbroken peace " ; that the forces, which 
were gathered ostensibly for security, were in fact the chief 
source of danger to nations which were filled with mutual 
suspicion ; that "the evil already done was almost as great 
as any the world had yet suffered from, and was even more 
difficult to remedy." Since that date the armaments have 
been greatly increased, from six millions of men under arms, 
it is said, to ten and a half millions; the jealousies of the 
European nations have been inflamed ; and those who speak 
with authority of the popular strain in Italy and Russia (if 
not already in France and Germany), describe it as close 
upon the breaking point. It can indeed hardly be otherwise. 
If material force is to be the only safeguard of freedom and 
right, there can be no prospect of peace, or even of stable 
rest, except in the dominion of a conqueror and the exhaustion 
of the conquered. A war of despair seems to be the natural 
issue of an indefinite period of continuous mistrust and in- 
creasing burdens. 

The waiter whom I have quoted laid the responsibility 
for the evil upon governments. "If such a state of things," 
he says, " is permitted to continue, it will be a disgrace to 
European statesmen." The real blame ought, I think, to be 
laid elsewhere. It rests upon Christians, and, in the largest 
measure, upon English Christians, who have been, and are, 
in a position to claim an impartial hearing from the Conti- 
nental powers. But as yet they have not spoken with one 
voice. Our unhappy divisions have hid from us the grandeur, 
the power, and the obligations of our common faith in Christ, 
to our own great loss and to the loss of the world. There is, 
how r ever, a prospect that we are beginning to take a truer 
view of our debt to the world. During the last few years 
there have been signs on many sides that there is a growing 
conviction that Christians, as Christians, have a witness to 
give on social questions. They have spoken on temperance 
and on purity. And now at length the time seems to have 
come when they can unite to express some of the views which 
they hold as to the true relations of States. 

In the unavoidable absence of Lord Nelson, I was 

VOL. II C 



1 8 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

allowed to preside here yesterday at a meeting in which re- 
presentatives of the Church of England and of the chief 
Nonconformist bodies were invited to consider their duty in 
regard to the warlike preparations of Europe. The following 
were present at the meeting: Mr. J. B. Braithwaite, Mr. 
\V. C. Braithwaite, Mr. B. Broomhall, Mr. Percy W. Bunting, 
Rev. Dr. Clifford, Rev. Dr. Kdmond, Mr. G. Gillett, Rev. J. 
1*. Glcdstone, Mr. J. E. Mathieson, Rev. E. B. Meyer, Mr. 
R. C. Morgan, Rev" H. W. Webb-Pcploe, Rev. Dr. Westcott. 
Letters of apology for absence, with expressions of full sym- 
pathy with the objects of the meeting, were received from 
Karl Xelson, the Dean of Worcester (Dr. Gott), Rev. Dr. 
Pmice, Rev. Dr. Falding, Rev. Hugh Price Hughes, Rev. Dr. 
Mackennal, Rev. Dr. Paton, Rev. Mark Guy Pearse, Rev. 
Dr. Reynolds. After a full exchange of opinions, the fol- 
lowing resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

i. That in the opinion of this meeting the present condi- 
tion of the armaments of Europe demands the 
urg nt attention of all Christian Communions, with 
a view to 

(1) United prayer to Almighty God upon this 

subject. 

(2) Combined action, in anyways possible, for the 

bringing about a simultaneous reduction of 
the armaments. 

2. That, with the object of carrying into effect the above 
resolution, the members of the present meeting 
pledge themselves to do their inmost to bring the 
resolution under the notice of their respective Com- 
munions. 

3- i hat the members of this meeting resolve themselves 
into a Provisional Committee, with power to add to 
their number, to take such further action as may 
seem to be desirable; and that Messrs. G. Gilletl, 
<) Birchin ! ane, EC., and \V. ( '. Braithwaite, T, New 
S jiiate. Lincoln's Inn, \V.C.. be requested to act as 
Hon. Secretaries of the Committee. 



ix WESTMINSTER 19 

We met for the most part as strangers to one another; but 
the spirit of the discussion, the calm, clear, sober words which 
were spoken, the steady determination to keep the treatment 
of the question free from the possibility of a political con- 
struction, the universal and deep sense of what we owe to our 
one Master, in openly confessing His will, gave a strong pledge 
of the breadth of the sympathy with which the main resolution 
is likely to be received without difference of class or party. 

Other cognate subjects were touched upon the proposed 
Permanent Treaty of Arbitration between the United States 
and Great Britain, the significance of war as the extreme out- 
come of that spirit of selfish competition which follows from 
the acceptance of a material standard of wellbeing, the desira- 
bility of seeking co-operation with the movement on the part 
of the Roman and Greek Churches but it seemed best to 
confine immediate action to a single point on which there 
was complete agreement. 

The proposal to work for the simultaneous reduction of 
European armaments is definite, and deals with an urgent 
peril. It does not involve any abstract theories. It is not 
complicated by any considerations of party politics. It em- 
phatically recognises that which is the object of our greatest 
statesmen. Such a disarmament would secure the lasting 
and honourable peace which the leaders of Europe have 
shown lately, once and again, that they sincerely desire. And 
we may reasonably hope that a strong expression of popular 
feeling will be welcome to those who have the conduct of 
affairs, as strengthening and encouraging them to adopt 
measures by which they may be delivered from the embarrass- 
ment of a policy which more and more tends to turn the 
provision for home defence into a menace. We are all 
sensible of the difficulties by which the question of disarma- 
ment is beset, but we cannot admit that they are insuperable. 
If once we realise that the true interests of nations are 
identical, and not antagonistic, it must be possible to find 
some settlement of the existing causes of debate upon the 
Continent, which will satisfy the legitimate aspirations of the 
great and generous nations in whose satisfaction Europe will 
find peace. 



20 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The t-ffort has a wider bearing. I will venture to say that 
the opportunity for this confession of our Faith is a gift of 
God. It is, I believe, a superficial view to refer the popular 
disparagement of Christianity either to critical objections to 
its documents or to objections to its Creed drawn from physical 
science. It springs in the last resort from moral causes. 

Men can see that if our Faith is true, we ought to have 
the remedy for the great sorrows of the world, and to show 
openly that we believe in its efficacy. They ask for great 
deeds, and not only for great words. The claim is reason- 
able, and we must satisfy it or accept defeat. No unanswer- 
able subtilties of literary or metaphysical argument will bring 
assurance to those who long passionately for the revelation of 
a Living Ford. But if we are enabled to show that we have 
as Christians that which inspires us to work unfalteringly for a 
noble end, I believe that many who now range themselves 
against us will be ready to do homage to the Truth which 
they have misinterpreted through our past faithlessness. 

In this aspect we cannot forget that the favourable time 
for Christian action may soon pass away. The policy of dis- 
armament, which can now be pressed as a service to the 
brotherhood of nations, is likely, before long, to find other 
advocacy, if the cause is not won in the Name of God. And 
it will be an evil day for the world, if that which may now be 
so effected as to guard all the noblest heritages of the past, is 
at last extorted by the revolutionary movement of a class. 

When Emerson said sadly, "The power of love as the basis 
of a state has never been tried," he proposed unconsciously 
tlie problem of the Church of Christ. To acknowledge the 
task which is laid upon us, even in this single matter which is 
now offered as the object of our prayers and labcur, to 
approach it as men who know that they are not alone, to 
recognise in our trials the just retribution of our lukewarnmess 
in times gone by, \\ill be at least, if we see no immediate 
success, to make the fulfilment of the will of God for the 
rial ion-, easier for those who shall come after us. 

?>. F WKSTCOTT. 

2 Ar.HKV C.AKHK.NS, \Y FCM M I N S ! Kll, 

April 6, 1889. 



ix WESTMINSTER 21 

The above letter, which was headed " Armed 
Europe," was reprinted in several papers, and attracted 
considerable attention both in the religious and secular 
press. 1 

A few months later, in his capacity of Chairman of 
the Provisional Committee of the Christian Union for 
Promoting International Concord, my father issued a 
paper entitled " A Christian Policy of Peace." In this 
paper he said : 

The condition of Europe at the present time is such as to 
excite at once alarm and hope. While armaments are every- 
where growing, a conviction is also rapidly gaining ground 
that material force cannot determine right or establish lasting 
peace. Above all, it is more and more clearly acknowledged 
that the attitude of great nations one towards another is 
inconsistent with the spirit of the Christian Faith. 

Hitherto, it must be confessed, the lessons of the Gospel 
have not been applied to the problems of international life. 
During the last three centuries attention has been directed 
mainly to questions of personal conduct. But the time seems 
to have now come when Christians as Christians are required 
to realise and give effect to their creed in the discharge of the 
widest social duties the duties not only of class to class, but 
also of nation to nation as members of one race. The 
necessity is the more pressing because the increase of popular 
power involves the increase of popular responsibility, and for 
the people, as has been truly said by non-Christian teachers, 
every question is finally a religious question. 

Under this aspect it is evident that Christianity offers a 
revelation of the purpose of God for the world, and supplies 

1 Commenting on this letter, the London Echo said : " The Canon says 
' a war of despair seems to be the natural issue of an indefinite period of 
continuous mistrust and increasing burdens.' These words are important 
when addressed by a Church dignitary to the leading representatives of 
Christian Churches. The wonder is that the Churches have not moved 
long ago. The wonder is that men who profess to be followers of the 
Prince of Peace have maintained silence in the face of menacing facts so 
long." 



22 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

a motive for sustained effort, and gives a clue for movement, 
which we need but cannot find elsewhere. Christianity rests 
upon tiie central fact that the Word became flesh. This fact 
establishes not only a brotherhood of men, but also a brother- 
hood of nations ; for history has shown that nations are an 
element in the fulfilment of the Divine counsel, by which 
humanity advances towards its appointed end. 

This larger truth we have still to master. We have learnt 
in some degree that individual men gain and suffer together; 
that they are strong by sacrifice; that they are made for 
mutual service: we have not yet learnt that it is so with 
nations. It may not indeed be possible to see at once how 
the truth will be applied in particular cases. Action must be 
prepared by thought and supported by a calm and strong 
public opinion. Meanwhile, however, in order that the 
opinion may be formed, we, as Christians, are bound to con- 
fess our faith in the truth, before God and before man, and 
the simple confession will not be in vain. As yet the confes- 
sion has not been made either in word or in action. The 
spiritual forces which conquered the oid world are still at our 
command, but we do not appear to trust them in dealing with 
great evils. There is in man a generous passion for justice 
and a deep craving for fellowship, and we do nut boldly appeal 
to the one or rely upon the other. Thus our Faith itself is 
disparaged because we fail to show that it guides and sustains 
us in meeting the greatest sorrows of life and in claiming for 
service the noblest instincts of men. 

To realise, even in thought, that our faith has this widest 
application, and to bear ourselves as realising it in ordinary 
conduct, will have a practical effect upon others as well as 
upon our own judgments. When we look back, we can see that 
national animosities are fed and fanned into llame by trivial 
.UK! ill-considered words and acts. Nor is it necessary that 
we should be confined to vague aspirations, while we rightly 
shrink Irom attempting to offer hasty solutions of the questions 
which trouble peace. \\'e can at once recognise the part 
which the Christian Society is called upon to take with regard 
to the three great measures which tend to peace media- 
tion, arbitration, and (ultimately) disarmament- and at least 



ix WESTMINSTER 23 

silently work for them. If the heart of Christendom is moved 
with one desire, it is not possible to think that opportunities 
will fail, through which Germany and France may be brought 
by mediation to a loyal and magnanimous acceptance of the 
conditions under which they shall minister to the progress of 
Europe. The United States and England are already bound 
so closely together by their common language and common 
descent, that an Arbitration Treaty which shall exclude the 
thought of a war a civil war between them seems to be 
within measurable distance. When once the general principle 
of arbitration has been adopted by two great nations, it 
cannot but be that the example will be followed, and then, at 
last, however remote the vision may seem, disarmament will 
be a natural consequence of the acceptance of a rational and 
legal method of settling national disputes. 

On another occasion, at the opening of a speech 
at a Peace Conference, he said : " The question of inter- 
national relations has not hitherto been considered 
in the light of the Incarnation, and till this has 
been done, I do not see that we can look for the 
establishment of that peace which was heralded at the 
Nativity." He himself considered all things in the 
light of the Incarnation. That truth was to him the 
key to the meaning of life ; that fact " the certain 
promise of the destiny of mankind, and the perpetual 
inspiration of the highest thoughts and the noblest 
actions of which men are capable." 

The following letters to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury refer to the matter of Peace : 



G.W.R., i&hjtily 1889. 

Yes, I was completely satisfied with the meeting, and felt 
that the effort was worth making, and that it would not be 
too late. But then you know, as I have said before, I have 
had strange experiences of the utter neglect of the question 
by churchmen. It ought to sadden us to find how the 



24 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

temper of the old French court lingers among the clergy and 
gentry. Even the John Bullism of the - - interested me, 
He said afterwards that " it was good to discuss such ques- 
tions : you got new light." I would fain hope that his speech 
was made before the illumination. But indeed it is our 
fault. We have been silent too long. At least there is now 
an opportunity of obtaining a hearing, and I hope that you 
may be able to persuade the Bishops you know how I trust 
them to seriously consider what can be done. In a short 
time the power will go from our Church, and then . . . 

I am very sorry to hear what you say about the Lincoln 
case. ... I hope still, because you will not for one moment 
lose faith in your office. 

WESTMINSTER, 2nd August 1889. 

I promised counsel ! Nay, but I shall be glad to seek it, 
and will come, all being well, after service on Sunday. The 
darkness does often gather thickly. Nothing but fear, we 
are told by our rulers, can keep peace. Are we Christians ? 

In his text-book on 8th August he entered this 
reflection, "Arc there demons among men? Clothed 
in humanity ? " 

His increasing popularity and influence while at the 
Abbey was a source of no little distress to him. The 
following letter, written to his wife on his birthday, 
which, coming as it did at the beginning of the year, 
always led him to review his position, illustrates this 
feeling in part : 

WKSTM IN>> i T.K, 12th January 1888. 

It uas very pleasant to have the good wishes this morning. 
The N.T. text in the little book had a very clear voice. 
1 hope that 1 may work a little better. It is the influence 
that one seems to have in some places, here and there, which 
trouble-^ me most. Jt is an opportuity to be used ; and I don't 
see how to use it. On the other hand, to some I nm a cloud ; 
;uid i do nut see how to help it. Well, the way may be opened. 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 25 



That is the only reason, I think, why my sadness of heart is 
hard to bear. Yet beyond all there is a great hope. I am 
sure that not one pain felt or caused will be without its full 
fruit in due time. Yet even so I cannot feel as most do. I 
dare draw no pictures ; and our work must be done here. So 
may we have strength to do it, while the day lasts ! . . . Again 
and again I have thought of getting a prayer-desk. Now it 
is furnished. 

I am meditating a concert at St. James's Hall on Saturday 
afternoon, is. Hitherto I have had no opportunities of 
dissipation. 

His popularity in some quarters was in very truth a 
sore trouble to him. His eldest son has called attention 
to this striking fact. He says : l - 

I remember, on a time (when I was no more than a 
boy), I saw my father one evening rest his head upon his 
hands and stand for a long time the picture of dejection. I 
did not dare to speak ; but going away next day, I wrote a 
simple line to ask if in any way I could share his trouble. The 
answer came back to me " I am not troubled by such things 
as you might think ; it is simply that there are times when I 
feel just overwhelmed by the kind things which are said, and 
the gratitude of men : it makes me quite afraid." The poet, 
you will remember, has uttered the same thought, " The 
gratitude of men has oftener left me mourning" 

On this same birthday he wrote the following touch- 
ing letter to his sons : 

WESTMINSTER, iith January 1888. 

My dear Sons You have expressed the truth which I feel 
perhaps more continually and more keenly than any other. 
You seven are indeed, I know, "a part of me." In you I 
see more clearly and more fully myself. If you are allowed to 
do good service, I rejoice to recognise how something which I 
tried to begin will be carried to further fruit. If you fail, 1 

1 In a sermon preached in Peterborough Cathedral on 25th August 1901. 



26 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

see the sad revelation of my own failures. But the good and 
ill are now beyond me. They belong to independent lives. 
Yet so it is that you can give me the noblest joy which any 
one can receive, and, by (iod's help, spare me, .as far as may 
be, the only pain which, as far as we yet see, encloses no joy. 
May (jotl bless you! so I wish the greatest blessing for 
myself. Your most affectionate father, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

The year 1888 was clouded for my father by the 
illness of his old friend Bishop Lightfoot. Both he 
and Archbishop Benson were much troubled by this 
during their holiday time together at Bracmar. He 
wrote to Dean Bradley : 

5//j October 1888. 

. . . During September we were at Braemar. The Arch- 
bishop was in marvellous force, but the Bishop of Durham 
was very poorly. 'This was a heavy cloud. It is impossible 
not to feel anxious about him, and hard to discover where he 
can find the perfect rest which is absolutely necessary. 

Tin: Bishop was compelled to winter at Bourne- 
mouth, whither my lather went to pay him what he 
fear- (1 would be a last visit. But the Bishop made a 
wonderful recovery, and my father was summoned to 
b present with him at the consecration of the Church 
of St. Ignatius the Martyr, the Bishop's noble gift of 
thanksgiving, and to preach the sermon. The fol low- 
in -j' letters tell of this visit : 



/nnf 1889. 

1 have tried to sketch my sermon, but, oh ! it is so 

I have iv, id my consecration sermon almost with 

\\V11, the years take away I hope that they give 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 27 



.BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2nd Sunday after Trinity, 1889. 

The Bishop is marvellously well his old self in look and 
manner and word. I was quite fearful last night that he was 
exciting himself too much : he walked without thinking 
upstairs ; and he had walked with me many times round the 
terrace. He is keenly interested in everything. I hope 
that to-morrow and Tuesday will not be too exciting. . . . 
As yet I have not seen the chapel windows. 1 did not look 
round at morning prayers. The Bishop is to take me. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, St. Peter's Day, 1889. 

My dear Archbishop Among rny first pleasures here 
must be to write one line to you to tell you how wonderful it 
is to see the Bishop again in his own home as I saw him five 
years ago. He was ready to welcome me at his study door, 
fresh from a table covered with books and preparations of 
Clement for the press ; and after tea he proposed a walk in 
the garden. The change from Braemar, not to speak of 
Bournemouth, was marvellous. He was keenly interested in 
everything ; spoke with his old firmness and decision ; hoped 
that he might "get something" not health only, from his 
proposed visit to Egypt : catch a sight of Thessalonica with a 
view to the Introduction to the Thessalonians ; even listened 
to me when I said that he must seriously think of attending 
the House of Lords. I hope that the service on Tuesday 
may not be too fatiguing. I think that he can measure his 
strength and will no more overtax it. Indeed, my coming 
here to-day instead of going to Sunderland on Monday is due 
to a lesson which he gave me on the necessity of avoiding 
too rapid travelling. One's thoughts go back to Chambery. 

However, it is not possible to be too thankful for a bless- 
ing beyond hope. 



28 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

\VKST MALVKRN, qth July 1889. 

The consecration was a very striking service. The church 
is admirable. The Bishop insisted on clustered and banded 
piers to connect it with Auckland ; and he was right. This 
is the one enrichment which removes the appearance of 
sternness from the Nave. 

Unhappily the improvement in the Bishop's health 
was not maintained, and he was again obliged to quit 
his diocese and winter at Bournemouth, where on 2ist 
December he entered into rest. He was buried in the 
Chapel at Bishop Auckland Castle which he had so 
beautifully restored. My father was present at the 
funeral with his eldest son. From Durham Castle he 
wrote to his wife : 

We have accomplished our journey, my dearest Mary, 
very pleasantly, and are now established in the Bishop's 
rooms. It is a very touching and solemn welcome. . . . 
How strange to rest here! I don't think that I ever felt life 
to be so continuous before. The Bishop is almost a more 
real presence than in Cambridge days. 

To Archbishop Benson he wrote : 

The most kindly criticisms which have been made by 
newspapers on Light foot reveal the chasm which opens 
between the Faith and the average man's idea of the Faith. 
I think that he will be allowed to add to all that he has done 
this last lesson, that the Faith is a power for life and not a 
thesis which can be maintained successfully. 

lo Professor Hort he wrote:-- 

I am greatly grieved that - takes such a view of the 
bishopric. Something must be done to set the Bishop's 



ix WESTMINSTER 29 

work in a true light. A spiritual statesman doing less service 
than a scholar ! 

In the preface to the three sermons From Strength to 
Strength, published In Mcmoriam J. B. D., my father 
writes : 

Probably it has never before fallen to the lot of any one 
to endeavour to give expression under the most solemn cir- 
cumstances to thoughts suggested by three great crises in the 
life of a friend for death is for the Christian a crisis of life. 
As each occasion came I sought to say what I he occasion 
itself told us through him we loved, of the office with which 
he was charged, of the society which he served, of the char- 
acter by which the servant of God is enabled to do his work ; 
and in each region the description of the Christian life and 
the Christian Faith seemed to find a fresh fulfilment : From 
strength to strength. 

Towards the close of the year 1889 my father's Com- 
mentary on TJie Epistle to the Hebrews appeared. The 
preface to this work is dated from Westminster, and 
the expectations of Biblical students had been greatly 
quickened by the study of CJiristus Consumiuator, 
which contained lectures on this Epistle delivered in 
the Abbey. In the preface to this Commentary my 
father says, " No work in which I have ever been allowed 
to spend many years of continuous labour has had for 
me the same intense human interest as the study of 
the Epistle to the Hebrews." 

The book was widely welcomed as " a truly monu- 
mental work," as " the greatest of many great gifts 
which Dr. Westcott has offered to the Church," as " an 
expository and theological masterpiece," and the like. 
One strongly marked feature of this Commentary, 
to which particular attention was drawn, was its " con- 
stant instructiveness," which led one writer to remark 



30 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

that " more can be learnt from any two or three of its 
pages than from a volume of average theology." That 
the detailed exegesis of the Epistle should be marked 
by grammatical accuracy and wide learning was, of 
course, to be expected, but it was further enriched by 
" that deep insight into ethical, spiritual, and historical 
truth characteristic of Canon Westcott "-in other words, 
'' that sympathy with the ultimate mystery of things, 
without which a man tends to become commonplace." 

This spiritual vision, which enabled my father to 
sec so much that others could not see, but which he 
supposed thai they could see, was, as several have felt, 
both his weakness and his strength as a Biblical com- 
mentator. He always disliked to be described as 
41 mystic," being at a loss to know, when all appeared 
so evident to himself, where the mystery came in. He 
had grave doubts as to his being " a recluse," but was 
absolutely certain that he was not u a mystic." 

During my father's last year at Westminster he was 
giving sittings to Sir \V. B. Richmond, R.A., for his 
portrait, which is now hung in the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge. In the following letter to his wife he 
makes mention of the completion of the work : 

\VK>TMI.\STI;K, ^tli June 1889. 

ave received Mr. Richmond's ''discharge and his 
g." lie was satisfied in the end. 1 had not courage 
it the portrait. One thing only lie wanted more: a 
h of m\- room at the Divinity School. fie said that 
like to put a fragment of it in the background. I 
<l that I would have one taken for him. ... I am 
glad that the work is happily over. It has certainly taught 
me a great deal. 

I' tank N'orris is going on missionary work to Chum. The 
Archdeacon was greatly pleased to tell me. 




ix WESTMINSTER 31 

The artist, no loss than the Canon, appears to have 
derived pleasure and profit from these sittings. The 
artistic temperament was in my father strongly de- 
veloped, and a painter's view of the spiritual as well 
as philosophical ends which Art can and has served 
was interesting to his inquisitive intelligence. It is 
evident that the scholar and painter found much in 
common to talk about, as the following letter from Sir 
William will show : 

I shall never forget the day on which I had the pleasure 
of first seeing your father. I had been asked to paint his 
portrait, and, as I had read some of his books, though I had 
never seen him, you may imagine with what satisfaction I 
accepted the commission. Dr. Westcott was then Canon of 
Westminster. When he entered my studio two strong feel- 
ings instantly took possession of me delight that such an 
interesting face was to be the subject of my brush, and fear 
that my power might not be great enough to hand down to 
posterity a countenance so mobile, so flashing, so tender, and 
yet so strong; and it was with trepidation that I took my 
palette on my hand to make the first impression upon the 
canvas. That exquisite geniality, supreme courtesy, and 
almost feminine power of sympathy broke down all obstacles 
between us, and an hour of Dr. Westcott's society told me 
that a magnetic current was started between us so strong and 
so sympathetic that at least it would be my fault if I failed 
to exhibit anyhow some of the characteristics of that loveable 
nature and strong character. I never knew a man more 
readily alive to various interests than he, whose mind was in 
the highest degree receptive ; so modest also that one did 
not fear to expose one's own ignorance, so that it was sincere. 
It happened that, at the time of painting the portrait, I was 
engaged in writing, what, alas ! is not yet published, a series 
of lectures upon the work of M. Angelo on the Vault of the 
Sixtine Chapel. It is easily to he imagined that such a sub- 
ject, a very epic, would engross keen attention and enlist 
keen discussion, from my point of view as regarded the art, 



32 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

from his point of view the ethics. Could it be possible 
for a painter-writer to have ever had a better opportunity 
of learning from one whose life had been spent in the 
study of the higher thoughts, and whose deep learning 
regarding the Hebrew prophets, sibyls, symbols, and history 
is too well known to need reiteration ? While these lectures 
were being written, Dr. Westcott, notwithstanding the value 
of moments in his busy life, took the trouble to read them 
for me, and to write elaborate comments upon them, giving me 
at the same time advice as well as criticism, and, above all, 
encouragement. It does not often happen that great scholars 
are accomplished men outside their scholarship. The elas- 
ticity of the mind is sometimes constrained by deep concentra- 
tion upon one subject. But Dr. \Vestcott had so sensitive a 
mind, so quick, so subtle, and so expansive, that it could 
take in and master many subjects not bearing much relation 
to the main object of its desires Theology. And what a 
theology it was how broad, how spiritual, how, in its hard 
sense, anti-dogmatic ; how progressive, to use a modern term. 

I very soon found out that Dr. Westcott had not only a 
great love of art in all its forms, but that he was a real critic 
of it, and by no means a superficial amateur. We talked 
about the picture galleries of Europe, and I was surprised to 
lincl 'Mow acutely he had observed, how deeply he entered 
into symbolic meanings of great works of art, but at the same 
time not from a purely literary point of view, having a keen 
sense of form, of colour and design very uncommon to men 
who have not spent much time in learning the technicalities 
of the arts of architecture, sculpture, and painting. Of 
architecture he was learned : he not only knew what to 
admire, but why, and added to his perceptions of the beauty 
of that great art was a rare knowledge of structural questions, 
so that, while talking with him, one could not but feel that 
he was a great architect lost to the world. 

Hi- knowledge of music was considerable, and often did 
we draw analogies between the various musicians and painters, 
endeavouring to classify them and find the representative of 
various moods in the work of painters and musicians. Of the 
relation of colour to sound we talked, and Dr. Westcott threw 



ix WESTMINSTER 33 

much light upon the similar impressions upon the nervous 
system produced by various colours as by the sound of various 
instruments. It was like talking with Aristotle. One had 
only to throw out the hint of a thought, the more abstract the 
better, for that great mind to disentangle a clear idea from 
a fallacy, to get to the root of the idea, and in a few words 
to make an inchoate thought gleam with the light reflected 
from his bright intelligence. 

I remember one thing he said which made a great impres- 
sion. Something led us to talk about genius and character. 
I was praising genius, and taking no notice of character as its 
great buttress. He turned and said quietly, and with some 
sadness, " I have seen more young men fail in early life from 
the absence of character than from the absence of genius." 
He believed that genius without character was like a fully- 
equipped ship without a rudder. Mould your character, make 
it firm, even self-willed, and if you have genius you will make 
your mark. Character alone will move the world and influence 
your generation, but genius alone is like the bread cast upon 
the waters, which will return to you after many days. It was 
delightful to watch the ever moving face, like the seasons for 
its variety how those clear grey eyes flashed, and the brows 
became almost knotted with the intensity of a thought grow- 
ing behind them, and then, when the thought was brought to 
birth, the wrinkles were smoothed out, and, like the cloudless 
sky of a summer day, his splendid domed forehead exposed a 
serenity and calm almost godlike. There was no part of his 
face which did not illustrate emotion ; worn with thought, 
puckered with conflicting struggles, the whole countenance 
told the history of a temperament wearing itself away with 
conflict. The spiritual expression was prevented from being 
sentimental by the virility in the man's nature. One could see 
under that sweet face the possible presence of a great storm, 
and under that restrained nature a fire and a passion burning 
the very life. And it was this sort of perfection of human 
attributes which gave the charm as well as the force to his 
character. One felt in the presence of a man that knew the 
fire, but whose spiritual nature knew how to use it for good. 
The poetic temperament was largely developed. His admira- 

VOL. II D 



34 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

tion for Tennyson was great, but he loved Browning more ; 
the latter he thought was one of the greatest of modern 
teachers. There was some affinity between the mind of the 
theologian and the poet the same love of the transcendental, 
the same effort to express thoughts scarcely touchable in so 
clumsy a vehicle as language relative!}' is, the same passionate 
love for all that belongs to our race its faults, its struggles, 
enterprises, and failures and the same keenness to unravel 
difficult knots. This strong characteristic rendered to the 
writing of the poet as well as the theologian a certain air of 
symbolic obscurity a style difficult to follow because the ideas 
were so remote and so unusual. It is not often that genius 
is manifest, but it was in Dr. Westcott, because the intuitive, 
the instinct, almost childlike, was allied in him to self-mastery. 
As long as I live I shall never forget the hours I spent with 
him. He sat to me pretty well daily for a fortnight nearly 
the whole of each day, and when the end came I was so tired 
with the strain, so exhausted by the effort to keep going and 
in touch with such a vivid personality, that life seemed to 
have gone out of me ; every one else seemed so dull, so 
monotonous after the sparkle, the glamour, the freshness of 
the contact with that eager and fresh mind. 

We corresponded a good deal, but his letters to me would 
not be of general interest. Unfortunate!}", I never went to 
visit him in Durham. I am sorry now, and I reflect that it is 
a pity ever to lose sight of such an influential personality as 
his was ; but life brings to us all our special duties, and his and 
mine were different. The loss to England of such a man as 
Hishop Westcott cannot be overstated. 

On his birthday in icS9O he entered in his little 
text -book : " Little hope. Yet hold fast. No rest. 
What remains to do?" A few days later he was at 
Birmingham with .Archbishop Benson to address a 
great meeting on behalf of the Birmingham Bishopric 
scheme. In concluding his speech on this occasion he 
said that " he knew what a debt he owed to Birming- 
ham a debt which he could not pay ; he knew the 



ix WESTMINSTER 35 

power and spirit of Birmingham, its large resources, 
and its wants, and he believed he acknowledged most 
fittingly the debt which he could not pay when he 
commended the formation of the Bishopric of Birming- 
ham and Coventry to their silent and secret devotion 
and their generous munificence, in the full assurance 

o J 

that the work would by God's grace be accomplished, 
and bring great blessing to the city, and might he 
not also say, when they thought what the influence of 
great cities was on popular opinion ? great blessing to 
the nation." 

My father's time at Westminster was now drawing 
to a close. His last appearances there were tinged 
with sorrow, for his last sermon was that which he 
preached on Bishop Lightfoot, and his last ceremony 
the funeral of Robert Browning. It was hard for 
him to leave Westminster. It had been his intention 
to resign his Cambridge work and devote himself 
exclusively to the Abbey. Canon Robinson said : 

He loved this Abbey Church, of which he was six years a 
Canon, with a quite peculiar affection, because it witnessed 
in a unique manner, as he said, to the consecration of every 
form of service which man is capable of offering to God. 
No thought was more often in his mind and on his lips than 
that which he has left us here symbolised in stone upon the 
outside of our northern porch. There you will see, in a 
design which we owe to him, a representation of all sorts and 
conditions of men bringing each his peculiar gift to the 
ascended and glorified Lord. For the Incarnation had taught 
him that every form of human effort was capable of consecra- 
tion and that only as each brings that which is his own pre- 
destined contribution can the fulness of life be offered to 
Christ, and the purposes of God for man be carried to its 
issue. 1 

1 Canon Armitage Robinson, in a sermon preached in Westminster 
Abbey, 4th August 1901. 



36 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

So he has left some visible memorial at the Abbey. 
The following letter to the Dean concerns these 
sculptures : 

CAMBRIDGE, 2%th February 1890. 

My dear Dean -The studies of the heads are full of 
interest. How delightful to see the Archbishop as Grostete ! 
If you are in real need of a preacher I shall, of course, obey 
your command ; but otherwise I would rather not preach. 
A sermon means to me a week's work, and I have already 
two to write for May. You will understand then how I never 
accept an " invitation " to preach. The summer sermons are 
already filling up fragments of thought. For a third service 
I like the Litany with hymns, etc., far better than the 
" shortened Evening Prayer." I will send the photographs 
to Mr. Pearson by this post. Our North front will have a 
meaning. Ever yours, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

The Dean has also written saying : 

Your father took great interest in the sculptures outside 
the North Transept. The entrance was restored under the 
superintendence of the late Mr. Pearson, who carried out the 
designs of Sir (iilbert Scott; but the sculptures were largely 
chosen by your father. 

I can remember how my father was wont to call 
attention with much satisfaction to the fact that in the 
Madonna there depicted it is the Child, and not the 
Virgin Mother, Who is crowned. 



The following letters arc selected from those written 
by my father during the years 1884-1890: 



,x WESTMINSTER 37 

To HIS WIFE 

CAMBRIDGE, Sf/i March 1884. 

If I can go to the concert on Thursday, I will certainly do 
so. To hear a violin is about the greatest pleasure I know, 
though Joachim did not come up to my ideal last time. 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

2SM March 1884. 

Will you not ever take a Divinity degree ? We slowly 
strengthen our forces. There may be an additional Essay 
which will serve for the Exercise. I have pleaded with 
Vaughan. Can you not come together ? What is the faculty 
for if not to receive the loyal support of all who serve its 
cause ? Do think of it. In another generation it may be 
too late. 

For the last week I have spent my leisure in Maurice's 
Life. I never knew before how deep my sympathy is with 
most of his characteristic thoughts. It is most refreshing to 
read such a book such a life. 

To ARCHDEACON F. W. FARRAR 
(On the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles J ) 

CAMBRIDGE, zist April 1884. 

My dear Farrar The AiSax?) is certainly most interesting. 
It seems to me to be one form of the transcription of a very 
early even apostolic oral teaching. But it will be necessary 
to collate all the forms in which " the Two Ways " is found, tu 
justify this conclusion. I do not suppose that this is the 
source, but probably the earliest "extant" written representa- 
tive of the tradition. It would be, I think, very unsafe to 
draw negative conclusions from teaching designed for a special 
purpose. The first reading, I confess, saddened me more 

1 Archdeacon Farrar wrote on the Pidache in the Contemporary and the 
Expositor in May 1884. 



38 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

than 1 can say. The second reading showed more gleams of 
spiritual truth. 

(1) p. 30. The parallelism seems to me decisive in favour 
of the translation which you give ; and the active sense of 
KaTaa-Kfjvovv is amply supported by Ps. xxii. 2, ei<s TOTTOV X^OTJS 
tK-et //,e Kareu-K. I don't understand Bryennios' note. 

(2) p. 43. 1 naturally took op. rpa-. as Harnack, and did 
not feel the difficulty which many have felt. 

(j) P- 43- et 's /xi'o-T. KOCT/X. is perhaps corrupt. Harnack's 
interpretation is to me incomprehensible. 'IiKK-Ayo-ias seems 
to me ace. pi. (as Bryennios takes it), and not gen. sing. The 
reference may be to some forms of assembly which excited 
suspicion. In this connexion it might be possible to give 
some sense to fj,virr. KOO-/J. as the object of such meetings. 
But e'-e'xw 

(4) p. 48. I marked crma, but the sense seems to be clear. 
The Lexicon gives it for "a batch " (i.e. of bread). I have not 
looked out the reference which is added, but I feel no doubt. 

(5) p. 54. I do not feel clear that the text is sound. But 
if it is, I am inclined to think that Brycnnios' first rendering 
maybe right: "shall be saved by the very curse itself," i.e. 
by Him Whom, in these evil days, men speak of as "the 
curse ' (comp. i Cor. xii. 3). 

(6) or yap cf)%. I had taken Christ (from fans) as the 
subject of fp\.j "He cometh not to call after outward position, 
but to those whom . . ." 

It is a great pleasure to talk in this way over the book. I 
iiear that Air. Hatch is to lecture on it at Westminster. 
Kver yours affectionately, B. Y. \\ KSTCOTT. 

There is an article on the book in the new number of the 
Aiuhncr Rcvitu*, which I have not yet been able to read. I 
was away all last week. Shall I bring the book . J 



Tu -i HI-: RJ-.V. J. Li.. D.\\ n> 

2], a /uiii 1884. 

I hope that I may see my way at Westminster. How 
the words come bark to us all who have a (lospel to 



ix WESTMINSTER 39 

preach ! nPO^TAYTATKIKANO^. 1 But we do not send 
ourselves. 



To HIS SON-IN-LAW (REV. C. H. PRIOR) 

WESTMINSTER, \^th August 1884. 

My dear Charlie We were very glad to have your letter 
this morning. I have not the least doubt that you have done 
right that is, that you have chosen the work where you will 
be able to do best service. Just now Cambridge calls for 
every support. To have the opportunity of giving strength 
to what is best there is as great a blessing as can be received. 
I am very glad that you looked at the whole matter carefully. 
I feel sure that you will have no cause for regret. All join in 
love. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

WESTMINSTER, 26/7* August 1884. 

My dear Archbishop I have read through the slips of 
Cyprian with very great interest. It is not always easy reading, 
but it is always rewarding. I have added a few queries chiefly 
to accents and the like. I think that at the end of it I should 
add a line to say (what Catechesis in 2 implies) that C. became 
a Catechumen. An ordinary reader will be thankful for the 
resting-place. This is poor criticism, but I have no better to 
offer. The summer will, 1 hope, bring many sheets. For us 
Scotland is on many accounts impossible. I wish that it- 
were otherwise. I feel very much tempted to stay for a little 
time here and quietly dream about the Abbey ; but we have 
no plans. The wonder of the place grows, but I see nothing 
yet clearly. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

CAMBRIDGE, \\th October 1884. 

My dear Archbishop I return the sheets of Cyprian, which 
1 have kept too long and with too little purpose. At least I 
have read them with great interest, and set a few pencil marks 

1 Who is sufficient for these things? (2 Cor. ii. 16). 



40 LIFE OF BISHOP VVESTCOTT CHAP. 

at the side which will, I think, speak for themselves if they 
have anything to say. . . . 

These are trivial criticisms ; you will see the little pencil 
marks, and it is not worth while to dwell on them. It would 
be most convenient to you, I think, to do all the correction 
in slip. I hope that you are pressing forward. Ever yours 
affectionately, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

A very big P.S. Since my note was written I have been 
desired to ask if it would be possible for you to preach in 
King's College Chapel on 23rd November. Arthur 1 will 
plead better than I can, and I think that he will. The Bishop 
of Lincoln would have come, I believe, if he could have 
done so. 

Wi November 1884. 

I always grieve over the neglect of SeStwy/xevot. 2 The 

blessedness lies in the victory, does it not ? and not in the 
conflict. 

To THE BISHOP OF DURHAM 

24/// November 1884. 

I do not feel less than you do the importance of Durham, 
but. if Durham is to have a growing stream of men the spring 
must not be dried. You will be stronger as we are stronger 
here, and I do feel very anxious for the future. . . . We have 
given some men joyfully ; we lent others to learn and then to 
teach us. 



. 

My dear Bishop It is natural that we should look at wants 
from our different points of view.' 5 The needs of Durham do 
not make the ne.. ds of Cambridge less. I am not inclined to 
be despondent, but the state of things here is most critical. 

1 Mr. A. ('. Ben-on. who was at that time a member of Kind's College. 

- Who hu-'t- he, ii persecuted (St. Matt. v. it; . 

:; I)r. Harmcr, the present Bishop of Adelaide, at that time I'YUow of 
Kind's, and I)ome>tic f'haplain to Bishop Li^htfoot, was "the bone of 
contention ' in the correspondence o| which the.-e two letters are part. 



ix WESTMINSTER 41 

If I could I would call back every clerical fellow to his College. 
If you would look at the life you would feel as I do. It is 
simply for this reason that I have always clung to my place, 
hoping yet to do a little, though more weary than I can say. 
Of course, I think that a College has a claim upon its members 
if it needs them. I only wish that you could for an hour or 
two see what the position is. I cannot change my opinion. 
That is all. 

I have promised to preach for LI. Davies to-morrow week. 
Shall you take a subject to-morrow which I can either avoid 
or emphasise ? The text on a postcard may be enough to 
guide me. Ever yours, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



To PROFESSOR HORT 

CAMBRIDGE, vjth February 1885. 

I had a long conversation with Mr. Longman about the 
Epochs, and begged him to place the work in Professor 
Creighton's charge. I gave Mr. Longman all the ideas I 
had, but told him that absolutely I would have nothing more 
to do with the scheme. I gave him an outline of subjects 
which I drew up for my Harrow pupils, greatly preferring a 
biographical method. 

To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

CAMBRIDGE, gt/i March 1885. 

My dear Dean It would be treason for any one to take 
the Dean's place on Whitsunday. Alas, too, I have to preach 
at St. James's, and I was preaching in town last week. The 
"Coleridge" must have been full of interest. Mr. Lowell is 
one of the most pleasant speakers I have ever heard. West- 
minster is dearer to me than ever. I wish I could be there 
as much in body as in heart, but at present I hardly dare 
leave Cambridge. You will doubtless go to the V. C. when 
you come to preach. We can offer nothing but the rudest 
shelter ; but if other worthier hospitality should fail, you will 
not refuse our welcome ? Ever yours, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



42 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

CAMBRIDGE, 7//z May 1885. 

My dear Dean I am very sorry that I cannot be with you 
to-day. I had to spend yesterday in town on an examination 
meeting, and hardly know how I shall get through my work. 
That is the old, old story. After next week I could come up 
on a Tuesday or Thursday. I have a meeting on Thursday 
afternoon at 2. Perhaps, if you found it convenient to meet 
at 4, the two meetings might fit together. 

The result at Harrow is a cause for great thankfulness. I 
think that Welldon has in him the capacity of being epoch- 
making in school work, and we have reached, I think, a crisis. 
Yours most sincerely, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

I had not one moment's doubt about Lincoln. 1 Having 
known Westminster, I could not leave it : not to speak of 
Cambridge. 

CAMBRIDGE. <\th June 1885. 

My dear Dean I am sure that I am too loyal to do any- 
thing but maintain the wisdom of my Dean, and I am sure 
too that a Dean should not be absent from the great Festivals 
of his Church. It will be well to make some rule about 
assistance in the distribution of the elements at large Com- 
munions. For the first time for many years I was lately present 
in a Church when the elements were administered to a 
" railful " at a time, and I was much impressed by the solemn 
silence. Perhaps Convocation may sanction this. 

I rejoice to hear about the Confessor's Chapel, and hope 
to see Queen Philippa's tomb restored. it is the one tomb 
that can be restored with absolute certainty, and it would be 
a marvellously beautiful work. 

Hut J am writing with a request. The Archbishop has 
promised to attend a meeting for the Delhi mission on 22nd 
June at 3 P.M. Could you allow us to nu-el as before in the 
Jerusalem Chamber or in the College Hall? 

1 find that 1 must go to the levee on Tuesday. Are you 
going? and, if so, will you take me under your wing? I have 
a meeting at 4, and so must try to go early. 

1 lie had recently declined the Deanery of Lincoln. 



ix WESTMINSTER 43 

I should like to think about the central figure of the 
Porch. Yours most sincerely, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 
(On criticisms of the Westcott and Hort Greek Testament) 

2&thjune, -y^th July. 

I looked through the notices with much interest. The 
French ones were quite a revelation of careful study. . . . 
The different sources make them more remarkable. The 
R.C. criticism is very characteristic. The sudden introduc- 
tion of dogmatic reasons sounds half ironical. 

How very touching Reuss's letter is. I must try to find 
courage to send him the Epistles of St. John. 

To C. DALRYMPLE, ESQ., M.P. 

WESTMINSTER, 27^ August 1885. 

My dear Dalrymple I delayed thanking you for youi 
kind present, which represents, I hope, first-fruits of a well- 
earned holiday, till I had seen Lord Bute. He proposed to 
come this week, and on Tuesday he called and drove me to 
Chiswick. We had a very long talk, which was to me of 
very deep interest. Lady Bute was confined to her room, 
so that we were quite alone. I hope to see him again next 
week, if he is still kept here. I wish that he had more 
friends. The sudden transition from Turnham Green to the 
cedar walk stirred thoughts which it is hard to bring to peace. 
However, I am not going to sketch a social essay on a sheet 
of notepaper. I hope that you will get rest before the 
struggle begins. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

ST. AUGUSTINE'S, CANTERBURY, 
2$th September 1885. 

... It was a revelation to me that R.C. priests could be 
so ill-informed, especially as - - said that he made the 



44 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

points at issue between the Anglican and Roman Churches 
the subject of thorough study. 

Mr. Gladstone's paragraph about Establishment was sad. 
What shall we say of the tendency to Republican Govern- 
ment ? Is no tendency to be resisted ? It is the old, old 
story. Our rulers say to us, What should you like and we 
will do it ? I wish that our laymen would speak out. The 
question is theirs rather than ours. 

I have called here to see Arthur on my way back to 
Cambridge. The work of the place is full of interest and 
encouragement. The wall of the Roman St. Pancras stand- 
ing on part of the boundary of the butcher's field. 



To HIS SECOND SON 



iK, is/ October 1885. 

My dear Arthur I send by this post to " the librarian " l a 
copy of the Epistles of St. John for St. Augustine's. I am 
very glad to add the stone to the cairn. The visit was a 
great pleasure to me. I can now realise your life fully, and 
it is a life to rejoice in, with abundant opportunities for useful 
work. You could not, 1 think, be more happily engaged. 

I had a good time at Rochester, and found the Dean. In 
the end I found myself at Snow Hill and my luggage at 
Victoria. But we are happily reunited. Just now I am 
nearly bewildered with papers and disorder. I hope to get 
straight soon. Ever your most affectionate father, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

CAM UK 1 1 ><;!;, jn/ October 1885. 

My dear Dean If there is no more serious business on 
Tuesday, and you can make a quorum without me, I will ask 
your permission to be absent. I have to come to town on 
Wednesday and to go to Portsmouth on Thursday, and this 
at the beginning of term is rather trying. However, what has 

1 /.f. to nu' in my official capacity. 



ix WESTMINSTER 45 

to be done is done. This is one of the most cheerful lessons 
of life. 

Lord Shaftesbury's has been a noble life, and complete in 
its way, though I wish that he had left Theology alone. To 
study that we want an unusual endowment of modesty. We 
shall all be glad if he rests in the Abbey. 

Have you had any certain information about the consecra- 
tion of the Bishop of Salisbury? I should like to make 
arrangements to be present if possible. I feel sure that he 
will justify his self-denying acceptance. I hope that you are 
getting rest. Ever yours most sincerely, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

CAMBRIDGE, 26th November 1885. 

My dear Archbishop Don't call me or even think me 
ungrateful if I have not thanked you before for the volume of 
wise counsel 1 which has gladdened us all. Its reception has 
been almost as cheering as the utterance. 

But I doubt if I should have broken off the work of a 
lecture even for the pleasure of saying this, which you would 
know I feel. 

... I do not think that any one in England has done 
better or more helpful work on the O.T. than Dr. Cheyne. 
He is singularly thorough, sympathetic, and sincere, so that 
his positive results come with a fresh force. I doubt whether 
anything has had a better general effect on O.T. study than 
his frank exposition of the steps by which he won his way to 
faith in revelation. Under unfavourable circumstances he 
has done most valuable work, and I cannot but wish that he 
should have the opportunities and the stimulus of University 
life. If you consider Old Testament exegesis, there is no 
one, I think, who has done or is likely to do more useful 
work. I need not say that on many points I am bold enough 
to disagree with him, but he is always most truly reverent in 
spirit, and just. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

1 The Seven Gifts, the Archbishop's Primary Visitation Charge, 



46 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

CAMBRIDGE, gt/i December [1885 ?]. 

My dear Dean I am grieved that you have all these 
little worries and anxieties. It is worry, not work, that kills. 

Mr. Pearson's letter is very satisfactory. He will, of course, 
take care that we have an opportunity of seeing the models 
themselves. Nothing could be better than this. As to the 
Library, the safe, as I have ventured to plead, for our prim- 
ary treasures is the first necessity. An insurance, as one 
insures one's own books, is a reasonable and inexpensive 
provision for replacing the mass. For the safe I do plead 
again. The sub-Dean seemed to say that he had one, which 
could be transferred. I should be very glad if this could be 
considered. Ever yours most sincerely, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

WESTMINSTER, Innocents' Day, 1885. 

Very many thanks for the sight of - 's letter, which I 
return. He has been advised well, I am sure ; and he must 
learn to see that the monastic life is not one hair-breadth 
higher than any other. All the self-denial after which he 
aspires and more is within his reach. 

. . . We want, I think, a very great increase of the 
episcopate. But I am not going to write an article. Any 
action ought to come from within, not from without. 

It was very cheering to see the men at Addington. There 
is hope while such freely offer themselves. 

(On the death of Dr. Henry Hradshaw) 

CAMBRIDGE, i$tk I : >:bmary 1886. 

My dear Archbishop You will have felt for Cambridge 
and for King's in this most unexpected and irreparable loss. 
All we can say is that there was nothing of sadness in the 
circumstances but the suddenness ; and I do not know that, 



ix WESTMINSTER 47 

when we are free from other claims, there can be a greater 
blessing than the freshness of work to the end. I had the 
pleasure of a bright welcome back, but had not seen B. 
again. On Wednesday he dined at J. W. Clark's with a 
small party, and was in good spirits. He went home, and in 
the morning his bed-maker found him sitting in his chair 
with an open book, but his work here was done. 

It has been a great joy to us all that during these last two 
years the University at large has known him and given him 
every honour it could. His loss to the College cannot be 
estimated. There he was supreme for good. His justice 
and absolute unselfishness made his voice final. The funeral 
is to be on Monday at 2.15 in the College. I wish that you 
could have been with us. We can only do our work. Ever 
yours affectionately, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



To PROFESSOR HORT 

CAMBRIDGE, ityh UTarch 1886. 

My dear Hort By a most strange coincidence I have 
had the enclosed note this morning from Mr. Eyre, who has 
really edited the E. and S. Aids. It expresses, I need hardly 
say, what I feel most strongly. It would be, I think, most 
unworthy of the University to construct a new book sub- 
stantially on the lines of the Queen's Printers' Bible. Of 
the subjects contained in the scheme a large part are treated 
there as well as they can be treated. There is no doubt room 
for improvement and some additions. I have spoken often 
before on the subject, and I see no reason to alter any opinion 
I have expressed. I should feel deeply humiliated if the 
Press were to imitate Oxford in this matter. Their offence 
would be much greater. Mr. Eyre, I should add, had not 
written to me before. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

I do not know whether it was only lapse of time 
that led my father to finally give his countenance to 
the Cambridge Companion to the Bible, but he did, 



48 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

as a matter of fact, contribute to that work, which was 
published in 1893 an Appendix on Sacred Books of 
otJier Faiths. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

27 th March 1886. 

It was a very great pleasure to me to read some more 
pages of the Cyprian. The only result has been a few minute 
pencil marks in the margin which are of no moment. Per- 
haps I may add that I once took the trouble to hunt down 
Galland's name. He was of French descent, and in the 
Italian authorisation of his work he is called Galland : the 
common name Gallandi which you follow, I think, has no 
authority. There is a kind of satisfaction in being right even 
in such a trifle. More will follow soon, I hope. 

I could not make out who the bold Lord Grimthorpe 
might be. The mystery was disclosed the other day and I 
ceased to wonder. 

22nd April 1886. 

If you could have been at the meeting of the National 
Society you could have saved them from the great error which 
they have made of asking, 1 as it seems, those who prepare 
pupils what their examination should be. The very essence 
of an examination is that it should offer a standard and not 
simply repeat an easy tradition. A glance which I had of 
the memorandum sent to the Examination ttoard surprised 
me very greatly by its form. I should be glad to speak some 
time with you on the whole question of Training Colleges, 
which is likely to become very important. 

\.\tJt /iui<' 1 886. 

I will endeavour to say what I think on the very serious 
questions which you propose ; but I ought first to say that I 
feel strongly that the adoration of a localised Presence in the 
consecrated elements appears to me to be one of our most 

1 " Iut, my <lcar Wcstcott, I was present^ confesses the Archbishop, 
and explains. 



ix WESTMINSTER 49 

real and grave and growing perils. I cannot therefore think 
that the Rubric is "unsuitable under the circumstances" of 
the Church at Zanzibar : quite the reverse. 

1. Even if there were authority (and there does not appear 
to be) to omit the Rubric, I should deeply regret the omission. 

2. It seems to me quite evident that many of the omitted 
clauses can be rendered: e.g., "signification of our humble 
and grateful," "and not here," "Christ's Body"; and " natural 
Body and Blood " appears to be translated, and surely there- 
fore " natural Flesh and Blood " can be. 

It would not, again, be difficult to adapt the language of 
the translation of the second Commandment to the clause 
"for that were idolatry ..." 

3. No doubt the language of the Rubric is unguarded, but 
it saves us from the error of connecting the Presence of 
Christ's glorified humanity with place : " heaven is a state 
and not a place." 

I cannot therefore but think that you should require the 
most exact rendering of the whole. 

1 6/7; August 1886. 

. . . This being so, I am afraid that I cannot come to 
Addington in Ember week, if you were kind enough to 
wish me to do so. The Abbey more than commands one's 
time. Happily, I know how many you have to take this 
vacant place, and you won't tell me to resign. 

Tpth August 1 886. 

... I don't, of course, accept your judgment of such work 
as I can do at Ember-tide except as a most touching sign 
of your affection. . . . 

I forgot to say before that I should have been glad if you 
could have written out a little more at length the great moral 
at the end of the last Cyprian proof the establishment of a 
free representative council. As you could not print it in 
capitals, it seemed to want more space. It is strange for me 
to plead for a little expansion. 

iyh September 1886. 

... I have been reading for the tenth time Emerson's 
Essays, and trying to see his world. I find it very hard 
VOL. II E 



50 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

harder than to bring the world which I do see into a tend- 
ency towards harmony. The lessons of Westminster seemed 
to be stranger than ever this summer. Are we all som- 
nambulists ? 

What I can do at King's without Ryle 1 I don't know. I 
have been thinking that I ought to give up. It is impossible 
to do many things. However, one phrase always comes back 
I have had to think of it a good deal ov cOtjKtv /cA^/Dovo/xov 
Trai/Twv 2 : yes, 7rdvTMv 3 : nothing less gives "peace," still less 
"joy." 

TO MIS ELDEST DAUGHTER (MRS. E. G. KiNG) 

TOWYN, i$t/i Sept on her 1886. 

. . . We are constantly thinking of you all. But now the 
suspense is over, you can but look more quietly to the end, 4 
and we were very glad to hear last night the few words which 
spoke of sleep and calm resting. We need not, nay, we 
cannot think those unhappy who are called away from trial 
soon, only to have the memory of gentle patience and smiles 
as their portion in life. 

To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

CAMBRIDGE, New Year's <<e, 1887. 

My dear Dean Let me congratulate you on the appear- 
ance of Job, and thank you most heartily for the gift which 
binds the two years together. It used to be my part at 
Peterborough summer after summer to endeavour to read the 
Book. So at least I know a little of the difficulties and a 
little of the questions which it raises. I rejoice that you 
have given a home in the Abbey to interpretation of Scrip- 
ture. It always seems to me, though I have been required 
to spend so much time on other subjects, that we need above 
all things to learn and to teach the lessons of the Bible. It 
is of deep interest to know how the Old Testament grew, till 

1 The present Ilishop of Kxeter. 

- Whom He appointed heir of all things (Iiel>. i. 2). 

' Of all things. 

'' The death of his granddaughter Ruth. 



[X 



WESTMINSTER 51 



the Apostles were trained by the collection of Books which 
we have. 

I see a paragraph to-day that the Bishop of Lahore is to 
be consecrated in the Abbey on Epiphany. If it is true, T 
should like to be present for India's sake. . . . 

To THE RIGHT HON. G. CUBITT, M.P. 

WESTMINSTER, ^lh January 1887. 

My dear Cubitt I am very sorry that I missed you the 
other day, for, apart from other reasons, I should have been 
glad to talk over with you a scheme which I have very greatly 
at heart. However, the enclosed papers will explain it fairly 
well. There is, I can say without reserve, nothing which 
seems to me to be of more importance for the University at 
the present time and for the Church. The Bishops are very 
naturally requiring that candidates for Holy Orders should 
have some special training before entering on their work. 
This is afforded by Diocesan and other special Colleges. 
But it is almost a necessity that the kind of training furnished 
in these should be narrower and less largely human than that 
which can be gained at the University. At the same time, it 
will be little less than disastrous if the candidates for Holy 
Orders are all carried away from the University to complete 
their special education. We shall lose the best men just 
when their influence is most valuable. In a few years what 
is now possible will, I think, be no longer possible. I am 
therefore most anxious to see that which has been done 
tentatively made independent before my own work is over. 
You will, I am sure, sympathise with the effort, and help it as 
you may feel right. ... I waited in silence for ten years till 
some of the younger men spoke to me, and I have not had a 
greater joy at Cambridge than that which they gave me. But 
now the time has come for something more. 

The New Year is full to overflowing with anxieties. I 
hope that you are zealous for Imperial Federation. For the 
first time I have found a political object in which I can feel 
a keen interest. With all good wishes, ever yours affection- 
ately, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



52 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

To ins WIFE 

(On examination for the Durham B.D. degree) 

DURHAM, \\th January 1887. 

Our work is over. There has been a great but necessary 
slaughter, with encouragement. I don't think that the 
candidates had realised that the Examination was a serious 
matter. However, we were unanimous, and we have fixed a 
just standard for the future. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

CAMBRIDGE, 2.1 st March 1887. 

I do indeed wonder how you can live. But then sacrifice 
takes many shapes. My idea as to the Episcopal letter on 
Peace was of something wholly apart from political interpre- 
tations. Yet I feel the difficulties. But ought the Christian 
Church to be silent? Ought the great moral victories to be 
won outside her organisation ? 

To HIS SECOND SON 

CAMBRIDGE, 28M March 1887. 

My dear Arthur As far as I can judge, you have done 
rightly in seriously entertaining the idea of the Madras work. 
No work can be more important, and it must grow in import- 
ance from day to day. Moreover, by way of sentiment, 
Madras is the one place in India with which we have old 
connexions. ... I have been in town all day, but I wish to 
send you a line of good wishes. Your most affectionate 
father, B. K WKSTCOTT. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

HUNSTANTON, St. Mark" s Day, 1887. 

. . . As to the second question, the Vaudois are doubtless 
interesting, and private members of our Church may feel 



ix WESTMINSTER 53 

rightly a wish to help them. But you represent our Church, 
and cannot act as a private Churchman, and it does not seem 
to me that the Vaudois claim an ecclesiastical recognition. 
The position of the small Protestant bodies on the Continent 
is, no doubt, one of great difficulty. But our Church can, I 
think, only deal with churches growing to fuller life. I hope 
that I have not judged wrongly. I have just come here to 
gain a little strength. 

To HIS SECOND DAUGHTER 

CAMBRIDGE, 4//z Sunday after Easter, 1887. 

My dear Katie To my great regret I have nothing to 
send you as a birthday greeting. I had hoped that my new 
little book would have been ready. As it is, it will follow, 1 
trust, in a week or two, and you will be content to wait. 
This perhaps will be as welcome as anything, though it deals 
with several subjects which do not fall within your natural 
range of interest ; for words spoken by those we love have a 
full meaning. Their power is not limited to w r hat they say 
directly. They have a kind of living friendliness, and bring 
many messages with them, and have a voice almost ever 
fresh. And this seems to me to be the secret of the power of 
Holy Scripture. That always addresses us with a new voice of 
love. It means just what we need when we wait patiently to 
listen. But w r e must wait. May the sunshine to-morrow be 
as bright as to-day, and the bright beginning of a very happy 
year ! Ever your most affectionate father, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE RIGHT HON. G. CUUITT, M.P. 

WESTMINSTER, yoth April 1887. 

I have ascertained that Sir A. Aitchinson, late Governor of 
the Punjab, will be able to attend a Delhi Meeting on the 
28th or 3oth. There could be no more important witness to 
the work. Mr. Lefroy could, I believe, attend then. I have 
written to him. I have to go to Cambridge to-morrow even- 
ing, but I hope to return on Thursday, and shall stay here, 



54 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

all being well, for a week. If you could see me on Thursday 
or Friday, I could come over to the House at any time. If we 
decide to have a meeting, we must endeavour to make it a 
success. 

To HIS WIFE 

DURHAM, tylijune 1887. 

. . . Here the weather continues bright, but I am afraid 
that rny sketch-book will not find employment. I have set 
my heart on the Sanctuary ring, 1 but The Dean is really 
delightful. I find that he expected that I should be an 
eminently dry, learned person, lost in books, with whom it 
would be impossible for him to get on ; and he is rather 
amused to find that I care more for souls than syllables, and 
that I have a kind of belief in a Church. I have never had 
an opportunity before of coming face to face with the old 
Oxford Movement. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

M.R., igthjnly 1887. 

My dear Archbishop I was summoned to Birmingham 
to-day, but your note fortunately came just as I was starting. 
I am very glad that you have written the note, which seems 
to me to be wise and careful. It seems always well to press 
on men the use of the original term Theotokos, which natur- 
ally leads them to think of the truth. For myself, I will never 
use the term " Mother of God," which we owe, I fancy, to 
the imperfection of Latin. It might be well, especially in a 
Mohammedan neighbourhood, to keep to a word which is 
obviously technical and calls for explanation, and to avoid the 
use of a phrase which seems to be clearly intelligible, but 
then in a wrong sense. I often think of your cares. But I 
feel sure that strength is given according to the sense of 
them. OKXAP^AMEXO^ . . . Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. \\']->TCOTT. 

In 1. () I should prefer to say "firmly holds the doctrine 
1 Sec p. 144. 



ix WESTMINSTER 55 



expressed by fleoroK-os." I do not like seeming to admit the 
possibility of contradicting the Truth on such a point. Perhaps 
the best translation may be, " Mother of Him Who in the 
unity of His Person was God." 



TO HIS ELDEST DAUGHTER (MRS. E. G. KiNG) 

WEST MALVERN, yd August 1887. 

My dear Mary Your letter yesterday had prepared me for 
that to-day. 1 You will fancy how much you have been in the 
minds of all of us lately. But what can I say ? Perhaps I 
cannot even feel as sorry as many do when a little one re- 
ceives an early discharge from the hard and sad battle of life. 
We can see very little, but we can be sure that " it is well 
with the child," and our longer and chequered lives bring 
sorrowful misgivings. Yet we must thankfully do our work 
and bear our loads, as it is given to us, sure with a certainty 
that nothing can shake that not one effort truly made can be 
lost, and not one pain, borne as from God, be unfruitful. 
Love and strength to all. Ever your most affectionate father, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

We wish that we could be with you, but perhaps the quiet 
is better. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

WEST MAI.VERX, qth August 1887. 

I have been working fiercely at the Notes on the Hebrews, 
which seem very much like what you say the Church in Africa 
was before Cyprian chaos. In any case they must be made 
into a semblance of order this summer, or they will remain chaos 
always. I feel very sadly that I cannot work as in old time 
The Master of Balliol was here last week and I had some 
walks and talks with him, full of interest and instruction. 
His fear of the men of "science " almost amused me. 

1 Informing him of the death of his infant grandson Eric. 



56 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To ARCHDEACON FARRAR 

WESTMINSTER, >SV. Michael's Day, 1887. 

My dear Farrar Your most kind note welcomed me when 
I came back about 2 in good time for the afternoon service. 
It was a pleasure to Arthur, I think, to sec us to the last. It 
is the first break in our family for life's work. His work will 
be of great difficulty and interest. I hope that he may have 
strength to do good service. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

The above letter brings to mind how, just as he 
was leaving the ship in which I sailed, he took from his 
pocket a small Greek Testament and slipped it into my 
hand, saying, " It is one that I have sometimes used." 



To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

IQ//Z November 1887. 

My dear Dean No notice of a Chapter Meeting has 
reached me. If it is next Monday I have, to my sorrow, a 
meeting at London House at 4, which 1 must attend. 

I shall heartily agree with the judgment of the other 
Canons. If the Estates are surrendered for a money payment, 
it is important to reserve some right of revision. In the case 
of the Bishops the surrender is (is it not?) for the tenure of 
each occupant of the see. Would it be possible for the 
surrender to be capable of revision from time to time by the 
unanimous request of the Dean and Chapter, say on the coming 
of each Dean? My proper stipend fixed in money is ,40 
per annum, which no one, I fancy, would think adequate as 
it was in the time of Henry VIII. I will gladly come on to 
Westminster after my meeting if you will summon me. A 
message to London House would find me at 4. I shall be- 
very glad when you are free from this worry. Ever yours 
most sincerely, B. F. U'ESTCOTT. 



ix WESTMINSTER 57 

HASTINGS, i8/7; December 1887. 

My dear Dean I am very sorry that I have given you so 
much trouble only to save myself a journey. For I think that 
your kind explanation of the business does not offer me any 
hope of being of use. . . . 

It would, I think, be in every way well for the Chapter to 
set up the tablet, and perhaps the Little Cloister might be 
marked as the place for such memorials. It is connected 
with the Music School, the Precentor, and the Master of the 
Choristers. As to the Fabric Fund, we must submit to the 
inevitable. We ought on no account to go into debt. The 
condition with the contractor has been satisfied, and the 
scaffolding will remain for the resumption of the work when 
there are means to continue it. 

The sun refuses to shine, but at least one can be quiet 
here. If there should be any new business, a message will 
bring me up at once. Ever yours most sincerely, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

WESTMINSTER, St. Thomas' Day, 1887. 

I delayed answering your letter till I had seen the Dean. 
He enters most heartily into the plan, and will let the invita- 
tions go in his name. I will communicate with the Dean of 
Windsor. It would be natural and good in every way, I 
think, that there should be a service here before the Synod, 
and that you should preach. The Dean again heartily agrees. 
He is anxious that the Abbey should be made as serviceable 
as possible. . . . 

To HIS WIFE 

WESTMINSTER, 
2nd Sunday after Epiphany, 1888. 

... I have done a little thinking, though I am afraid that 
it does not end in any very bright conclusions. But if the 
w r orld ought to be a world of love, how r can one look on it 



58 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

and feel satisfied ? Exactly in proportion as one feels failure 
one must feel sorrow, unless one can add the sure conviction 
that the failure is the way to final triumph. There cannot be 
rest, I think, in anything short of this. Yet how hard it is to 
wait without a sign. But none the less the Christian faith, if 
it is held in its simplicity, must be a Gospel. What we hear 
preached commonly is to my ears simply a sentence of 
despair. There you have the sum of my thinking. " Rebel- 
lious pride " ? I do not think so. 

WESTMINSTER, 8t/i April 1888. 

. . . To-day has been a good deal interrupted. The 
police found a visitor carrying off a piece of the Abbey. . . . 
I felt that the law ought to take its course. It is the first 
case ever detected. The man was fined 4os. The discussion 
kept the bell rather lively : not to speak of the " effigies." . . . 
Yesterday I was chiefly reading M. Arnold. I wish that he 
was not so vain : his poetry is free from this fault. . . . 

It may be remarked in connexion with the 
above that my father had made Mr. Matthew Arnold's 
acquaintance in Harrow days. I remember being 
present on one occasion when they had a most ani- 
mated conversation on the Harrow School cricket- 
ground. 

That his feelings towards the poet were kindly is 
evident from the following words, also addressed to 
his wife : 

i6/// .-//;// 1888. 

The evening papers are always startling. The first placard 
I saw was "Sudden Death of Mr. Matthew Arnold." Only 
yesterday we were smiling at his liule peculiarities, and now . . . 
I tried to get a paper, but failed. 

i//// .-///// 1 888. 

1 am going out to see if I can get some small edition of 
M. Arnold's poems. I want the one on Rugby Chapel. 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 59 



Will you see what the lines were which he wrote for me with 
his autograph ? As yet I have not seen a paper. 

To HIS WIFE 

G.N.R. [no date]. 

This morning I made up my mind to preach my Windsor 
sermon (sc. at St. James'). I thought that the other might be 
unintelligible, and as I had written it I had no scruple on the 
ground of idleness. It was a very wet morning and the con- 
gregation \vas rather less than usual, but Mr. and Mrs. Glad- 
stone were there. I w T as much struck by the change in his 
look. He was singularly altered, weary, and sad, as it seemed. 
The Archbishop said that he and Mrs. Benson started for St. 
James', and were driven back by the rain. 1 promised to 
go to the Sons of the Clergy Bishops' dinner: so you see 
sparks of duty are still alive. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

21 si April 1888. 

... If I had the command of ghosts just at present, I 
think that Bismarck's sleep would be a good deal disturbed. 
Perhaps it is well that I haven't. 

To HIS WIFE 

CAMBRIDGE, 7'i-ini/y Snftnaj 1 , 1888. 

... I am constantly thinking of "Rejoice always," but 
the prospect before St. Paul when he wrote was very different 
from our prospect and retrospect. He could say " The Lord 
is at hand," but we have not mastered the correlative truth. 
To me the wretchedness and apparent failure of the world is 
terrible. I know that it isn't all; but the comfort which 
many find would only add to my sorrow. The hopeless 
torture of the worst would bring no satisfaction. However, I 
hope that light will come. I tried at Hereford to show the 
few rays that have reached me. 



60 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

CAMBRIDGE, gth October 1888. 

My dear Dean It is pleasant to hear of Stanley. In 
many ways the earlier part of the Life will be the most in- 
structive. A first visit to London ! I hope that he came to 
Westminster. . . . 

To THE REV. E. PRICE 

(On the Old Testament) 

WESTMINSTER, i2th November 1888. 

I know no book. No one, I think, who is fairly acquainted 
with the conditions of the problems will be hasty to write. 
W T e have much to learn, and the scantiest materials to teach 
us. Meanwhile we must be patient, and above all not pledge 
the Faith to a special decision on " critical ; ' questions. For 
us the O.T. is that of the apostolic age. How it came to be 
we will reverently seek to know. I cannot see that any con- 
ceivable result affects spiritual truth. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

yd Januarv 1889. 

. . . The sight of your cares makes me ashamed, but I 
am sure that there is strength provided for the work given to 
us. In my better moments I can even feel it. And it is 
with the greatest as with the least. 

The old words came back to me at Addington : AIH4>OBOY 
MOXOX III2TEYE. 1 It is enough. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

MoSKLKY, 9/// /unitary 1889. 

. . . S. R.'s correction of his blunders was, I think, the 
worst point about him. It may be of interest to know on 

1 Fear not : only believe. 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 61 



what critical basis he formed his judgment, but his later 
defence of it has, I think, no interest whatever. 

As Lightfoot cannot remould his essays on the work, I 
feel sure that it is best and good simply to reprint, adding 
footnotes to indicate (i) changes in S. R.; (2) possible errors ; 
(3) new sources, and a prefatory note pointing out the cir- 
cumstances of the reprint. . . . 

The above letter refers to the proposed republica- 
tion of Bishop Lightfoot's Essays on the work entitled 
Supernatural Religion, concerning which work Bishop 
Lightfoot said, " I found that a cruel and unjustifiable 
assault was made on a very dear friend, to whom I 
was attached by the most sacred personal and theo- 
logical ties." This very dear friend was, of course, my 
father. 

To HIS THIRD DAUGHTER (MRS. C. H. PRIOR) 

MOSELEY, 12th January 1889. 

My dear Daisy Very many thanks for your good wishes 
and the translation of them into living form. Children and 
children's children are the best inheritance we can leave to 
the world. I should have been very glad to be at your 
party, for I think that I have some capacity for games yet; 
and it is an unusual honour to have a Festival in one's life- 
time. 

To HIS WIFE 

MOSEI.EY, \2fJi January 1889. 

... I am tempted to use Confucius' words, " No one 
knows me " ; but that is a happy thing in many ways. Life 
and truth grow more and more mysterious. I think that it 
is my superficial success which troubles me most. However, 
I sometimes try to do my best, and in great things I can 
keep hope fresh. 



62 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To PROFESSOR HORT 

CAMBRIDGE, 2.^1 h February 1889. 

I am confined to the house to-day, so that I must be 
absent from the Delhi Committee. I am very sorry, but 
there is no help for it. 

I have looked through the printed slips and endeavoured 
to make the necessary corrections, and to suggest the way 
in which they can be made into a Report. I hope that the 
notes will be intelligible. As for the spelling, e.g. Delhi and 
Dehli, Brahmin and Brahman, I don't know that uniformity 
is necessary or desirable. 

I assume that you will be able to go to the meeting. 
If unhappily you cannot go, can you send the papers to 
Edwards ? 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

WESTMINSTER, 6th April 1889. 

My dear Davies I rejoice to have an occasion for writing 
when I cannot doubt as to my feeling. I most heartily con- 
gratulate you on your third and crowning happiness in the 
Bell. 1 This year my residence made it impossible for me to 
examine, but I saw this morning that your son had fulfilled 
the confident hopes which I heard expressed before I left 
Cambridge. You are unique, I fancy, in your triple diadem. 

I could not write about your leaving London. D. 
Vaughan told me the other clay that you wrote very happily 
from Westmoreland. Still, it is very far away, and it is hard 
to live on oneself. I can understand the eager desire for 
rest; but I suppose that rest becomes impossible after a 
time. My chief hope is that you have stores of materials 
which only need arrangement. We have a son who is curate 
to our old tutor at Kcndal. I hope that he may see you. 
Ever yours affectionately, I!. !'. WKSTCOTT. 



1 Three sons of Dr. Llewellyn Davies successively won the Hell Uni- 
versity SchoUirshiji. 



IX WESTMINSTER 63 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

Easter Eve., 1889. 

MH^OBOY 

ErflEIMIOnPfiT02KAIOE2XAT02 
KAIOZI2N l 

TO HIS FOURTH SON 

WESTMINSTER, 17/7* April 1889. 

My dear George My birthday greetings to you must be 
confined to words which become thanksgivings and prayers. 
The last days have been full of blessing and hope for you 
and Foss. Everything, as far as we can judge, points to a 
definite call which you have heard. The call comes when 
you have the fulness of life to give to work than which none 
can be nobler. We must not speculate on what you may be 
allowed to do, if the work is committed to you. It is enough 
that you have offered yourselves for service. What is seen is 
after all an imperfect sign of what is done. May God bless 
you in the coming year with all patience and courage and 
hope, and give you the joy of complete self-surrender ! Ever 
your most affectionate father, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE REV. MEREDITH J. HUGHES 

(On the Body of our Risen Lord) 

WESTMINSTER, 2.7 th April 1889. 

My dear Sir You expose with perfect accuracy the com- 
plete misrepresentation of my words by Mr. Conder. 2 The 

1 Fear not ; I am the first and the last, and the Living one (Rev. 
i. 18). 

2 Dr. Conder, in his Outlines of the Life of Christ, p. 196, quotes the 
following passage from Bishop Westcott's Gospel of t/ie Resurrection, and 
adds the subjoined comment : 

"The body, which was recognised as essentially the same body, had 
yet undergone some marvellous change, of which we gain a faint idea by 
what is directly recorded of its manifestations. Under a physical image, 
that change is presented to us by our Lord Himself in the absence of 
blood, the symbol and seat of corruptible life " (St. Luke xxiv. 39 ; 



64 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

whole force of my sentence lies in the phrase, "under a 
figure." Again and again, in the little book to which Mr. 
Conder refers, I have pointed out that we have no right to 
introduce anything material, anything which involves limita- 
tation of time and space, into conceptions of the unseen 
world, except as figures necessary for our minds. In Scrip- 
ture "blood" has a distinct connotation; the significant 
omission of " blood " in the passage in St. Luke could not 
fail to suggest to a Jewish reader a peculiarity in the con- 
ditions of the life of the Risen Lord : to interpret " flesh and 
bones " physiologically appears to me to be essentially absurd. 
We can only see the truth, <V &r6Tpov tV cuViy/juxTi. That is 
enough. In this connexion I have often quoted Spenser's 
fine lines : 

Of the soul the body form doth take, 

For soul is form, and doth the body make. 

Personally, I am inclined to think that this revelation of the 
Risen Lord points to a form of existence different in kind, 
and not only in conditions, from the present, in which nothing 
is lost, but all that we now see is indefinitely transfigured in 
a divine union. 

But our powers fail us when we try to define such thoughts 
So we wait in humble patience and confess our weakness. 
Yours most faithfully, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To THE BISHOP OF DURHAM 

CAMBRIDGE, 29/7^ May 1889. 

My dear Bishop Words are not needed to assure you 
how we all join in your thanksgiving. It is, as the Arch- 

Kph. v. 30 ; The Gospel of the Resurrection, p. 239). Dr. Conder comments 
thus: "In these two passages our Saviour's body is spoken of as having 
' flesh and hones,' not flesh and blood. Hence Dr. Westcott infers that 
it was hlnoillcss, the whole of the blood having been shed on the cross. But 
a body of bloodless flesh and bone would n<> more be a 'glorified body' 
than a body of ilesh and blood : it would be a corpse." 

(Dr. Abbott, too, in a suggestive article on the same subject in the 
Contemporary Review, illustrates a certain hypothesis by the "curious 
theory of Bishop \Yestcott, that the risen body of Christ had flesh and 
bones, but no blood, blood being with the Jews the symbol and seat of 
corruptible life.") M. J. II. 



,x WESTMINSTER 65 

bishop writes, " one of the Magnalia of God and a sign " 
that you are given to the Bishop's work again. Ever your 
affectionately, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTKRHURV 

HUNSTANTON, IJt/ljHHC 1889. 

. . . Sometimes I seem to fear that we have lost faith 
altogether: that Christians have accepted the gods of Epi- 
curus for the Living God. Those who represent the democ- 
racy of the future how near ? have not ratified the 
exchange on their part. I see clearly how little can be done 
till men have had time to think, but it does seem to be of 
vital importance that Christian teachers should point out the 
end towards which we should work and pray. But I must 
not inflict on you my paper by anticipation. 



TO HIS ELDEST SON 

WEST MAI.VKRN, th July 1889. 

My dear Brooke My conversation with the Bishop had 
not prepared me for the offer. 1 Of course our words were 
few except about others. The choice is beset by difficulties. 
I did say that I felt doubt as to your acceptance of such an 
office ; and I should not dare to counsel you to accept it 
unless you felt that it gave you a fuller field for work. The 
needs of schools are very great and they are increasing, and 
I think that you are right in judging your prospect of success 
in a headmastership and a professorship. At the same 
time it is a joy to us that the Bishop thought you worthy. 
In the eyes of the world it will seem a sacrifice to keep 
to Rugby, but your work will gain in force from the new 
dedication. 

Mamma thinks w T ith me. I fancy indeed that we all 
think the same. The strength of life lies in its unity. In 

1 Bishop Lightfoot offered my brother, who was at the time an assistant- 
master at Rugby, the Greek Professorship in Durham University, with a 
Canonry in the Cathedral. 

VOL. II F 



66 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

any case the Bishop's letter will be a great encouragement. 
May God bless you and guide you ! Love to all. Ever your 
most affectionate father, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

BALE, yd September 1889. 

We are so far on our homeward journey, and in the hour 
of waiting I must try to thank you for your letter. One by 
one our sons have left us, and now only Harry remains. It 
has been a very interesting and a very solemn time. Over 
all there was the feeling of a final "Good-bye/"' . . . 

It is difficult to forecast the future. The Charge will be 
an important element, for of course it will be a manifesto of 
the party. They have learnt in a singular way the secret of 
Roman power: they yield absolutely nothing. During these 
four weeks I have had many sad thoughts. I can even see a 
place for the despair of the Plymouth Brethren. Yet surely 
we have a Gospel. But is this the sphere of its victory ? 
One looks upon crowds and upon single men with an intense 
desire to see the mark of brotherhood, and yet how often to 
find only bewilderment. 

I had not thought of saying all this. There is a glory in 
autumn woods. It must mean well. 1 hope that you all feel 
the freshness and the power of the summer. 



TO HIS YOUNGEST SON 
(In Mr. \Vhitcla\v\s House at Rugby; 

CAMHKinr.K, i^th Sunday after Trinity, 18X9. 

My dear Basil Let me add my good wishes to all the 
other good wishes on your birthday. \Ve were very much 
uleased to hear of the Divinity Prize. 1 had no idea that 
there was anything of the kind in prospect. It is a good 
omen for your work with Mr. Whitelaw, and no\v you will be 
able to make some returns to him for his boundless kindness. 

I had hoped to send you the small selections from Brown- 



ix WESTMINSTER 67 

ing, but you must take this as a promissory note. The book 
shall come in time. It is one of those which I commonly 
carry about with me. I will mark the titles of a few favourites. 
Mr. Whitelaw is as great an admirer of Browning as I am. 

You will have heard that G. and F. started off happily. 
K. has had a Winchester cross made for mamma, with the 
hair of the four absent brothers and their initials. Love to 
Brooke and kindest remembrance to Mr. Whitelaw. Ever 
your most affectionate father, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

All Saints' Eve, 1889. 

. . . Do you not think that it would be well for - to 
use (within some limits) the treasures of Lambeth ? I was 
greatly impressed by the sight of Cranmer's commonplace 
book. Could he make some preliminary investigations for 
the terrible and most instructive history of the reign of 
Edward VI. ? That the English Church escaped that period 
seems to me the most convincing proof of God's care for it. ... 

Your example will, I hope, lead clerical meetings to discuss 
social questions. At present we can hardly go further. There 
are few books, I fear, to recommend. But what is required 
is that we should feel that the Faith has something to say to 
Ethics and to do ... 

My letters (in the old Trinity dialect) are " come for." 



To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

CAMKKIIHIE, .S7. Thomas' Day, 1889. 

My dear Dean I am bewildered. It had not even 
occurred to me that the morning sermon on the 2Qth would 
touch on Browning, as I seem to gather from your letter. If 
the Precentor is able to preach, I feel that he is the right 
person to preach in any case. It would violate my deepest 
feelings in such a matter for any one else even to seem to 

1 (Christ) shall shine upon thee (Eph. v. 14). 



68 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



say, " Let me do for you a very difficult task." Every member 
of our body ought to be held to be the best man for the work 
which falls to him. And as to Browning, I feel scarcely less 
strongly that you are the only person who ought to say the 
few words which require to be spoken in our name. You 
will understand, I am sure, what I mean ; and I have spoken 
my whole mind. If the Precentor feels unable to preach, and 
asks you to find a deputy, and .you can find no better, I will 
do my best ; but I could not possibly write to the Precentor 
myself, because I believe in an office, and have seen in 
experience that he who has a work given him does it best, if 
he believes, not in himself, but in his work. Forgive all this, 
but it belongs to the very foundations of my life. How I 
grieve to add one slightest question to your cares. Ever yours 
most sincerely, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

CAMBRIDGE, ^th February 1890. 

You will feel, I hope, in many ways how all hearts are with 
you to-day. It is the beginning of a decisive act in the history 
of our Church, and I cannot think that God will leave unvindi- 
cated His servants who trust in Him. 

(On Old Testament Criticism) 

CAMr.Rinc.K, 4//i March 1890. 

The picture which you draw is sad, but I too, in my way, 
know that it is true. We want and I know that I want, 
which is something a living faith. When we are quite sure 
that God is speaking now and He is speaking we shall not 
grow wild in discussing how He once spoke. 

I have purposely refrained from reading Litx Afitudi, but I 
am quite sure that our Christian faith ought not to be perilled 
on any predetermined view of what the history and character 
of the documents contained in the O.T. must be. What we 
are bound to hold is that the O.T., substantially as we receive 
it, is the Divine record of the discipline of Israel. This it 



ix WESTMINSTER 69 

remains, whatever criticism may determine or leave undeter- 
mined as to constituent parts. No one now, I suppose, holds 
that the first three chapters of Genesis, for example, give a 
literal history I could never understand how any one reading 
them with open eyes could think they did yet they disclose 
to us a Gospel. So it is probably elsewhere. Are we not 
going through a trial in regard to the use of popular language 
on literary subjects like that through which we went, not 
without sad losses, in regard to the use of popular language 
on physical subjects? If you feel now that it was, to speak 
humanly, necessary that the Lord should speak of the "sun 
rising," it was no less necessary that He should use the names 
"Moses" and "David" as His contemporaries used them. 
There was no critical question at issue. (Poetry is, I think, 
a thousand times more true than History : this is a private 
parenthesis for myself alone.) As far as I can judge, the 
young High Church party need patient discipline, and they 
are quite out of sympathy with the generation above. It will 
be most disastrous if for want of loving sympathy they are 
driven to revolt . 



TO HIS ELDEST DAUGHTER (MRS. E. G. KlNG) 

loth May 1890. 

... I have already had a letter addressed : Mr. B. F. 
Dunelm (which is flattering to my caligraphy at least). 

The following letters, written to the Hon. Victoria 
Lady Welby, cover a period of about twenty years, 
but it has seemed best to keep them in connected 
series. Lady Welby says by way of introduction : 

" My intercourse and correspondence with the Bishop 
originally arose from reading his Commentary on St. 
John's Gospel at Algiers in 1880. In this study it 
came home to me with special force that beyond the 
scholar, beyond the theologian, beyond even the saint, 



70 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

there was revealed a thinker of spiritual insight in a 
deeper than mystical sense, as ' mystical ' is usually 
understood and used. 

" I was myself then engaged in revising and arrang- 
ing the collection of notes and extracts from letters 
which were afterwards published as Links and Clues. 

" As the letters abundantly show, my appeal to Dr. 
Westcott for help in what I felt to be a hazardous 
undertaking met with a most generous response, in a 
spirit of rare humility. No trouble seemed too great, 
no time too precious to be bestowed on work, however 
crude, that, in his eyes, touched on the deeper issues of 
life. No words of mine indeed could express the 
reverent thankfulness which I must always feel for the 
way in which he met a mode of thinking which must 
often have jarred upon the scholar's ear, and which 
even then included elements necessarily strange to any 
received system of religious interpretation. 

"It can only here be added that the subjects on 
which our interviews and correspondence alike turned 
brought out with peculiar emphasis his deep sense of 
the difficulties inherent in giving, as it were, the thoughts 
of the morning after the darkness, in the language of 
the evening before it. He saw very clearly that many 
true things remained to be said which could not be 
rightly and safely said by responsible teachers so long 
as, from the present conditions of language and from 
the pressure of inherited usage, they must suggest 
misleading associations. 

" Thus much that the Bishop actually said or wrote 
is inevitably for most of us somewhat hard to interpret 
by current or conventional standards. But to me at 
all events this seemed to be ultimately due not to failure, 
but to achievement : he saw more than it is yet possible 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 71 



in any fully definite form to express. And those who 
are aware of this, and of what it implies, must feel that 
this really prophetic, this more than predictive element 
in the Bishop's thought may well become clearer in 
days to come, when we shall have learnt more perfectly 
to distinguish between that which is but passing form 
and that which is of living and enduring value." 

i6th October 1880. 

The Bishop of Peterborough has informed me of your most 
interesting work, and of your opinion that I might perhaps be 
of some service in connexion with some details in it. I need 
hardly say that I shall be very glad to offer such an opinion 
as I may be able upon any points which you may be pleased 
to submit to me. . . . 

Vjth October 1880. 

I look forward with deep interest to the opportunity of 
reading your Essay. We need indeed no teachers, but the 
Bible and the Spirit of God, who is speaking to us in social 
and individual life. Our loss is that too often we cannot 
believe and act as believers that the Holy Spirit is actually 
speaking to us. ... 

6th November 1880. 

The office of critic is a very light and a very agreeable one. 
I agree most heartily, I need not say so, with your great lines 
of thought, and do not doubt that the mode in which you 
present the different points will bring them out with power to 
very many. The end of writing is, I imagine, to help others 
to make truth their own. 

One or two details seemed to me to be worth remark, 
which I may be allowed to notice : 

P. [. "Resist not evil,'' Matt. v. 39. It is very likely that 
the word here is masculine: "the evil man." 
The thought is suggestive. 
,, " Prayer." The Divine conception lies in John xv. 7. 



72 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

P. 2. "The wrath to come." The primary meaning, the 
judgment on unbelieving Israel, is important for 
the universal sense. 

"Which shall not be manifested." The exact lan- 
guage in St. Mark iv. 2 2 is most remarkable. There 
is a divine purpose of revelation even in the 
hiding. 

P. 6. "Once by . . . always by ... God." I do not 
feel sure that I understand these words, which 
are, I think, ambiguous. It is important to make 
it quite clear that all union of man with God is 
in the Son the Son of Man. 

P. 8. I should shrink from saying that "there must have 
been sin," as distinct from the possibility of sin, 
which is included in fmiteness. I have endea- 
voured to give reasons why the discipline of finite- 
ness was adequate, in my little book on the 
Resurrection. 

P. 9. "CalLd him friend." It is important to distinguish 
the word used here, which expresses only com- 
panionship, from that used in St. John xv. 13. 
The difference is suggestive. 

P. 14. "Thou hast the words of . . /' It is a slight point 
yet significant that the original only gives "words" 
without the definite article. 

These are very small things, yet there is indeed nothing 
small in Scripture. Every syllabic, as Origen said, has, I 
believe, its force, and the words are living words for us. 

You will, I trust, be able to reach many who would regard 
with suspicion those whose work it is to study divine things. 
The full thought of God as Love and Fire on which you 
dwell is that which is able to bring hope and peace to us 
when we dare in faith to look at the world as it is. Again 
and again the marvellous succession rises : ( lud is spirit light 
love : our ( lod is a consuming lire. 



1880. 



1 have the pleasure of sending a second fragment of the 
MS., which I have continued to read with deep interest and 



!\ 



WESTMINSTER 73 



pleasure. If 1 may select any section, perhaps I may say 
that the analysis of pure " childlikeness " seemed to me to be 
singularly complete and suggestive. 

The section on " Faith " may, I hope, be reconsidered. 
The conception is one of great difficulty and importance, 
and our interpretation of common words varies. But it is 
scarcely right to put "pistis" and " pistos " (apistos) in 
direct parallelism. The word " faithfulness," as it would be 
understood by most English readers, would not, as far as I 
can judge, convey the idea of " pistis " in the cardinal phrases 
"justified by" or "through faith": still less in such con- 
nexions as Hebrews xi. Nor again does it seem to me to 
convey that notion of personal devotion and self- surrender 
to that which is recognised as higher and nobler which you 
rightly claim for "pistis.'' 

November 1880. 

Your last note expresses the essential thought of the differ- 
ence between faith and faithfulness to which I wished to 
point. Faith when it becomes a power in a man must issue 
in faithfulness : faithfulness is the vital expression of faith, 
but it presupposes it. The man of faith (pistos] is necessarily 
faithful ; and he (not pistis) forms the opposite to apistos, 
The great truth on which you insist will, I believe, be 
strengthened by the distinction between the power (faith) 
and the manifestation of the power (faithfulness) in relation 
to Him to whom faith is directed, and by whose life it lives. 
I feel that it is quite sufficient to have said so much. You 
will decide whether the way of presenting the teaching of 
Holy Scriptures which I try to mark is just. 

With regard to the phrase the " two Mes," it may be 
enough to add the qualifying clause which you give. The 
passage of Augustine observes the universal rule of Catholic 
writers in distinguishing two natures in one "Me" (person). 
We very soon find ourselves lost in mysteries here; but 
remembering St. John's emphatic " I " as including both the 
divine and human natures of the Incarnate Lord, I always 
prefer to speak of "the two aspects of the Lord's divine- 
human Person," or to use some such phrase. By this mode 
of expression the most precious fact of the unity of the 



74 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Lord's Person is guarded, and yet we are enabled to regard 
Him as truly man and truly God. 

I \th December 1880. 

I am extremly glad that the difficulty as to the rearrange- 
ment of the thoughts on Faith has been so happily removed. 
It would have been most undesirable to alter that which had 
been found of use, and yet I do not think that you did full 
justice to your ideas. 

You speak with so much kindness of my little books that 
I venture to send one tiny one which is not likely to fall in 
your way. I am told that it has been found serviceable, and 
I am sure that you will sympathise with the thoughts which 
I have endeavoured to suggest. 

20/k March 1881. 

I am very glad that your book is so near completion. 
May it find a hearty welcome, and, what you will value far 
more, may it bring light to many ! 

I have written to the Bishop of Durham, but I do not 
know his address at present. If you think that such a refer- 
ence as you propose to make will be of the least service, I 
cannot but rejoice to express my sympathy with your work. 
I would only ask on my own account that the words "of 
almost priceless value " may be omitted. I cannot imagine 
any way in which the time which is given me could be better 
used than in the endeavour to make truth in the least degree 
clearer. 

i,v Apr i! iSSi. 

I have heard from the Bishop of Durham, who has been 
on a confirmation tour in Northumberland, and he instructs 
me to say that you are at full liberty to make the representa- 
tion which you propose if you think it desirable, with the 
omission of the words (of almost priceless value) to which I 
ventured to call attention. 

May I express my hearty thanks to you for your con- 
gratulations on our son's success. The kindness of friends 
on this occasion makes one feel more than ever how real the 
unity of life is in joy or in sorrow. This is what we most 



ix WESTMINSTER 75 

require to feel commonly and not only in exceptional 
moments. 



une 1 88 1. 

I have read with great interest, though only too hastily, 
the slips which you have kindly sent me. " But I say unto 
you " expresses exactly one of my deepest convictions as I 
should try to express it. There is only one short paragraph 
which is open to misunderstanding, I think, in "Suggestions," 
a paragraph in slip 120 beginning "Think of the hand as 
Good . . . ," and ending "Goodness is one." 

It seems to me that the use of the abstract "Goodness," 
which answers to "Godhead" and not "God," is dangerous 
I should be inclined to say that the conception of God as 
Love complete and self-sufficing includes a Trinity. We 
cannot, as far as I see, think of love without (so to speak) 
subject, object, and uniting power. 

The thought is Augustine's. What you say of the 
" Monadic " conception of God is, I think, most just. You 
would be interested by what Martensen in his Dogmatics 
says on the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity. 

I trust that your thoughts may stir many thoughts that 
will be to bring first patience and then peace. 

jO//i /uly 1881. 

\\ hen I came home late last night from the most anxious 
v. rk of the Ecclesiastical Courts Commission, I found the 
welcome of your most kind present. The form in which Mr. 
Macmillan has outwardly clothed it is not, I think, unworthy. 
May you know, with the deep sense of blessing, that the 
' links " help to bind many lives and many hearts together 
in truer harmony, and that the "clues" encourage many 
thoughtful minds to follow new tracks which lead to a larger 
apprehension of the Truth, in Whom, as in When, all that is 
practical finds completeness and reconciliation ! 

4//i August 1881. 

. . . The lessons of Ecclesiastes sound now day by day 
sadly in our ears, but there is something beyond that sad cry 
of despairing weariness. 



;6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Wi August 1 88 1. 

... I confess that I was glad to read the call of Jeremiah 
this afternoon after Ecclesiastes. I can see only a very 
little way into the darkness of that book and of the book of 
Job. But for us darkness is a necessity. 

lot A August 1 88 1. 

Your note this morning was most welcome, for I could 
not but feel some anxiety lest you might suffer from the 
fatigue of a most hurried journey, and a conversation neces- 
sarily broken, in which many thoughts could hardly find 
expression. 

It did not for a moment occur to me that what you said 
most truly of the infirmities and temporal accidents of human 
interpretations of the Truth could be extended to those who 
in Divine Providence have preserved the original records of 
it. As we are enabled we each hear them speak still in our 
own tongue ; but their utterance so it seems to me never 
changes. 

I was anxious to ask you not only to interpret the thoughts 
of spiritual things being independent in themselves of the 
limitations of time and space under which we necessarily 
embody them, but also to work out more fully the Scriptural 
view of the difference between the effects of the Death and of 
the Blood of Christ. There is, I believe, a very fine Jewish 
saying " that the foundation, the essence of sacrifice is the 
sprinkling of the blood." When this idea is made clear I 
fancy that many will find light on what seems dark. 

It is indeed a perilous privilege to have one's work centred 
in Holy Scripture. Those to whom it is given need help on 
every side, and I cannot but thank- you again for the help 
which you have given. 

\2th August 1 88 1. 

May 1 so far disobey your words as at least to thank you 
for the most interesting note which you enclosed? I had 
never before connected Joshua xxiv. 27 with Luke xix. 40. 
For the rest, is it not always, must it not be always, that 
thoughts are given to us to make our own or not? Of our- 
selves we cannot reach the unseen and eternal. 



ix WESTMINSTER 77 

Of all the changes in the R.V. that in Luke xxi. 19 is the 
one to which perhaps I look with most hope. We think of 
our souls as something given to us complete, and not as 
something given to us to win. 

26/// September iSSi. 

Allow me to thank you for your kindness in sending me 
the extracts from the Spectator and the thoughts on Life and 
Death. 

There is an ambiguity in the use of the words "hate," 
"sin," "sins" which causes misunderstanding, and has done 
so, I think, in the review. I hate or love what I apprehend 
to be the true indivisible person. I cannot hate and love 
the same person at the same time. I condemn, it may be, 
certain acts of his, certain elements in him, but I do not there- 
fore hate him. I can however hate " the sin " of which he 
has admitted the influence, so far as I regard it as the mani- 
festation of a power which is certainly not the man. Sin is 
separable from man because it is not of his essence, as he 
was made in the image of God. 

There is very much in the thoughts on Life and Death 
which is true and precious, but the statements seem to me 
to require careful guarding. The line of thought for the 
most part requires " death " to be taken as coequal to " the 
mature close of a fulfilled life." This death in its actual cir- 
cumstances is not for us. The fruit is gathered unripe, 
bruised, to our eyes wasted, nay, the fruit commonly is not 
allowed to form. The sadness of death is that it breaks 
into and breaks off work. From Genesis to the Apocalypse 
death, as it is, is always, I think, regarded as the issue of sin. 
The Resurrection seems to me to be the image of the transi- 
tion of man unfallen to the higher life. And this is the 
Revelation of the Gospel. Death, terrible as it is in its actual 
circumstances, is transfigured. Meanwhile we must work 
under the conditions of the present. We dare not hasten 
death. Our New Year's greeting must not be that our 
friend is a year nearer to death. It is enough that we offer 
ourselves wholly to do and to suffer till the end. Being what 
we are, we can only be made perfect, through sufferings, yet 
the suffering is grievous in proportion as we see its true 



78 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



nature and necessity. The two sides of the Truth find their 
absolute expression in John xvii. and Mark xiv. 32, which 
followed, greatest of mysteries. 

Our acceptance of your kind invitation must be delayed. 
My holiday time has just come to an end and Cambridge 
work is pressing now. 

On a remarkable piece of Saxon sculpture the other day 1 
saw a most significant arrangement of scenes from the Lord's 
Life. The Infant in the manger pointed to by human 
spectators was next to the Risen Lord borne aloft by angels. 
This expresses your thought in a symbol. In the same 
sculpture the Crucifixion was represented simply by a lamb 
laid unbound upon a cross. Surely the workman was more 
than a poet. 

7/,v March 1882. 

The one remark which I should venture to make in refer- 
ence to your Exposition of the symbolism of fire is that, as far 
as I remember, fire describes the action of the Divine Nature 
not in itself but relatively to man as he is, that is, fallen. 

"God is spirit, light, love," and then "our God is con- 
suming fire." The difference of expression seems to me to 
be significant. I always think that the three other sentences 
include all that we ever know of God as He is. Light and 
love include all that is suggested by fire without the need of 
purification. Indeed, the more one reflects on the triad, the 
more full of depths of meaning does it become. In thinking 
over this first Epistle of St. John, it has necessarily come 
much before me. To pass from such thoughts to " Ecclesi- 
tical Courts " is a trial which must be borne : good may 
come from this labour. Those who love our Church will not 
foret the task of those who have to bear it. 



I had the pleasure of some long conversations with Mr. 
and Mrs. Shorthouse last Easter. Mrs. Shorthouse, I fancy, 
inspired much of John Inglescwt : her criticism would be 
scarcely less valuable than her husband's. 

It is very encouraging that Links and Clues has found a 
universal welcome. 1 did not doubt thai it would. We 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 79 



are all feeling towards the same end. Unhappily we turn 
scaffolding into fences. 

The future of women may well cause deep anxiety. Their 
power is incalculable. My seven boys teach me what a 
mother and sister mean. 

I hope that you may have followed the old fashion of 
putting a motto over the door of your new home. Psalm 
cxxi. 8, interpreted by John x. 9, is a promise for work and 
for rest. 

$\st July 1882. 

You must not thank me for any suggestions which I may 
be enabled to offer ; still less think that I deserve praise for 
the spirit of patient w r aiting. The Truth seems to me to be 
so overwhelmingly vast and manifold that I shrink from 
drawing any outline except provisionally, lest I should exclude 
something or add something in opposition to Divine teaching. 
The womanly office is surely not the type of the Divine 
effluence itself, but of the reception of the Divine, and of the 
fitting it for action on the sphere of earth among men. 

The other two notes are, I think, quite true. By dwelling 
on the formation of Christ in the believer I wished specially 
to point to the consecration and transfiguration of the indi- 
vidual man, not as if the whole Christ (so to speak) were 
realised in any one, but Christ according to the measure of 
each. Thus every believer in his degree may be understood 
to contribute to the realisation of "the fulness" of Him who 
finds fulfilment in all. 

I do not think that I should be inclined to accept the 
estimate of the writings of the so-called " Hermes Trisme- 
gistus " given in the review. The writings which bear the 
name of Dionysius the Areopagite, of which I gave some 
account in the Contemporary Review for 1867, are far more 
important. 

^pth January 1883. 

I must have failed to convey my meaning if 1 seemed to 
question in any way the universality of the Lord's Presence. 
It is the localising, i.e. of necessity the materialising, of His 
Presence which seems to me to be most perilous, and I should 



8o LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

shrink from any form of words and act of worship which 
countenances this localisation. " Clasp me not, for I am not 
yet ascended." 

I do not think that I understand the meaning of " adoration 
of the consecrating gift." I shrink again from separating the 
Gift and the Giver. The Lord gives nothing apart from Him- 
self. The famous mystical aphorism, " Thou needest me even 
as I need Thee," always seems to me to be full of danger. 

The revelation of God as love seems to describe the internal 
fulness of infinite (Tripersonal) life to which the finite cannot 
add anything. 

Perhaps your thought, if I rightly apprehend it, would be 
expressed by " . . . not to adoration of Him who offers Him- 
self through that which He consecrates." The "for" in the 
address to Mary needs and will repay much pondering. 

Wi February 1883. 

It does not seem to me that St. John iii. 16 touches the 
question at issue. The words there deal with the act of the 
Father's sacrifice, the one Gift which He made historically. 
Just- as the Son is said to have given Himself. Once the 
manifestation has been made in time and space that men may 
realise it spiritually. Is not that the meaning of, "It is 
expedient for you that I go away " ? It is the fashion now to 
depreciate Hooker, but I cannot go one line beyond his teach- 
ing on the Holy Communion. But I must not or rather I 
need not write more. You will see the point which I wish 
to guard, and I think that you wish to guard it too. 

i.v/ March 1884. 

I have at length been able to read, though only hastily, 
your notes on St. John. This I have done with the greatest 
interest. They express admirably thoughts which I wished 
to suggest, and seem, as far as I can judge, to bring into 
prominence aspects of Truth which may be helpful. 

My doubt as to a periodical made up of pregnant fragments 
comes from such experience as I have had of the general 
unwillingness of readers to pause for thought. If one or two 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 81 



suggestive paragraphs could be separated by some space which 
should constrain the reader to linger over them, then it would 
be well. But this end can only be gained, I think, if at all, 
in a book to which we turn again and again. As you allow 
me, I will keep the notes on St. John ; for Mrs. Westcott, who 
is away from home, will be glad to see them. 

Pardon this most hasty and unworthy note. I did not 
wish to meet the full pressure of another work till I had 
thanked you in some way. 

61 kj io ic 1884. 

If I could fill the Crucifix with life as you do I would 
gladly look on it, but the fallen Head and the closed Eye 
exclude from my thought the idea of glorified humanity. 
The Christ to whom we are led is One who " hath been 
crucified," who hath passed through the trial victoriously and 
borne the fruits to Heaven. I dare not then rest on this side 
of the glory. 

ibtk October 1885. 

I have read the Questions which you kindly sent me with 
great interest. They suggest thoughts which cannot but be 
helpful. Can copies of them be obtained ? I should like 
to place them in the hands of some of my more reflective 
hearers here. 

What can I say as to your letters on St. John ? As far as 
I have any voice in the matter, I cannot but be glad that 
teaching which I hold to be most true and needful should 
find an attractive interpreter. I have not, however, any right 
to use the notes except in a possible edition with the Greek 
text for which I have made preparation ; but I feel sure that 
Mr. Murray would be glad to give you the fullest permission 
to use what you may want. 

There are some points brought out in connexion with the 
Epistles which are required, I think, for a fairly complete 
exhibition of St. John's teaching for us. The Gospel of 
Creation is, it seems to me, the central foundation-stone of 
the structure of Truth for us. 

I should shrink from writing anything in the way of preface. 
It would be wholly unnecessary and obtrusive. But if you 

VOL II. G 



82 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

think that it would be of any use, I could in the Christmas 
vacation I expect to be at Westminster in January read 
the MS. 

I grieve to hear of your continued suffering. But if we are 
true scholars we can learn however we are taught. 

I am writing from an examination room, so you will 
pardon me. 

2nd January 1886. 

The letters have reached me quite safely, and I hope to 
make them part of my Sunday reading. Perhaps we may 
hope to realise some day that the five senses are not the 
measure of the universe, nor even of our universe. But the 
marvels which they can discern occupy us more and more. 

$th February 1886. 

I feel very guilty that I have kept your notes so long, but 
my month at Westminster was a time of absorbing engage- 
ments, and I could hardly give to them the time I wanted. 
However, I have very little to say in detail. 

I know very little of the Expositor, but as far as I can 
judge it has a wide and healthy influence. When the editor 
asked for my last August Sermons I did not hesitate as to 
sending them, since one or two had been printed without 
authority. And I think that you would find an appreciative 
body of readers for detached thoughts. Indued, I think that 
writing in fragments is perhaps the most effective way of 
writing, if the object is as it surely must be to stir others 
to quiet reflection. I have therefore no doubt as to my 
answer. 

2O/.4 I^cbniary 1886. 

Your notes have been kept far too long, and I find that it 
is vain to keep them longer in the hope of reading parts of 
them again more carefully. 

As far as I can judge, you have brought out and illustrated 
very effectively the thoughts which I was most anxious to 
suggest. I have therefore very little to offer in the way of 
criticism in addition to the grateful acknowledgment of the 
great pains which you have taken in enforcing lessons which I 



ix WESTMINSTER 83 

had left often only as hints. One or two small ^ points 
struck me : 

P. 8. The close of the "Curse of Kehama " itself might be 
quoted: again and again I have turned to the 
passage. As to the di'ioOtr in St. John iii. 3, I still 
prefer the rendering "anew" to "from above." 
It seems to include and transcend the alternative 
rendering : others, I know, think differently. 

P. 1 8. I should shrink from speaking directly of "the Son 
of Man " as in heaven before the Incarnation. 
He who became Incarnate in time was in heaven 
in His unchanged and unchangeable personality. 
That is enough for us. The Incarnation brought 
no modification to His Person. 

P. 24, v. 28. I am not sure that I understand "animal 
organism." 

P. 46. My most serious difficulty is as to the symbolism 
of fire. Fire seems to me always to have relation 
to something perishable w r hich has to be removed. 
So it is that while in the other cases it is said 
" God is . . .," in this case it is said " Our God is 
. . .," i.e. in relation to us sinful, corrupted crea- 
tures in need of purification through chastening. 

These are very tiny remarks. You will at least accept 
them as an expression of most hearty sympathy with the great 
lines of your thoughts. 

22nd March iSS6. 

I have read with far more sorrow 7 than surprise the letters of 
Mr. Jukes which you have kindly sent to me. Criticisms of 
the kind have been common in all ages. As hard things were 
said by good men of the labours of Jerome, Erasmus, and the 
Revisers of 1611 as have been said of their successors. The 
Spirit of God has hitherto answered them by the life of His 
Church, and I have not the least doubt He will answer them 
so still. Mr. Jukes has singular gifts of spiritual insight and 
spiritual sympathy. But he has not the scholar's instinct, and 
he has not had the scholar's training. The conception which 
he has of the work of textual criticism is amazing. There are 



84 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



unquestionably variations of readings in Greek MSS., sup- 
ported, too, by every possible variety of evidence. At some 
point or other every one must be in doubt as to the true text 
unless we claim immediate inspiration and when the principle 
is admitted all else is of degree. To speak of the two cases 
noticed, I do not know how to ascertain the judgments of 
the early Church as to the arrangement of the Sacred Books 
but by documentary evidence. This connects the Catholic 
Epistles with the Acts by simply overwhelming authority, and, 
with all respect to Mr. Jukes, as I believe, with true spiritual 
judgment. Again, the question as to words from the Cross 
is not whether they are spoken by the Lord that I hold 
most certainly but whether they formed part of the original 
Gospel of St. Luke a very different question. I believe that 
the Lord said that "it is more blessed to give than to receive," 
but I am not tempted to introduce the words into a Gospel. 
No fulness of religious power can justify any one in saying 
what the record of Revelation shall be. The world is not 
what I should have expected, nor the Church, nor the Bible. 
But no disappointment leads me to distrust the process by 
which God has been pleased to enable me to study each 
manifestation of Himself honestly. It was my privilege to 
read for ten years with Dr. Scrivener, to learn his reasons as 
well as his conclusions. No one honours his single-minded 
devotion to Biblical study more than I do, but it would be 
positively ridiculous to compare the thought which he has 
spent on criticism with that which Dr. Hort has spent upon 
it. And here I must protest against any one endeavouring 
to separate my judgment from Dr. Hort's. Except when I 
have recorded dissent, I agree heartily and independently with 
every critical conclusion in the revised text. The repeated 
processes of over thirty-five years have more and more con- 
vinced me of their absolute general truth. 1 should be the 
last to rate highly textual criticism ; but it is a little gift which 
from school days seemed to be committed to me. I have 
tried to put it to account, and certainly it has been my joy to 
find in almost every result which I have been forced to main- 
tain as true, a new source of light. So it will be while the 
world lasts. 



,x WESTMINSTER 85 

Our greatest danger now is and I speak with knowledge 
which is unusually wide from the tendeney of devout believers 
to identify their own views with the Divine Truth as to the 
Written Word. I hear opinions maintained which I am sure 
cannot be maintained justly. I do in my heart believe that 
every syllable of Holy Scripture, as Origen said, has its work ; 
but I hope I may be saved from the presumption of saying, 
"It is this, this only." 

I am grieved that any of these critical questions should 
trouble you. It has been my duty to give a large part of my 
life to them as affecting the New Testament, and at least with 
the result that there I feel absolutely sure, having tried every 
word. 

2-jth March 1886. 

I am grieved that my writing should have caused you any 
difficulty. I remember well looking at the offending word, 
but I decided that it was legible. The word is "processes." 
I wished to say that during long and varied work I had been 
led to examine questions of text from many different points 
of sight and by many methods, now historically and now 
critically, from the side of usage and from the side of inter- 
pretation, and on the whole I have always been led to the 
same result, that the most ancient text is in every way the 
best. Again and again I have found a first disappointment 
changed into a gain. Here as elsewhere God deals with us 
as men, and requires us to use with absolute devotion every 
point of human discipline in His service. I have learnt some 
of my most precious lessons from those who would hold 
themselves to be bitter opponents. 

I think that the notes might be made most useful papers. 
All I would suggest would be that my part should be placed 
in the background. If you called the paper "Some Thoughts 
from the Gospel of St. John," the title would be more true 
and in every way better. I have always heard Good Words 
spoken of most highly. 

e 1886. 



I do not expect to be at Westminster till the end of July 
for my residence in August. Just now I am so tired and 



86 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

good-for-nothing that I must get some rest to prepare for the 
Abbey. The congregations there move me more than I can 
express, and I feel a corresponding desire to say some words 
which may guide those who are eager to learn the Holy 
Scripture and its message to us. 

Your note came unaccompanied by any paper. You will 
sympathise at least with the title of the sermon which I 
venture to send. I am ashamed to trouble you with it. 



Ilthjune 1886. 

Let me thank you most heartily for the papers. I do not 
see the Spectator, and so the parable is new to me. It is as 
if Andersen had brought his genius to theology. There is no 
lesson more needed than that our five senses do not measure 
being. And our senses, how different they are in power ! 
What Butler heard, Seeker could not hear. 

2j//i December 1886. 

I wish that I had a lecture here which I wrote on the 
subject, and then I could give you an answer in words not 
written to meet any question, but just the simple expression 
of independent conviction. But indeed you will anticipate 
all I can say. I am utterly unable to form a conception of 
"order" except as the expression (for me) of a Divine will. 
And Scripture teaches me that a miracle is essentially a 
"sign" of the Divine presence which I can recognise. It 
must then be in perfect harmony with the Divine will seen as 
" order," for that will is one, though we regard it in parts. 
Surely the very word " sign " so long obscured is a perfect 
answer to the question which you propose. The sign must 
agree with the character of Him whom it indicates. That it 
appears singular to us is simply a warning that we do not 
know all. Under this aspect Babbugc's famous illustration 
from a mathematical series is, I think, as far as it goes, 
perfectly just. 

22.nd December 1887. 

Let me thank you most heartily for remembering me at 
this Christmas time. I rejoice that your words find such 



ix WESTMINSTER 87 

wide and varied welcome. They must bear fruit. As the 
years go on I seem to feel more and more that a revelation 
in life will alone meet our present questionings. We must 
show that our faith is powerful. I cannot tell whether the 
sight of East London or West London is to me more depress- 
ing. And still the message of Christmas can transfigure 
both. . . . We now hope, but when our hearts fail us the 
lesson of this morning comes with fresh strength. We in our 
thinking see no way, and God, who is greater than our 
hearts, says "My thoughts are not as your thoughts." So we 
can be still and wait. 



Let me thank you for your note and the enclosed papers, 
which I have read with great interest. No one, as you know, 
can believe more firmly than I do that we are living in a 
time of revelation, and that the teachings of physical science 
are to be for us what Greek literature was in the twelfth 
century. But I think that we are in more real danger from 
impatience than from blindness. I do not think, as far as 
my experience has gone, that there is any unwillingness on 
the part of our responsible teachers to listen to new tidings, 
but there is serious peril lest in our haste we should take the 
signs for the truth itself. Does it seem to you that many 
appear to regard the phenomena of the outer world as the 
very type of reality, and the knowledge which we gain of 
these as the type of knowledge ? To me, I confess, they are 
no more than shadows, witnessing to that which casts them 
shadows which we must reach, but existing only in virtue of 
the substance which lies beyond. You will at once feel all 
I mean. So again with regard to the Bible, I cannot forget 
that the Old Testament substantially as we have it was the 
Bible of the Lord and the Apostles. That is a fact of 
momentous importance. How it came to be is a question 
of deep interest, but secondary. Dr. King it greatly in- 
terested us to see that you know our son-in-law's book puts 
the truth admirably : the Temple is that in which we 
worship ; the stones of which it is built may have come from 
many quarries, and even from earlier buildings. Whatever 
we have to learn, and our lessons are limited only by our 



88 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

powers, I see no likelihood that we shall have to change one 
syllable of our two Creeds. Whatever men have found to 
kindle hope lies all in the few syllables, "the Word became 
flesh," and I cannot conceive anything which can go beyond 
it. But it lies itself beyond the region of experiment, and 
yet for us, as it seems, it is necessarily true when we look out 
over life as it is made known to us. . . . 

Mrs. Westcott desires most specially to thank you for the 
little poem. I like to recall the touching incident of the late 
Bishop of Lincoln seeking very shortly before his death the 
blessing of his infant grandchild, whose hands, at his request, 
were laid upon his head. 

Shall you not gather up your scattered parables into a 
volume ? They would speak to many anxious souls. 

6th May 1890. 

It was at the time a disappointment to us that you could 
not be seen to be with us on St. Philip's Day. But in the 
Service I think that every one felt that the departed and the 
absent, as we speak, were really nearest. The solemn calm 
which filled the Abbey touched every one deeply. I need 
not ask you to think of my work, which now must take new 
forms. This you will not fail to do ; and may God bless 
more and more abundantly the gifts of insight and influence 
which He has given you for the fuller realisation of His 
counsels of wise and righteous love ! 

l6//i April 1892. 

Let me wish you every blessing in your most interesting 
gathering. In Cambridge days I found by experience how 
good it was for men of different studies to speak freely 
together. Physicists are beginning, I think, to recognise 
that they deal only with abstractions, and that such a fact as 
the Incarnation is alone able to give reality to human know- 
ledge. May the light of Easter be over all your communings ! 

yd May 1893. 

Your letter is most touching and full of hope. No one, I 
think, could possibly guide one who feels the need of the 



IX 



WESTMINSTER 89 



childly mind more surely to its joy and peace than you can 
do. May you have the great privilege now ! 1 have always 
felt a tender regard for Professor Tyndall. We met many, 
many years ago, I think at Harrow, and in later times not 
infrequently as members of the Governing .Body of Harrow. 
I shall never forget a very simple remark of Professor Tyndall, 
which revealed the strange misunderstandings that often 
separate us. Some painful correspondence came before the 
Governors, and I quite casually expressed my sympathy with the 
sorrow of one who had put aside our faith. Professor Tyndall 
was surprised that I should so feel with one who had (as 1 
thought) wandered far away surprised, and yet greatly pleased. 
" 1 will tell him," he said, "what you say." 

All that can be done you can do, and may God bless you 
in the doing ! 

*]tk November 1896. 

Allow me to thank you for your most sympathetic note 
and the accompanying Essay. I hope to be able to read the 
Essay when I can secure a little leisure for quiet thought. 
The continual claims of necessary work at present fill all my 
time. 

I am obliged to confess, as you know, that I hold that 
our power of grasping and expressing Truth is very limited. 
We must affirm at once if we are to suggest what we dimly 
see "through a mirror in a riddle," but, as things are, action 
is for us an adequate interpreter. 

The published reports of the Charge which I have seen 
were more or less imperfect. Before long 1 hope to have 
the pleasure of sending you a fair copy of it. 

iS'h March 1899. 

You will understand how heartily I agree with the main 
thought which you illustrate and enforce. Perhaps I should 
place physical science on a lower level than you are inclined 
to assign to it. The validity which it has is due to abstrac- 
tions which are suggested by phenomena and not expressed 
by them. And further, I suppose that we all feel that to 
every statement based on our observation we must add "plus 
infinity." 



90 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP, ix 

We thought much of your great sorrow. I have had twice 
in the last three months to face the prospect of a sorrow like 
it ; but I cherish the faith, however unworthily, that even 
through the sorest losses, perhaps through the sorest most, 
the unchangeable and eternal is brought nearer to us. 

I wish that I could linger over these lessons ; but I have 
to prepare for a large gathering here this afternoon. . . . 

15/7; February 1900. 

Your work is of very great interest, but it raises very great 
difficulties of which account must be taken. It does not 
appear to me to be possible to combine parts of different 
Psalms into an apparent whole without great confusion of 
thought. An example at once presents itself in the combina- 
tion of Psalms xxiii. and xxiv. The break of thought between 
verses 6 and 7, which are printed as if they were continuous, 
is startling. It appears to me to be essential that there 
should be a break between passages taken from different 
Psalms. Every Psalm has its "motive," and it is a great loss 
to run one into another. 

The few words which you say in your letter would be a 
most sufficient and impressive preface without any words 
from another. Still, I will gladly say a few words if the 
Psalms are kept distinct. I should, however, in any case 
prefer your own words, which, if it must be, though I do not 
see why, may be anonymous. 

5/// June 1901. 

The help of friends has been wonderful, and I value yours 
very greatly. The heading of your letter 1 brings back the 
first eighteen years of our married life, full of hopes and 
efforts which have been crowned beyond possible expectation. 
The " fragments which remain " here as elsewhere are more 
than the provision for the feast. 

1 i I arrow. 



CHAPTER X 

DURHAM 

1890-1893 

AFTER the death of Bishop Lightfoot, the See of 
Durham remained unfilled for an unusually long period. 
Various explanations of this delay were current at the 
time, one of the more widely accepted being that the 
vacant See had been offered to my father and declined 
by him, the following months being spent in inducing 
him to reconsider his decision. This explanation is 
certainly not the true one, for he received no warning 
of the impending offer until 5th March, when he was 
filled with " conflicts of thought " by a letter from 
Archbishop Benson. To this he replied at once : 



CAMBRIDGE, yh Mairh 1890. 

My dear Archbishop I can say nothing, and I am utterly 
overwhelmed. If you knew my unutterable unfitness and 
weakness, you would not write as you do. For the present 
only pray //,?) e/'creveyKi/s cfc Trei/mtr/W. 1 If the trial comes, 
perhaps light will break. At present all is dark, utterly dark. 
May God guide you ! Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

1 Lead us not into temptation (or trial). 
91 



92 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

It had been the Queen's wish from the first that he 
should succeed his dear friend and colleague Bishop 
Lightfoot, and in a letter to the Archbishop dated so 
early as 3rd January Her Majesty had said, " I have 
understood that you consider Canon Westcott as the 
fittest successor to Bishop Lightfoot ? " 

On 6th March my father received a letter from 
Lord Salisbury saying 

I have the honour to inform you that Her Majesty has 
been pleased to signify her intention of nominating you to 
the vacant See of Durham, if you are disposed to accept the 
charge which will thus be placed upon you. 

Hereupon my father wrote again to the Archbishop : 
A note has come. Ae^flw/zcv eKrcveo-Te/oov. 2 B. F. W. 



This offer was indeed a sore trial to him. For 
some days he wrestled in prayer, noting in his text- 
book on the 8th that " light is breaking." On the 

o o 

I ith his decision was made, and he enters "OVKGTI, eyco," c 
and doubly underlines his two texts for the day, which 
were these : 

Jer. i. 8. Be not afraid of their faces : for I am with thee 
to deliver thee, saith the Lord. 

2 Cor. xii. 9. My grace is sufficient for thee : for my 
strength is made perfect in weakness. 

He then wrote to Lord Salisbury saying 

CAMHKIDGK, \\th March 1890. 

After considering most carefully the subject of your Lord- 
ship's letter, and taking the counsel of those friends whose 

1 Life of Archbishop Benson, ii. 293. 
- Let us pray more earnestly. " No longer I. 



x DURHAM 93 

judgment I ought to obey, 1 1 have the honour to inform 
your Lordship that I do not feel justified in declining the 
heavy charge which Her Majesty proposes to commit to me. 
I must therefore ask your Lordship to convey to Her Majesty 
my most dutiful acceptance of the office to which it is Her 
Majesty's gracious purpose to nominate me. 

I can only hope that I may be enabled, if I enter on the 
work, to fulfil it according to the full measure of my power in 
the spirit of the late Bishop. 



On the same day he wrote the following letters : 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

CAMHKIIK;B, \\tli March 1890. 

You will help me henceforth with double grace. I have 
obeyed what seems to be a clear voice. A most helpful note 
came from Davidson this morning, and I have just written to 
Lord Salisbury. 

The three verses which came in regular order to me this 
morning were Jer. xxix. u, Jer. i. 8, and 2 Cor. xii. 9. 

Could any promises meet the ease more completely ? 
Yes : HAYNAMISENA26ENEIATEAEIOYTAI. 2 

TO HIS ELDEST SON 

CAMHRIDC.E, \\th March 1890. 

My dear Brooke After anxious thought I have this 
morning accepted the Bishopric of Durham. If L could tell 
you the way in which the offer came you would, I am sure, 
feel that I was bound to obey "a clear call," even in evening 
time. In the prospect of such a charge every thought of 
fitness vanishes. There can be no fitness or un fitness, but 
simply absolute surrender. 1 think that 1 can offer all and 
God will use the offering. You and Basil will think of me 

1 In especial the late Archbishop of Canterbury (Benson), the Bishop of 
Winchester (Davidson), and Professor Ilort. 

2 Power is made perfect in weakness. 



94 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

in the prayer for the Clergy. You can tell Basil, but of 
course you will not speak to others of the nomination till it 
is announced. 

But I must say no more, and I have just been interrupted. 

May God give His blessing to His workers ! Ever your 
most affectionate father, B. F. WESTCOTT. 



The appointment, which was announced on the 
i 3th, was received with a general chorus of approval, 
although in some quarters it was regretted that the 
offer had come so late, and fears were expressed that 
the new Bishop might not in his few remaining years 
find strength for the performance of his arduous duties. 
He was now in his sixty-sixth year and was called to 
carry on the final labours of one who had been his 
pupil : but in a spirit of absolute self- surrender he 
devoted all that he was and had to this last work. 

The following letters are an indication of the spirit 
in which he was prepared to face the hard future : 



TO HIS ELDEST SON 

CAMBRIDGE, izth March 1890. 

One word only. I rejoice that you think it right that I 
should give myself to the work, and I rejoice that you should 
conceive the thought of helping in it. You will help it more 
perhaps than any by doing the work to which you have been 
already called. I hope that you may be one of my chaplains, 
and, if we dare look forward, come sometimes to breathe 
young faith into our new labourers. In any case I shall feel 
that the three Durham sons 1 bind me with living ties to the 
fulness of our Church's work education, missions, pastoral 
charge, and in that order. 

1 Sec p. 5. 



DURHAM 95 



To THE RIGHT HON. G. CUUITT, M.P. 

CAMHKinr.K, i3//i March 1890. 

I do indeed need your prayers and not your congratula- 
tions. It was of this I feel sure a clear duty to face the 
work. The thoughts of friends will help me. 

We had a Delhi meeting this afternoon, for which I wrote 
a short letter, which I enclose. . . . 



To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIKS 

CAMURIDCK, i^f/i MarcJi 1890. 

I can only say that I had no choice. To have refused 
this burden, as things were, would have been simple faithless- 
ness. What you say of Bishop Auckland gives a new sacred- 
ness to the place. We may, I hope, some day think over 
our vows together there. I need not say "pray for us." 

To ARCHDEACON WATKINS 

CAMBRIDGE, i^ih March 1890. 

Let me thank you from my heart for your most kind 
welcome, the first, I think, which came from without. I 
know how much I shall need your counsel and help, and 1 
feel sure that you will give me both most generously. My 
hope is that w r hich comes from unreserved obedience, and 
my strength will be from the sympathy and prayers of those 
with whom I am called to serve. Mrs. Westcott, for her 
part, is looking anxiously for the help which Mrs. Watkins 
can give. 

The one note of apprehension voiced in the matter 
of this appointment being the subject of the new 
Bishop's age, it is interesting to observe how that 
matter was regarded by an old friend. The testimony 
comes from the sick-bed of Dean Vaughan, who on 24th 
March 1894 dictated a most touching 



96 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



the Bishop of Durham, " the idol of my later life." In 
forwarding the message Mr. F. G. Pelham says : " It 
was with some difficulty .that I could take it down in 
the sick-room, and the voice was very often weak, but 
he chose his words with all his accustomed care." This 
is the message : 

I said at the time of his appointment that if God spared 
his life for three years it would not be in vain. 

Aerain : 



If that voice, that look, that elevation of thought were 
spared for three years to that Northern population, they would 
find in them a charm of persuasion and a force which, though 
I know he would not like me to say it, they had not found 
even in Bishop Lightfoot. May God grant that in extreme 
old age he may preserve them all ! 

After he had been duly elected, the Bishop- elect 
addressed the following letter to the Archdeacons of 
Durham and Auckland : 

CAMBRIDGE, 14/7* April 1890. 

My dear Archdeacons Having just received the official 
notice of my election to the Bishopric, I take the earliest 
opportunity of approaching through you the clergy of the 
diocese. 

You have indeed already interpreted the wish which I 
could not but form as soon as I was nominated to the office 
by asking on my behalf the prayers of the people whom I 
have been called to serve ; yet I feel that I ought now to 
acknowledge myself my own great needs. 

A Bishop before his consecration and I earnestly beg 
that all who are interested in the right discharge of the office, 
and who in the diocese is not? will carefully study the Service 
for Consecration promises among other things, under circum- 
stances of the most impressive solemnity, that he will "faith- 
fully exercise himself in the Holy Scriptures, and call upon 



x DURHAM 97 

God by prayer for the true understanding of the same" ; that 
he will " drive away all erroneous and strange doctrine con- 
trary to God's Word"; that he will "show himself in all things 
an example of good works unto others " ; that he will " main- 
tain and set forward, as much as lies in him, (juiciness, love, 
and peace among all men"; that he will "be merciful for 
Christ's sake to poor and needy people, and to all strangers 
destitute of help." 

Such promises, which have been required in the \Vestern 
Church for many centuries, necessarily receive new applica- 
tions from age to age. In the present day they pledge him 
who makes them to face in the light of our Christian Faith 
some of the gravest problems of social and national life. They 
cannot be fulfilled, even so far as human frailty allows their 
fulfilment, except by the special help of dod. In the exercise 
of spiritual oversight, temptations to restless activity, to haste, 
to self-will must constantly imperil the maintenance of wise, 
just, and sympathetic government. The unceasing pressure 
of small cares upon the attention of a Bishop tends to thrust 
out of his sight those larger duties of the Episcopate which 
require calm and sustained thought and study. In no other 
position are the impulses of unreflecting benevolence more 
likely to disturb the action of that quiet and patient self- 
devotion through which all stable reforms are accomplished. 

In the prospect of these heavy obligations and of these 
peculiar trials, I therefore ask you to request the clergy of the 
diocese to solicit in my name the prayers of their parishioners 
that " strength and power " may be granted me to perform 
that which God "has given me a good will to do." The 
supplications of the diocese, however they may be answered, 
cannot be in vain. 

Perhaps I maybe allowed to suggest that, if the request is 
made at morning or evening prayer on the Sunday before the 
day fixed for my consecration, notice may be given that a 
silence will be " kept for a space " after the petition in the 
Litany for "Bishops, Priests, and Deacons," or, after the 
" Prayer for the Clergy and People," during which the congre- 
gation may offer together their special petitions. 

In writing thus I know that I give expression to the feeling 

VOL, II II 



98 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

which is uppermost in your own hearts. From the beginning 
of our common work we shall wish to acknowledge that our 
only hope of effective service, in things both great and small, 
lies in the open and practical confession of fellowship in the 
Word who became flesh, the Head from whom all the body 
increaseth with the increase of God. .Believe me to be, my 
dear Archdeacons, yours most faithfully, 

B. F. WESTCOTT, Bishop-elect. 

P.S. The consecration has now been fixed for ist May, 
the Festival of St. Philip and St. James, at Westminster 
Abbey, at 10.30 A.M. 

The confirmation of the Bishop's election took place 
in York Minster on 3<Dth April, when the Bishop of 
Beverlcy, as Commissioner of the Archbishop of York, 
declared that the election of Dr. Wcstcott by the Dean 
and Chapter of Durham was rightfully and lawfully 
made, and desired his admission into the real, actual, 
and corporate possession of the Bishopric. 

On the same afternoon an interesting gathering of 
old Birmingham boys was held in the Chapel of Lambeth 
Palace, by the kind invitation of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury. It was thought fitting that former mem- 
bers of the school of which the Primate and Dr. Wcstcott 
(as also the late Bishop LightfootJ were such dis- 
tinguished pupils should meet together for the purpose 
of holding a service to pray for the wellbeing of the new 
Bishop of Durham. The service consisted of the Litany, 
Psalms cxxi. and cxxii., and a hymn, together with 
passages from the Consecration Service and the blessing 
by the Archbishop. The occasion was one which will 
long live in the memory of all those who were present. 
My father had hoped to have been present at this 
gathering, as the following note to the Archbishop 
shows; but circumstances prevented his attendance: 



x DURHAM 99 

CAMmnnr.K, 17/7^ April 1890. 

I have just heard that ist May is definitely fixed for the 
Service. How the thought crushes out every lingering relic 
of self! Words are vain. d/XA,' airro TO TTVCL crvvavTtX.afji/3avTaL 
-n/ d<r$Vtoc i/fLMi' . . . vTrepevrvyyavti a-Tvayfj,oi$ dAaA/^TOts. 1 
. . . How can I thank you enough for the thought of a 
gathering at Lambeth? It must be a strength both to 
Mrs. Westcott and to myself. We shall most gratefully accept 
your invitation. How Lambeth has been wrought into our 
lives ! 

On the following day, ist May, the Feast of St. 
Philip and St. James, the Bishop-elect was consecrated 
in Westminster Abbey. An early train from Cam- 
bridge brought down hosts of University men, Trinity 
and King's being well represented. The Provost of 
Eton, the Headmaster of Harrow, and several heads of 
houses from Oxford occupied seats in the choir. 
Altogether it was a striking testimony to the unique 
popularity of Dr. Westcott among all sorts and condi- 
tions of men. 

Long before the commencement of the service at 
half-past ten the reserved portions of the Abbey were 
filled with ticket-holders, whilst the part allotted to the 
general public was crowded to overflowing. The 
brilliant sunshine took away even the generally pre- 
vailing gloom of the Abbey. The Archbishop of 
Canterbury, simply wearing academical dress, and 
accompanied by his two domestic chaplains, took his 
seat in the choir in the stall next to the Dean's. In 
the meantime the Archbishop of York, the Assistant- 
Bishops, the Bishop-elect, and the Dean and Canons of 
Westminster assembled in the Jerusalem Chamber. 

1 But the Spirit Himself helpeth our infirmity . . . maketh intercession 
with groanings which cannot be uttered. Adapted from Rom. viii. 26. 



ioo LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Sir John Hassard was also present, with the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury's license under hand and seal 
welcoming his Grace of the Northern Province into 
the Southern Province to perform all Archiepiscopal 
and Episcopal acts, and the Dean of Westminster went 
through the usual formality of reading and signing his 
protest against the Archbishop of Canterbury having 
any jurisdiction whatever within Westminster Abbey. 
The procession, which started from the nave, was a 
long and imposing one. The eight Assistant-Bishops 
who accompanied the Archbishop of York were the 
Bishops of Winchester, Carlisle, Exeter, Oxford, Ripon, 
Truro, Wakefield, and Bishop Barry (Assistant-Bishop 
of Rochester). The procession also included the Dean 
of Durham and Archdeacon Watkins, who attended on 
behalf of the Durham Chapter ; the Dean of West- 
minster and Canons Rowsell and Furse represented 
the body of which Dr. Westcott was a member ; the 
Provost of King's College, Cambridge (the Rev. A. 
Austen -Leigh), of which college Dr. Westcott was a 
Fellow, was present ; whilst the Master of Trinity (Dr. 
Butler), as Vice-Chancellor, walked in the procession 
as the representative of the University of Cambridge. 
All the Divinity professors were present, either in the 
procession or the congregation, which was also a very 
representative one. Lord Grimthorpc, in his scarlet 
crown, attended as Chancellor of York. The Arch- 

<~> 

bishop of York at once commenced the office for Holy 
Communion, the responses and the Xicenc Creed being 
sung to " Thome " in E flat. The Bishop of Carlisle was 
the Epistolcr, and he chose from the alternative selec- 
tions Acts xx. 17. The Bishop of \Vinchester read 
the Gospel. At the conclusion of the Niccnc Creed, 
Dr. Ilort, Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, 



x DURHAM 101 

preached a very able sermon, which was listened to 
with the deepest attention. The text chosen was 
Eph. iv. 12, 13, and in the course of his sermon Dr. 
Hort said : 

We are met together from north and from south, from the 
old Northumbrian diocese and the central capital of the 
realm and many a scattered parish, to join in the act of 
worship by which a Chief Pastor of the Church is to be 
hallowed for his office to-day for the office which, more than 
any other, links past and present visibly together ; the office 
which, varying in prerogatives and in sphere of action from 
age to age, is now more than ever before the organ of active 
unity, the chief power by which all scattered powers that make 
for building up are drawn forth and directed. 

In commending him now to your prayers, I find my lips 
sealed by a sacred friendship of forty years from speaking as 
I might otherwise perhaps have desired to do. But in truth 
there can be little need that a single voice should attempt 
to utter what is already in the mind of thousands. Yet a 
few words must be ventured on for the sake of others. One 
who has laboured unceasingly to bring his countrymen face to 
face with the New Testament Scriptures ; one for whom 
Christian truth is the realm of light from which alone the 
dwellers on earth receive whatever power they have to read 
the riddle of the world or choose their own steps ; one to 
whom the Christian society is almost as a watchword, and 
who hears in every social distress of the times a cry for the 
help which only a social interpretation of the Gospel can 
give such a one assuredly will not fail to find channels by 
which these and other like gifts from the ascended Giver may 
flow forth for the common good. 

Under these auspices he goes forth to carry forward the 
enterprise which has dropped from the hands of the cherished 
friend, united with him as in a common work and purpose 
so as the object of reverent love and trustful hope. There 
must be many present here to-day whose recollections of 
the twin day eleven years ago are full of the echoes of 
some of the words then spoken from this pulpit. What 



102 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

other last words could speak to us now with so grateful a 
sacredness ? l 

At the close of the sermon Dr. Westcott proceeded 
to the Islip Chapel to put on his rochet, the choir 
singing meanwhile the quartette from Mendelssohn's 
Elijah, " Cast thy burden on the Lord." The 
anthem was Dr. Westcott's own choice, and it is 
certain that nothing could have better expressed the 
humble and trustful spirit manifested by him during 
his consecration than the sweet and restful strains of 
this well-known composition. Upon his return he was 
presented by the Bishops of Carlisle and Winchester. 
Lord Grimthorpe read the Queen's mandate, and after 
the oath of canonical obedience had been repeated by 
Dr. Westcott, Precentor Flood Jones proceeded with 
the Litany. The Archbishop of York took up his part 
at the versicle before the Lord's Prayer, and continued 
the proper intonation throughout. Upon the questions 
of examination being put, Dr. Westcott's answers were 
given most impressively, each reply being repeated 
with such earnestness as to impart into it the devotion 
of a prayer. During his absence to complete the 
episcopal habit, Goss's anthem, " O pray for the peace 
of Jerusalem," was sung. Upon returning, the " Veni 
Creator " was rendered by the Archbishop of York and 
the choir conjointly, as arranged by Dr. Monk, late 
organist of York Minster, the alternate lines being 
taken by his Grace. The Assistant- Bishops formed in 
the following order on each side : on the right of the 
Archbishop, the Bishops of Winchester and Kxctcr, 
Bishop Barry, and the Bishop of Ripon ; on the left 
the Bishops of Carlisle, Truro, Wakcficld, and Oxford. 

1 This .-.crmnn was very costly to I >r. Ilort. Sec his Life, ii. 372 (T. 



x DURHAM 103 

All assisted in the consecration, and the service for 
Holy Communion was proceeded with. The offertory, 
which realised over >$!, was devoted to Home and 
Foreign Missions the S.P.G., C.M.S., A.C.S., and 
C.P.A. During an interval after the prayer for the 
Church militant a portion of the congregation left, but 
the number of communicants was very large about 
300 the administration occupying a considerable 
time. The first communicants after the Bishops and 
clergy within the sacrarium were the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and his two domestic chaplains. The 
Dean of Westminster read the invitation, and Minor 
Canon Price (sacrist) said the confession. At the 
close of the service the newly -consecrated Bishop 
returned with his brother prelates to the Jerusalem 
Chamber, where he received many congratulations 
from his numerous friends. The Bishop of Durham's 
chaplains were the Hon. and Rev. John Grey, who had 
acted in the same capacity to the late Bishop at his 
consecration eleven years before, and his eldest son, the 
Rev. F. B. Westcott, late Fellow of Trinity, Cambridge. 
On the day of his consecration the new Bishop 
wrote to his second daughter : 

WESTMINSTER, 
SS. Philip and James \_I\Iay i], 1890. 

The service is over, and it was, I think, very solemn, and 
the sun shone brightly. My texts again were full of hope : 
Is. xxvi. 3, 4; John xiv. 27. Could any words speak more 
encouragement ? 

The Cuthbert's Cross is exactly what I shall treasure all 
my life, and when I lie at rest I trust that it may be laid 
upon my breast. So Cuthbert's was found. But I must not 
try to write more. 

The cross mentioned above was an exact facsimile 



104 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

(but not in gold, of which the Bishop would have none) 
of the cross buried with St. Cuthbert. 1 

On the next day he wrote to each of his sons 
abroad to the following effect : 

The service yesterday was full of sunshine without and, I 
hope, within. 

In this crowded morning I can only steal time while some 
are waiting to see me to use the privilege of my new office 
and send you the fulness of blessing from one new called to 
be a Father in God. 

May God bless you in your work, which is His work ! 

On 1 3th May the Bishop went to Windsor to do 
homage to the Queen. This was successfully accom- 
plished, although on arrival at the Castle it was dis- 
covered that neither he nor Lord Knutsford, who 
accompanied him, had a copy of the oath. The 
position was rather serious, but the wires were set in 
motion, and the Bishop was enabled to read his oath 
from the telegraph forms supplied by the local post- 
office. 

Next day the Bishop entered his diocese, being wel- 
comed at Darlington Station by the Mayor and Cor- 
poration of Darlington, who presented him with an 
address, and by the local clergy. The same evening he 
drove through the gaily -decorated streets of Bishop 
Auckland to receive an address at the Town 1 1 all from 
the townsfolk and clergy, and so to the Castle. 

It may here be remarked that on the day when my 
father first visited Bishop Auckland, after his nomina- 
tion to the See of Durham, one of his texts for the 
day had been the words addressed to him by his old 

1 This ("TOSS was presented to tin: Kishop by liis daughters, having been 
made with scrupulous exactitude under the supervisii >n of the present Bishop 
of Bristol. 



x DURHAM 105 

schoolmaster at their last interview, " Fear not : only 
believe." These words, with a new sacredncss from that 
association, he had carefully underlined as he pondered 
them anew. 

Already welcomed to his diocese, the Bishop had 
yet to be enthroned. The day appointed for this cere- 
mony was Ascension Day, I5th May, the same day on 
which his predecessor eleven years before had been 
enthroned. In his sermon on this occasion, preached 
from the words, "Brethren, pray for us" (i Thess. v. 
25), he said : 

We cannot but look back to the i5th of May eleven years 
ago, when, speaking in this place, my predecessor laid open 
the secret of his life and work, the reverent fixing of his 
soul's eye upon the vision of the eternal presence, a vision of 
righteousness and grace and glory, which is for the believer 
a vision of purification and strength. And now, as we 
humbly hope, for him the vision of faith has become the 
vision of experience, and he " sees the face " of Him on 
whom he trusted. We cannot but look back again to last 
Ascension Day, when the thanksgiving of the whole Diocese, 
as of one heart, found expression here, because he whom all 
loved was given for a time from death to life. And now his 
elder friend has been charged to take up, as strength may be 
given, his interrupted work interrupted, indeed, yet crowned 
by the last wonderful summer of great words and great deeds, 
and not incomplete if the fulness of service is in the perfec- 
tion of devotion acknowledged by universal reverence and 
affection. We cannot but look back, and if at first we are 
touched with natural sorrow in the retrospect, sorrow is soon 
turned into hope. We perceive, even with our feeble powers, 
that beneath all these vicissitudes one unchanging counsel of 
love goes forward to its accomplishment, that work and rest, 
effort and self-surrender, the stress of conflict and the silence 
of the grave, are facts of the one life whereby alone we live. 
What is lost to the eye rises transfigured in the soul, and we 
come to know that when the Lord said, " It is expedient for 



io6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

you that I go away," He revealed a divine law, by which each 
bereavement, each apparent loss, becomes through His grace 
the source of new spiritual blessings. We cannot but look 
back, and we cannot but look forward. Looking back, then, 
in the spirit of devout gratitude to the example of him whom 
God has taken to Himself, and looking forward in the spirit 
of simplest obedience to the call which he has uttered, I say 
now with a full heart, "Brethren, pray for us." 1 

Previous to his enthronement the Bishop had visited 
Durham School and received a Latin address, which, as 
he said, reminded him of the Latin address which as 
a schoolboy he had fruitlessly read to the Prince 
Consort ; and he subsequently received an address from 
the students of Durham University, of which learned 
body he was, in virtue of his office, Visitor. This address 
was the outcome of a spontaneous feeling of admira- 
tion on the part of the undergraduates for their new 
Visitor, and much pleased the Bishop, who made an 
inspiring reply thereto. After this proceeding the 
Bishop shook hands with as many as he could reach, 
and, picking up his bag, hurried off to the Cathedral, 
where he was to hold his first Confirmation. This little 
incident of the Bishop and his bag recalled the remark 
of the old verger, who lamented the degeneracy of the 
days, exclaiming, " Things are comin' to a fine pass 
noo, when the Bishop of Dor'm comes hcor wi' his aan 
carpet bag." 

One of the Bishop's first public speeches was on the 
subject of the great national evil of Gambling. His 
views on this matter arc concisely staled in a letter 
which he wrote about this time to the National Anti- 
Gambling League, wherein he says : - 

1 The whole sermon, of which the above is the opening passage, is 
published in my father's 77/6' Incarnation and Common Life. 



x DURHAM 107 

Allow me to express a most earnest hope that your meeting 
will be a success. The evil of gambling is powerful every- 
where, but in the North it is grievously widespread. The 
questions involved in the subject are complicated and far- 
reaching, and some of the utterances which I have seen ap- 
pear to me to have been unguarded. I trust, therefore, that 
one result of the meeting will be to secure that action shall 
be prepared by a careful discussion and determination of the 
essential character of the evil. When the inherent waste 
and selfishness and cruelty of gambling the hope of gaining 
through another's loss in all its forms are once clearly appre- 
hended, such an intelligent and strong public opinion will 
be formed as will make legislation possible and effective. 
And many who at present feel that the mental relaxation 
obtained by games of chance is an ample return for the stake 
which is involved in them will, I believe, be led to give up, 
for the sake of others, a form of amusement which is liable 
to serious misunderstanding and grave abuses. 

On another occasion he said : 

A great Italian politician, whose name has almost become 
synonymous with cynical wisdom, recommended that the 
government which wished to obtain success for a State should 
encourage gambling among its enemies and put it down by 
military force at home, and thought thought rightly that a 
nation of gamblers was condemned to fatal ruin. 

In June 1890 the Bishop received from Durham Uni- 
versity the degree of D.D. by Diploma, Dr. Hort receiving 
the honorary degree of D.D. on the same occasion. 

In the same month my father went up to London 
and took his seat in the House of Lords, and attended 
the International Peace Parliamentary Congress. He 
thus describes his experiences in letters to his wife : 

22nd fitly. 

Yesterday I went to the House, but was not much edified 
except by the splendour of the building, and of the Library 



io8 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

in especial, which I visited for the first time. I saw Lord 
Powis. He told me something of the ways of the place. 
This morning I went to the Peace Parliamentary Congress. 
It was not very impressive. All foreigners have a tendency 
to speak at once, and there was little business or thought, but 
a good deal of zeal. Mr. Bradlaugh moved the adoption of 
the Report. What should you have said if I had seconded it ? 
I am not sure whether I shall go to-morrow. There are very 
few Englishmen present. 

zydjuly. 

I went to the House again yesterday. It is a strange 
sight sight to me more than sound, for every one generally 
talks to himself, without caring in the least degree (so it 
seems) whether he is heard or not. I saw two or three of 
my old friends, including Lord Spencer and Lord Cross. . . . 

This morning I went to the Peace Congress again, and as 
I was asked to say a few words, I did. It seemed right that 
the Christian view should find expression, and the audience, 
chiefly French and Germans, listened kindly. I tried to read 
the parable of Durham. 

Now I have engagements at 2, 3, 4, and 5, and then I 
shall give myself a holiday. 

This is his reading of the Durham parable : 

A Bishop of Durham could not look upon the two great 
buildings immemorially connected with his office the Castle 
and the Cathedral, rising side by side, parts of one whole 
without knowing that, for him at least, ecclesiastical and civil 
duties were inseparably combined. He could not look back 
upon the history of his See without knowing that he must 
face, with whatever skill and courage he could command, all 
the problems which arose from time to time affecting the 
wellbeing of man ; and he was sure they would respect tin- 
frank expression of his own convictions il he said that his 
deep interest in this holy subject of their deliberations rested 
upon his Christian faith. When St. Paul, eighteen centuries 
ago, used that memorable expression, writing to the (iala- 
tians, " We are all one man in Christ," he announced the 



x DURHAM 109 

principle which, during the eighteen centuries that followed, 
the nations were slowly endeavouring to interpret and 
embody. 

The Bishop's great interest in the Co-operative 
Movement is well known, and inasmuch as his published 
works contain his most weighty utterances on this 
subject, it seems hardly requisite to reproduce any 
fragments of such speeches here ; but the following 
simple words, forming part of a response to a vote of 
thanks, have a special interest : 

The work is one in which, as I said, I have taken the 
keenest interest, even from my schoolboy days. I can 
remember what very few here can remember a great placard 
on a house in Birmingham indicating Robert Owen's first 
movement, " Labour Exchange." I asked then, as a little 
boy, the meaning of it. I got some vague and, perhaps, not 
very complete explanation, but an interest was excited then 
which has never ceased. When I was at Cambridge, the 
movement begun by Professor Maurice, Canon Kingsley, and 
Mr. Hughes, who still remains to see its triumph, took shape. 
I was deeply interested in it then, and the success which it 
has achieved in one field is, I feel sure, a pledge of the success 
which it now must seek in another field. I do trust that this 
meeting may have some practical results. Though I myself 
have spoken of what appear to be somewhat distant and, 
perhaps, transcendental objects, I wish you to bear them in 
mind. Other speakers have addressed themselves to objects 
more definitely within reach. I trust that one result of this 
meeting will be that those w r ho have the administration of the 
stores will provide that their administration shall present a 
model of what retail trade could be ; that they will lead the 
way in fixing hours ; that they will provide, in some way, for 
pensions for those who have served them faithfully ; that they 
will secure that the workman shall feel that he has a deep 
interest in the work, and that he shares the full pleasure of 
its success, for that is the soul of co-operation. Man must 
trust man. He must enter into the pleasures and feel the 



no LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

sorrows of his fellows ; and as he gives the whole of his life 
to the work, he knows that he will enter on the fulness of the 
lives of all with whom he is united in the living bond of 
human union. That is what co-operation means. That is 
an end which, I trust, this meeting will bring a little nearer 
to accomplishment. I again thank you. I feel that a 
Bishop's work is well fulfilled in being present at a meeting 
like this. 

Owing to the indisposition of the Archbishop of 
York, the Bishop of Durham was required, at very short 
notice, to preside at the Church Congress held at Hull 
in October 1890. To many the Bishop's conduct on 
this occasion was quite a revelation. The " recluse " 
showed himself to be a man of affairs. His opening 
address came " as a surprise to every one, except perhaps 
those who knew him best. It was expected that he 
would, as he reasonably might have done, claim exemp- 
tion from the task, and confine his remarks to a few 
pleasantries ; but what he really did was to deliver an 
address which will rank with the ablest productions of 
his predecessors in the presidential chair." As this 
address was drawing to a close a sudden blaze of sun- 
light lit up the crowded platform. " How the frail 
form quivers, and how the thin, penetrating voice 
gathers earnestness and vigour as he draws to an 
eloquent close, whilst he declares that God is in our 
midst as surely as He has been before, and that in such 
a Presence all petty differences must shrivel up as in a 
Great furnace. And then a cnvat stillness, and then 

o -^ 

the multitude breaks into a tumult of applause, as he 
sinks back into his scat, and buries his trembling head 
between his prayerful hands. A really sublime moment 
was this, the sublimity of which was intensified by the 
rising to its feet of all that vast assemblage, and by the 



x DURHAM in 

singing in splendid unity of the magnificent hymn of 
antiquity, ' Vcni Creator Spiritus.' " 

The Bishop's paper on Socialism, which is said to 
have " fluttered the ecclesiastical dovecots " at this 
Congress, was republished by him in his TJie Incarnation 
and Common Life. 

The Church Congress of I 890 was generally regarded 
as a success, but what my father thought of it does not 
appear. He wrote one letter thence to his wife : 

CHURCH CONGRESS, HULL, 
HENGLER'S CIRCUS, 30/7^ September 1890. 

You will see, my dearest Mary, that I am performing 
" Presidential functions "by writing to you ! The first meet- 
ing is nearly over. The question has not been a burning one, 
and all things have so far gone well ; but perhaps the report 
which you get will give you fuller accounts. Mr. Boutflcnver 
is a very careful guardian, and my hosts are most kind. I 
think that I see Mr. Alder, but I have altogether failed to 
elicit an answering smile. I must say no more. Love to all. 
Ever your most affectionate, B. F. DUNELM. 

In December 1890 the Bishop notes one day in his 
text-book that he was able to do a little work at The 
Gospel of Life, being the " first non-episcopal work " that 
he had been able to do since he had come to Durham. 
Besides his numerous diocesan engagements, the Bishop 
felt it to be his duty from time to time to attend important 
meetings in London, and deliver speeches on such matters 
as University Extension, Peace, and Church Defence. 
Besides this, he promoted private conferences at Auck- 
land Castle on social questions, the subjects considered 
during 1891 being National Insurance and Co-opera- 
tion. In addition to his own cares, too, he sympathised 
in many anxieties with Archbishop Benson, to whose 



H2 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

appeals he never turned a deaf ear. In the midst of 
all this work it is little short of marvellous that he was 
able by laborious use of his brief autumn holidays to 
prepare for the press The Gospel of Life. This work, 
so sadly incomplete, is the last of his Essays. All that 
he published thereafter were collections of sermons and 
speeches, to the preparation of which all his thoughts 
were now perforce directed. 

In connexion with this work a reviewer said : x 

Bishop Westcott is a great Christian philosopher as well as 
expositor. He has had given to him one of the keenest 
minds of the nineteenth century keen in analysis, in insight, 
in far-reaching vision, sweeping sometimes to the very border- 
lands. He has a quick apprehension of analogies and general 
laws, and sees at once the significance and bearing of new 
facts. We repeat, he is in every way one of the greatest 
intellectual forces of the day. Now no reader can put down 
this, or any one of his volumes, without saying, whether he 
agrees with him or not "This man believes with all his heart 
and soul and mind and strength." He has the surest possible 
confidence in the future of the Christian faith. Others may 
see a peradventure, like a worm i' th' bud ; he sees nothing 
but a new earth, the morning star, and the seventh heaven. 
When one of our greatest has this so boundless hope, we may 
take courage. For our part, in reading what he writes, we 
are always thankful most of all for the contagious warmth and 
glow of the Saviour's living touch. It gleams on every living 
page. Too many who discuss these things do it with the 
formal spirit of the mere searcher after truth. Their cold 
steel pierces to the dividing asunder, and they do manage to 
show us the true and the false, but in the process they chill 
our very joints and marrow. 'The great northern Hi. shop never 
sins this sin. Long may he live, and his light shine bright 
and yet brighter unto the perfect day ! 

This book is properly connected with my father's 

1 In the Review of the Chun-Jit's. 



x DURHAM 113 

work at Cambridge, and has been already mentioned ; 
but it is a Durham work too, for it is a silent witness 
to the sacrifice involved in his acceptance of the Sec. 

In January 1892 the Bishop gave four addresses at 
a Quiet Day for Schoolmasters held at Harrow. These 
addresses were privately printed under the title of HEOT 



The two following letters are concerned with that 



undertaking : 



TO HIS ELDEST SON 



LOLLARDS' TOWER, \2th May 1891. 

I have been pondering at stray moments for nearly a week 
as to whether I ought to undertake the next Masters' Quiet 
Day. It is at Wellington, which is far off, and has no special 
claim, and I cannot feel sure that I ought to give up the 
time and strength to this work. You will know better than I 
do, from experience, whether I ought to make the effort. So 
give me your counsel. One can only do a certain amount 
of work. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, zvth January 1892. 

. . . The meeting at Harrow was most touching. Influenza 
kept away a third of our company, but I felt no want of 
numbers. A remark in The Guardian which spoke of "a 
loose view of ordination " or something of the kind as justi- 
fying or excusing the ordination of masters, made me burn 
with indignation. 

Archbishop Benson consulted my father in April as 
to a subject for the devotional meeting of the Church 
Congress of 1892. In reply (i 2th April) to the Arch- 
bishop's letter he says, " Would not your subject be 
* Christian Doctrine and Christian Life ? ' I find it hard 

1 God's fellow-workers. I Cor. iii. 9. 
VOL. II I 



H4 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

enough to fit the two together as things are." To a 
further suggestion that he should himself speak or write 
on this subject, he replied : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, i6lh May 1892. 

My dear Archbishop Alas ! it is absolutely impossible. 
All being well, I must give a Charge in October, and every 
spare hour and all stray thoughts must be turned to this. You 
cannot imagine how work grows and strength and heart fail ; 
yet there is nothing to be done but to continue to offer what 
one has. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

The third year of the Bishop's episcopate was 
destined to be eventful. In the following letters to 
his wife he comments on its advent : 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, 3O/// April 1892. 

The eve of my last birthday. 1 How many thoughts it 
raises ! Perhaps I have done as much as I ever hoped 
to do, and yet how little it is, how fragmentary, and how 
imperfect ! The work has been very exhausting, but I 
think that I have borne it very fairly well, and next week 
will, with the exception of two meetings, be comparatively 
quiet. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, SS. PJiilip and fames, 1892. 

And so, my dearest Mary, I have really entered on my 
third year. May whatever is given of it to use be made 
more fruitful ! It has been a most bright day, but with a 
cold wind. 

I have just been to see our stable-boy. He seems to 
have had a kick about a fortnight ago, and it has taken a 
bad turn.- 

1 My father's "last birthday" was, of course, tlic day of his consecra- 
tion. The dates of his installations at Peterborough and Westminster 
were also " birthdays." 

- The boy died. The Bishop himself conducted the service by the 
grave's side, while his chaplain read the lesson. 



x DURHAM 115 

When my father was appointed to the Sec of 
Durham a paper remarked : " We shall not be surprised 
to hear of his acting as arbitrator in some great mining 
quarrel between masters and men, and whatever he 
does he will do so well as to ensure respect for his 
decision." This prophecy was remarkably verified, 
and his episcopate will, I suppose, continue to be memor- 
able on account of his successful mediation in the great 
struggle in the coalfields of Durham in 1892. 

So early as April 1891 the Coal-owners' Associa- 
tion had intimated that, in view of the recent consider- 
able fall in the prices of coal and coke, a reduction in 
wages could not be long deferred. Hereupon anxious 
communications were exchanged between the Mining 

o o 

Federation and the Owners' Association, until it became 
evident that there could be no issue but a general 
Strike. On 3rd March 1892 the Bishop addressed a 
letter to his clergy in which he says : 

You will, I think, agree with me in thinking that it is our 
duty, in the present time of great anxiety, when our chief 
industry is threatened by serious dangers, to request the 
prayers of our congregations that it may please God to grant 
to all on whom rests the responsibility of counsel or action 
in regard to the matters now in dispute such a spirit of for 
bearance and considerate wisdom as may avert the national 
calamity which hangs over us. 

On 9th March work at the pits ceased, and was not 
resumed until 3rd June. The immediate effect of the 
Strike was to put between 80,000 and 90,000 men out 
of work. But the other industries of the county were 
also affected. In the Cleveland district distress and 
poverty soon ensued. The shipping interest was 
partially paralysed. The railway mineral traffic was 



n6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

suspended, and about two hundred trains belonging to 
the North-Eastern Railway were brought to a standstill. 
In the engineering industry men were put on short 
time, and business among tradesmen gradually declined. 
Both sides, in view of the widespread distress, were 
anxious to justify their conduct in the eyes of the 
general public by means of letters to the press. But 
into the details of this terrible struggle, which inflicted 
a loss on the country which can hardly be estimated l 
(in wages alone about ; 1,100,000), it is unnecessary 
here to enter. The Bishop's action is what concerns 
us. The following letters to the Rev. E. Price, Rural 
Dean of Bishop Auckland, illustrate this point : 



To REV. E. PRICE 

GRANGE, i^th April 1892. 

At the very beginning I wrote to the Federation, but had 
no encouragement whatever to attempt any service. A few 
days ago I wrote to the wisest leader of the men, but as yet I 
have had no answer. I was not sure of his address. But I 
am more than half afraid that the warning in the last Federa- 
tion circular, that "the men wanted no outside interference," 
might perhaps have a personal meaning. If the first ballot 
places the settlement, as I hope it will, in the hands of the 
Board this I suppose will be known to-morrow I could 
not, I imagine, be of use. If the ballot is unfavourable to a 
settlement, I will write at once. It is doubtful whether we 
can hear the result here. If it is against leaving the matter in 
the hands of the Board, will you let Basil know, and ask him 
to telegraph to me, that I may not lose a post ? 

I think that I have not lost any opportunity so far, though 
there is indeed little to show. It has been to me a time of 
the deepest anxiety. 

1 Generally computed at about ,3,000,000. 



x DURHAM 117 

GRANGE, Easter Eve \_\blh April}, 1892. 

My friend, in whose judgment I think all would rely, tells 
me that in his opinion outside interference would do harm, 
and that there is no opening for me. What I can learn at 
present of the result of the last ballot makes me feel very un- 
happy. The men seem to distrust their Board. 1 shall 
consult my friend again on this new issue. I met by accident 
a leading statesman to-day, and. he thought that I could not 
do anything as yet. Alas ! 

But may Easter bring light to you and to all ! 

Bisiror AUCKLAND, 30/7* April 1892. 

1 have written to my authoritative counsellor on the Strike 
question, and asked him to telegraph to me if he thinks that 
I can do any good by writing. Every one, I believe, knows 
quite well that I am most anxious to do anything which will 
really be of service. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2nd May. 

I have had a message that such a letter " will not do 
harm, and may do good." So I have written a few lines to 
you, which I leave in your hands. 

The following open letter to Mr. Price was published 
in the Times : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2nd I\[ay 1892. 

My dear Mr. Price You know well with what deep 
anxiety and sorrow I have watched the course of the Strike 
which has brought widespread loss and distress on Durham 
and the neighbouring districts. If I have refrained from 
offering open counsel, it has been because, in the judgment 
of those who were best able to advise me, I was more likely 
to do harm than good by such interference. Yet it is difficult 
for me to remain silent w r hen I have received the charge to 
set forward, as far as lies in me, peace among all men. It is 
not, indeed, for me to offer any opinion on the question in 



i IS LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

dispute. It would be well, I think, if we all remembered that 
these can only be dealt with satisfactorily by a few represent- 
ative men who are able to investigate in conference every 
fact and statement which is alleged, frankly, fully, and 
patiently, with adequate and comprehensive knowledge. It 
has been for the holding of such a conference, invested with 
full powers, that I have pleaded in private whenever I have 
had an opportunity of speaking. 

The owners and miners have several Boards, to whose 
experience, knowledge, and sagacity the decision might, as 
far as I am able to judge, be unreservedly entrusted. If, 
however, under the peculiar circumstances of this dispute, it 
should seem well to obtain an independent opinion, I can- 
not but believe that a Board composed of three representa- 
tives of the owners and three representatives of the miners 
and three business men unconnected with this special in- 
dustry would command universal confidence. 

No argument could fail to receive due weight in the 
deliberations of such a body. The grounds of their verdict 
would, I imagine, be laid before the world, and masters and 
men would alike be gainers by the loyal acceptance of a 
policy of just conciliation. 

It seems to me that far more is now at stake than the fail- 
adjustment of a local difference. We are required to con- 
sider, under the stress of sharp trial, our true relations to one 
another and the wider effect of our action both in the present 
and the future. 

In our quiet moments we all recognise that the right 
conduct of life depends upon mutual trust and upon the 
endeavour to fulfil duties rather than to maintain rights. 
The wellbeing of labour cannot be independent of the well- 
being of trade. Experience proves that in the long run all 
classes in a nation rejoice and suffer together. This con- 
sciousness of our fellowship as men is coming more and more 
to influence the character of our ordinary intercourse. It 
includes, as I hold, the solution of some of the problems 
which most perplex us, and I cannot therefore but hope that 
all with whom the settlement or continuance of the present 
struggle rests will take account of the larger number of 



x DURHAM 119 

sufferers outside who have no voice in the matter, in deter- 
mining the course which they will adopt, and he enabled to 
set aside, if need be, the exclusive maintenance of what they 
hold to be their special interests for the sake of the common 
good. 

Would that I could do anything to further the meeting of 
such a conference as I have sketched ! It would be truly a 
Bishop's work. Yours most sincerely, E. V. DUNKLM. 

This last letter prepared the way for more direct 
action, so that before the end of the month the Bishop 
was enabled to approach the conflicting bodies. Accord- 
ingly, on 25th May, he forwarded the following letter to 
the Chairman of the Owners' Association and to the 
Secretary of the Federation Board : 

My dear Sir The time seems to have come when one 
who has necessarily watched the course of the present dis- 
astrous Strike with dee}) and dispassionate anxiety should 
express an opinion on the facts, which do not require any 
technical knowledge for their interpretation. 

There appears to be an agreement between both parties 
as to the substantial reduction in wages which is required, 
and as to the method to be employed for the settlement of 
future differences as to wages. I plead most earnestly that 
this general agreement should at once be carried into effect. 

In accordance with this view, the last resolution adopted 
by the Owners on Saturday suggests a just and honourable 
arrangement, which would, I believe, be of lasting benefit to 
the great industries of the county. 

I would therefore propose that the pits should be opened 
with the least possible delay on two conditions : 

1. That there should be an immediate reduction of wages 
of 10 per cent. 

2. That the question of any further reduction should be 
referred to a Wages Board, to be established with full powers 
to deal with this and with all future differences as to the 
increase or reduction of wages. 

Such a Board would, I feel confident, call out and deepen, 



120 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

by frank conference, that feeling of trust and sympathy between 
masters and men through which alone stable concord can be 
maintained in the face of an apparent (though not real) 
conflict of material interests. 

Even a day's delay at the present time is of serious moment, 
and I venture to add that if the main principle of this arrange- 
ment is acceptable, I shall be glad to welcome the representa- 
tives of the Owners' Association and of the Federation Board 
at Auckland, on Saturday morning, to discuss details. Believe 
me to be yours most faithfully, B. F. DUNELM. 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2$tk May 1892. 

The Owners, through their Chairman, Sir Lindsay 
Wood, replied on 28th May : 

My Lord Bishop I have had the opportunity to-day of 
submitting your Lordship's letter to me of the 25th inst., to 
the Durham Coal-owners' Wages Committee, who authorise 
me to express their appreciation ot your proposal that a meet- 
ing between the Owners' representatives and the Men's repre- 
sentatives should be held at Auckland Castle, under your 
Lordship's presidentship, in the hope that some terms of 
settlement may thereby be arrived at. 

The Owners' Committee feels that it is due not merely to 
your Lordship's position, but to the care and thought you 
have given to the unfortunate dispute now existing in the 
Durham Coal Trade, that the Owners should avail themselves 
of your invitation. This they would do with every desire to 
bring about a settlement, but without committing themselves 
to the particular lines on which it might be found possible to 
rest it. It will be regarded as the object of such a conference 
to discover what line of settlement is possible. I am, my 
Lord Bishop, yours obediently, 

LINDSAY WOOD, Chairman. 

On the same clay the following reply was forwarded 
on behalf of the Federation Board : 



DURHAM 



Your Lordship In pursuance of the promise made by the 
Secretary of the Federation Board in acknowledging the 
receipt of your favour of the 26th inst, your communication 
was to-day considered by the United Committees of the 
Federated Associations, when we were directed by the mem- 
bers to convey their sincere thanks to your Lordship for the 
kindly interest shown, and the laudable desire manifested 
towards bringing to a termination the unhappy and unfortunate 
wages dispute between the Coal-owners and the workmen of 
the county. We would further desire to state that, whilst the 
workmen have decided to concede " a substantial reduction 
in wages," it is not because they deem that the Owners are 
entitled to such amount, namely, 10 per cent (seeing that they 
would have continued work at a 7-?, per cent reduction), but 
rather owing to the circumstances attending the protracted 
lock-out as affecting the workmen directly connected there- 
with and also those of other allied industries, a condition 
which, as yet, the Owners have apparently not recognised, 
except as an instrument of exaction. We observe that your 
Lordship grounds a hope for "a just and honourable arrange- 
ment " being effected upon the basis of the last resolution 
given by the Owners to the workmen at the meeting of the 
2ist inst. The workmen, however, fail to see a similar 
probability so far as the present dispute is concerned. The 
resolution in question has but reference to an arrangement 
"for the settlement of any future county wages question," the 
unwritten portion thereof being that, before such arrangement 
would become operative (even if arranged " before " the 
resumption of work), a reduction of 13^- per cent must be 
conceded by the workmen, and, considering that we have 
already exceeded the demand of the Owners upon which the 
stoppage of work took place by 2\ per cent, but which we 
had offered in the hope of reconciliation, and having been 
met by refusals on every occasion, we deem it right that in 
the interests of trade and the good of the people at large, the 
Owners should act in a manner that would indicate a similar 
spirit. We would further desire to point out to your Lord- 



122 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

ship that the formation of a Wages Board was not a portion of 
the original question in dispute, but was introduced by the 
Owners after the lapse of four weeks from the commencement 
of the lock-out, and even then not as a means for the settle- 
ment of the present dispute ; and by the introduction of this 
subject, and the raising of their claims to 13 J per cent, they 
have complicated and aggravated the situation. Inasmuch as 
the letter of your Lordship has appeared in the press, and as 
the public may not have the facility of reference to the Owners' 
resolution, we therefore consider it advisable to give similar 
publicity to this, together with the resolution upon which you 
base your suggestions for a conference. Whilst we are thank- 
ful to your Lordship for this further manifestation of sympathy 
and willingness to help, we would be ready to accept your 
offer to meet the Owners in your presence as soon as they 
intimate their desire to do so, for we cannot forget, and it 
would be unjust to our membership were we not to state, that 
we have hitherto made every effort to settle this dispute, and 
are of opinion that the blame for the prolongation rests solely 
with the employers. Believing that your Lordship will concur 
in this, we are, on behalf of the workmen, yours respectfully, 

W. H. LAM ETON. L. TROTTER. 

ERNEST FOSTER. JOHN WILSON. 

On 3Oth May the Bishop was in London, having to 
attend the annual meeting of the International Arbitra- 
tion Association, when he received the final telegram : 

The Federation Board and Owners' Wages Committee are 
prepared to meet your Lordship at Auckland at 12.30 o'clock 
to-morrow (Tuesday). Hope this convenient. Please reply. 

The Bishop was able to catch an evening train to 
Durham, and sleep there, arriving at Bishop Auckland 
on the following morning. But before he left London 
an interesting incident occurred. He was presiding at 
the International Arbitration meeting above mentioned, 



x DURHAM 123 

and " towards the close of the proceedings he mentioned 
his intended effort to bring about a settlement of the 
great Colliery Strike, and then with simple, unaffected 
earnestness he invited the prayers of his hearers for 
the success of his undertaking, and for the Divine 
blessing upon its issue. Very instructive, as well as 
very appropriate, was this public confession of the power 
and efficacy of prayer. Neither in London nor else- 
where are mixed audiences habituated to such an 
acknowledgment, though they greatly need to be re- 
minded of this truth. And it required some boldness, 
even in a Bishop, thus, from a metropolitan platform, 
to prove his fidelity to his God." 

On the next day the Representatives of Capital and 
Labour met at Auckland Castle, where together they 
partook of luncheon with the Bishop. Then the 
Conference on wages commenced. 1 

The Bishop, in opening the proceedings, said that 
when he was appointed to the Sec he was asked 
whether he would, according to his power, set forward 
love and peace among all men. It was in this spirit 
that he had offered his services to-day. They all 
wanted to arrive at a just and honourable settlement, 
and he appealed to each side to subordinate their own 
immediate interests for the common good. He put 
forward three considerations : 

1. That all the disturbing influences of the past 
few weeks should be put aside, and the problem be 
faced with a sincere desire to achieve a settlement. 

2. Not to look alone upon the immediate result 
of to - day's meeting, but to consider the judgment 

1 Sir David Dale has kindly forwarded, what is, he says, an almost 
verbatim account of the proceedings at this Conference, of which I gladly 
avail myself in part. 



124 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

which would be passed upon that result a few months 
or a year hence. 

3. That what they were striving for finally should 
not merely be the settlement of the present difficulty, 
but, what was far more important, the establishment of 
real fellowship between capital and labour. 

In conclusion, he urged that, as the Durham coal 
trade had been noted for its conciliation in the past, 
it should be conciliatory now. 

The leaders of either party having thanked the 
Bishop for his assistance, then conferred together under 
his chairmanship. After considerable discussion, the 
two parties separated and considered the matter apart, 
the Bishop passing to and fro between them. Eventu- 
ally the Bishop, addressing the Owners' Committee, 
appealed for a mitigation of terms ; what they all 
wanted to arrive at was an endurable arrangement. 
Let him be allowed to plead for what, in the present 
distress, was generous a present reduction of 10 per 
cent. He knew a little of the feelings of the men ; he 
had passed in and out among them, and during this 
sore time of trial he had certainly been (let him say it) 
proud of their endurance. They had shown manliness 
and power in courageously adhering to what they 
considered their solemn obligation, and therefore he 
thought they could be trusted. Then again the Owners 
must consider if they would pardon him for saying 
so they had to deal with a body of men who had, he 
supposed, exhausted their earnings to the uttermost. 
He should think now that most of them, at any rate, 
were not only destitute but in debt. And there was 
the further consideration, which the Owners could 
estimate far better than he could, what was likely to 
be the effect of this nearly three months' idleness on 



x DURHAM 125 

those who are engaged in this occupation were they 
likely to be able to exercise their skill to their own 
greatest profit ? Therefore, not in the least degree 
challenging the perfect equity of the uttermost claim 
the Chvncrs made (he was not competent to do that), 
but simply, he would use a very strong word, implor- 
ing them to consider the future, to regard the judg- 
ment which would be passed upon their action to-day 
a year hence, he implored them to be generous to the 
utmost. He believed in his heart that they would 
reap an ample return ; he believed that if the men saw 
that, after an explanation given and received, the 
Owners conceded what they (the men) had no doubt 
very reluctantly offered, there would be at least the 
beginning of that cordial trust which might be the 
foundation of better things. He might say that what 
had pained him most during the whole of this disas- 
trous strike had been that the men had neither trusted 
one another nor their Owners ; neither their leaders 
nor their employers. He felt at least that if the 
Owners were to press as they could he did not ques- 
tion that as they could press (he could only call it a 
solution) a solution by starvation, that the outlook of 
the whole industry of England was likely to be very 
serious. He therefore with whatever he did not like 
to use such a word as influence but with whatever 
weight the experience of his office, and his knowledge 
of men, and the sense of his responsibility (as he had 
said, to set forward love and peace among all men), 
could give him, asked them at any rate to consider 
with favour whether they could not accept such an 
arrangement as was contemplated he meant to accept 
it until the trade had regained its normal state and 
they were able to lay the whole case before a Board 



126 LTFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

competent to deal with it in its totality. He knew 
the difficulties ; he knew they pressed ; he had inquired 
enough to know that they were unequal in different 
quarters ; but still he believed that those who for the 
moment might possibly lose would, in the end, gain. 

At a later stage of the meeting, the Bishop informed 
the Owners that the men had an alternative offer : 

First, An immediate reduction of y. 1 /, and all above that 
(whatever it might be in addition) to be referred to arbitra- 
tion, with the recommendation for the establishment of the 
Wages Board which he (the Bishop) imagined would not 
deal with this claim. 

Or Second^ A present reduction of 10 per cent and a 
similar undertaking to the best of their ability to establish a 
complete Conciliation Board. 

He then stated that he had not the shadow of a 
doubt about the Federation Board's conviction of the 
necessity for a Conciliation Board, and they also 
expressed the opinion that " leaders must be leaders." 

The Committee, after deliberating in private, adopted 
the following resolution : 



r> 



The Federation Board having offered explanations as to 
the establishment of a system of conciliation in the future, 
which the Bishop of Durham recommends the Owners to 
accept as satisfactory, and the Bishop having strongly 
appealed to the Owners not on the ground of any judg- 
ment on his part of the reasonableness or otherwise of the 
Owners' claim of 13-^ per cent, but solely on the ground of 
consideration for the impoverished condition of the men and 
of the generally prevailing distress to reopen the pits at a 
present reduction of 10 per cent (that is, from 35 to 25 per 
cent above standard) with the full expectation that wages will 
be hereafter amicably settled by the system of conciliation 
contemplated, the Owners yield to the Bishop's appeal on 
these grounds and assent thereto. 



x DURHAM 127 

This was afterwards read to the men in the presence 
of the Bishop, who expressed his satisfaction, stating that 
this was the happiest five minutes of his life. 

Meanwhile an anxious crowd of several thousands 
was waiting without. One of them thus describes his 
experiences : 

I formed one of a crowd of several thousands who yester- 
day waited more or less patiently outside the episcopal palace 
at Auckland for five mortal hours to receive the earliest 
possible intelligence of the issue of the negotiations pro- 
ceeding within. Although we were scattered over a wide 
area, there was no mistake we did form a big crowd. Filling 
the spacious Market-place, standing uneasily in groups on its 
uncomfortable coble stone pavement, or sitting perilously on 
the rickety wooden stalls placed ready for next day's market ; 
squatting pitman fashion on our "hunkers," back to the wall, 
we formed a long line down the whole length of the great 
gates to the Castle entrance ; and most of all, crowded on 
the carriage drive inside the park, and pressing up against the 
iron gates of the handsome stone screen which divides off 
the private gardens of the Castle from the beautiful park so 
generously thrown open to the public. We are already 
waiting when the accredited representatives of capital and 
labour, in whose hands rest the issues of peace or a prolonga- 
tion of the disastrous war, arrive. The coal-owners drive up 
in a big lumbering omnibus of the pattern so familiar in the 
Lake district, and we accord them a very frigid sort of wel- 
come. We cannot forget their refusal of the 10 per cent the 
other week, and it would take a centrifugal pump to force a 
cheer from us for them as they pass. A very different recep- 
tion awaits the members of the Federation Board as they 
trudge up, headed by Secretary Patterson, looking a dozen 
years older and greyer for the strain and stress of the past 
twelve weeks, for we cheer them heartily, and then settle 
down to wait as patiently as we can for the result. Some of 
us seek the nearest house of refreshment within the meaning 
of the Act, but most of us wait quietly about the Castle 
entrance, going out into the Market-place for a draw of the 



128 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

cutty now and then, for smoking is forbidden in the park. 
At two o'clock the stragglers are all back, for the reporters, 
who went in at the opening of the Conference, said they had 
been told to return at two. A couple of them pass the big 
gate and enter the Castle, only to return with no news, and 
in this case no news is bad news, for every additional half- 
hour seems to render a settlement less likely. We can see 
the heads of the negotiators ever and anon at one of the 
windows. There seems some hitch, for whilst the Federation 
leaders Wilson, Galbraith, and Palmer, of Silksworth fame 
are conversing eagerly in the big bow window of the confer- 
ence room, the coal-owners are seen debating in another 
apartment. The two sides appear to reunite and again to 
separate, and still no word or sign of a settlement. The 
suspense is terrible, no word is spoken, yet each reads in his 
neighbour's face the reflection of his own fears that the 
negotiations have failed. Even the news of Sir Hugo's 
victory at Epsom fails to arouse more than the faintest ripple 
of interest on the outskirts of the crowd. The two reporters 
again make their way through our midst, and cross the 
grounds into the Castle. So long do they remain that we 
are assured there must be some news this time, but no they 
have only been inspecting the chapel the conference is 
likely to last at least another hour. Our gloom deepens, for 
the chances of settlement now seem very remote. A cab 
which has been waiting inside the grounds draws off, but it is 
empty. The big omnibus drives up again, and surely, we 
think, the meeting will be over now. Vain hope. The cab, 
we learn, has gone to the station to delay the special train by 
which the Bishop is to travel south. A footman hurries down 
from the Castle to the gate at which we wait, and we are on 
the tiptoe of expectation, but he is only charged with a 
request that we will keep off the grass. As the minutes 
slowly pass the excitement becomes intense. The reporters 
get to the front again as the police sergeant comes down to 
the gate, and force their way inside. The man in blue ex- 
postulates he has orders to admit no one, but the men of 
letters are inside and inside they stick, arguing the matter out, 
but budging not an inch. Presently at ten minutes to five 



x DURHAM 129 

precisely there is quite a buzz of excitement amongst us, 
for the Conference is evidently breaking up. denial Hilly 
Golightly, the confidential secretary of the Miners' Union, 
appears in the bow window and signals "victory," holding up 
his ten fingers to indicate the terms. "That's good enough," 
says a Gazette reporter, and he's off like a shot before the rest 
of his confreres are aware of the signal. \Ve hard!}' dare 
believe the news, however: it seems too good to be true. The 
big omnibus rolls out laden with coal-owners, who vouchsafe 
to us the information that "it's settled," but are silent as to 
terms. Another reporter who has been up in the Castle 
now returns with confirmation of the glad tidings : " Strike 
settled, 10 per cent." The news spreads like wildfire. 
Scores rush off to carry it into the town or wire it to waiting 
friends. The Bishop all smiles, and evidently, as he told 
a Gazette reporter, well satisfied with the result of his day's 
work drives out in a cab, with Mr. David Dale and Mr. 
Patterson as his companions, for the station. We raise a 
mighty cheer for the Bishop, which is taken up and re-echoed 
through the Market-place, but we wait for confirmation of the 
news. John Wilson, " Lance " Trotter, Lambton, Sam Gal- 
braith, and the rest of the men's leaders follow on foot, and 
we literally mob them as they pass through the gates. They 
confirm our tidings, with the added information that a meeting 
is to be held on Friday at Newcastle to settle details. 
Another and a mightier cheer goes up. Wilson and his col- 
leagues are caught and fairly hugged by some of the more 
enthusiastic, whilst others of us sei/e and waltz one another 
round on the carriage-drive as madly as ever we danced at a 
flower-show ball. Hats and caps are thrown into the air, and 
we cheer ourselves hoarse. Our slow advance up Great 
Gates and through the Market-place is like a triumphal pro- 
cession, the cheers ringing out without cessation, whilst the 
Federation Board have to undergo an ordeal of hand-shaking 
which would unnerve an American President. The Strike is 
over, and the masters have accepted our offer. 

This Conference took place on ist June. Work at 
the pits was resumed on 3rd June. 
VOL. II K 



130 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Next day the Bishop addressed the following letter 
to the incumbents of the diocese : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, 2nd June 1892. 

Reverend and dear Brother I shall, I am sure, give ex- 
pression to your own desire in requesting you to ask your 
parishioners to offer their humble and hearty thanks to God 
for our happy deliverance from the strife by which the diocese 
has been long afflicted ; and to pray that we may all here- 
after be enabled through His help to set forward more 
effectually than before the cause of brotherhood and love, by 
which we are taught that Christians should be known. 
Yours most faithfully, B. F. DUNELM. 

The same day the papers at home and abroad were 
full of the Bishop's praises. This circumstance, how- 
ever, would not contribute much to his thankfulness 
and joy at the conclusion of the strife. Nor yet would 
he have derived much satisfaction from some of the 
abuse which was at the same time heaped upon him ; 
for it was so palpably unmerited. There will always 
be people, I suppose, incapable of believing in dis- 
interested action, so persons were not wanting on this 
occasion who declared that the Bishop was merely 
acting in the interests of his own income, which 
was popularly supposed to depend on royalties on 
coal. 1 

One person, seized with the divine afflatus, bursts 



The I)ishop of Durham is useful at last, 

Fie has settled the strike, all trouble is past, 

For this he, I think, is entitled to thanks, 

His royalties should now rise at once on the banks. 

1 Such sentiments as those quoted above were not very generally enter- 
tained ; but it is painful to reflect that they were publicly expressed by a 
candidate for Parliament. 



x DURHAM 131 

The Bishop with his ten thousand a year 
Wrung out of labour, brings many a tear, 
1 las lie assisted in all the distress ? 
Yes, he has helped them to ten per cent less. 

The poet concludes by apostrophising the Bishop 
thus : " Filthy with lucre, most reverend divine." 

Another indignant miner, in a very lengthy prose 
document, asserts, "A ten per cent reduction from your 
vast income or sumptuous living would make a great 
change in your larder or wine-cellar." And yet the 
good Bishop regularly gave away twenty- five per cent 
of his income in charity ; was a teetotaller for others' 
sake, although from his boyhood up to about his 
fiftieth year he had been accustomed to alcoholic 
beverages ; and would, if left to himself, have subsisted 
entirely on dry toast and weak tea. 

The Bishop always felt that it was a degradation 
to be dragged about by horses, and although in his old 
age he was compelled to submit to the indignity, he 
would always sit miserably huddled up in a corner of 
the carriage with his back to the horses, as a sort of 
protest against the horrid necessity. Such was the 
reality. But the indignant miner in a grand flight of 
fancy exclaims, " When you arc taking your pleasant 
driving out, driven along by your postilion and other 
retinue in your splendid equipage and richly-caparisoned 
and well-fed steeds . . ." 

Two letters written by the Bishop after his success- 
ful mediation may be here given : 

To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

('..N.R., 2ji(t/itHe[iS()2]. 

Very many thanks for your most kind sympathy. We 
ought, as we have before asked the help of God, to thank 
Him for the mercy which He has shown us. 



132 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yd June 1892. 

My dear Hort Your thought of me in this heavy strain 
is very welcome. It was worth doing at any cost ; and I 
have just received a telegram from the Secretaries of the two 
bodies saying that the arrangements for recommencing work 
are so far completed that they will not require to trouble me 
again. I was appointed to settle any difference that might 
arise as to the reinstatement of the old men. The men 
have shown great powers of obedience, endurance, and self- 
control, and I completely trust their loyalty. 

It will be some time before I shall be quiet again. The 
last half-hour of waiting on Wednesday was terrible. I dare 
not think what failure would have meant. At the end the 
owners were glad, I believe, that they had made the con- 
cession, but I had to speak as my office enabled me to speak. 
Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

Most of the world was content to echo " Blessed are 
the peacemakers," and that is surely comment enough 
on this incident in the Bishop's life. Yet to mitigate 
the horrors of the pitman's poetry quoted above I 
venture to reproduce another little piece which has a 



THE PIT WIFE'S ADDRESS TO THE SAFETY LAMP 1 

My canny wee lamp has come back to wor hoose, 
After tli' pit has been three months loose ; 
A' sure Ts as pleased as when Sail wes born, 
For (ieordie ^ans back te work in tlr morn. 



: At the commencement of the Strike, all the miners handed over their 
lamps to the colliery officials. When work is resumed, the miners invari- 
ably carry home their own lamps, which are looked upon 1 >y the wives as 
part of the furniture. The presence of the lamp a^ain in the house is 
supposed to call forth the above lines. 



x DURHAM 133 

My canny wee lamp hangs up in its place, 
An' I've polish'd its bonny wee face ; 
I've missed it sair, an' been lonely an' lorn, 
But Geordie gans back te work in th' morn. 

My canny wee lamp luiks se pleasant an' bright, 
As it hangs on the wall both by day and by night, 
That I knaw there's no fear of trouble or sorrowing 
For Geordie gans back te work in th' morn. 

My canny wee lamp's th' best friend I've got, 
For like me it's a share in wor Geordie's lot, 
An' for poonds I wouldn't noo from it be torn, 
For Geordie gans back te work in th' morn. 

My canny wee lamp in the pit thy light shed, 
So that Geordie may earn for th' bairns thor bread, 
An' to hunger an' care keep all of us foreign, 
As Geordie gans back te work in th' morn. 

J. R. 

Immediately after the conclusion of the Conference 
in the Castle the Bishop took train for Peterborough, to 
take part in a solemn service of dedication of the new 
work in the Cathedral. Once more he there occupied 
the pulpit from which he had so often preached. His 
text on this occasion was, " Not unto themselves, but 
unto you," and in the course of his sermon he said : 

The occasion for which we are gathered together con- 
strains us to recall these far-reaching thoughts of inspiring- 
obligation and active gratitude. Every work of loving faith 
is a spring of inspiration for those to whose care it is entrusted. 
We know what this Minster has been to many in the past. 
We know how it has borne for centuries an intelligible 
message to waiting hearts by the peculiar features of its 
structure : how it has symbolised the wide welcome of the 
faith by the amplitude of its unique portal ; how it has 
expressed the self-devotion of service in the unity of the long 
nave, guarded through changing styles ; how it lias shown in 
the western porch that an urgent peril may be made the 



134 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

occasion of a fresh beauty; how it speaks to us in the 
southern .spire of a loyal skill with which a master crowns the 
unfinished design of another with a work of matchless grace. 

Thus the mediaeval builders wrote their thoughts in their 
temples for our learning ; and the lesson has not been un- 
heeded here or unfruitful. Among the memories of this 
Minster none is dearer, I think, to those who love it, than 
that in troublous times, when in the judgment of sober men 
we seemed to be on the verge of a revolution, its guardians 
accomplished on a noble scale the work of restoration, which 
as a sign and a call has since quickened corporate Church 
life throughout our land. That work trained on the spot 
a school of artists and craftsmen of whom the city may be 
proud. To-day children complete the work of their fathers, 
and hand on the great tradition which they have received, 
showing in new forms that faithfulness, life, hope are the un- 
changeable attributes of true art. 

So it is that everything about us speaks of tender rever- 
ence for the work of our fathers and of confident trust in the 
work of our children. Here, in a peculiar sense, old and new 
meet together. And it is as shrines guarding the offerings of 
every generation that our great churches do their work, and 
bind age to age with natural piety, sacraments to us in a 
most true sense "of the grace of life," active in many parts 
and in many fashions. If we forget the past in the most 
generous and thankful enthusiasm for that which God has 
shown to us, we shall not wisely serve the future. But in this 
Minster such forgetfulness is impossible. Change follows 
change, but all changes are harmonised by one unchanging 
life. The legend of Oswald, which connects Peterborough 
with my northern home, tells us in a noble parable how 
simplicity of devotion clothes the corruptible with incorruption. 
The arm hallowed by deeds of love can never decay. The 
fashion of this world passeth away, but he who cloeth the will 
of (jod who strives only to express His glory by thought 
and work abideth for ever. 

Such thoughts carry us forward. When it was my happy 
privilege to minister here, I was glad to speak once and again 
of our debt to the past. Now I wish to .speak of our debt to 



x DURHAM 135 

the future. It is but another aspect of the same truth. Fur, 
as we contemplate our gathered treasures, we cannot but ask 
to what use we shall put them, and so we pass on to the 
wider question of the office which we are called to fulfil for 
our children. 

The dedication ceremony was performed by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, who said afterwards in a 
speech delivered at the public luncheon in the Corn 
Exchange : - 

Our cathedrals are in themselves a great lesson of the 
unity of the Church during the past ages, and I attribute the 
spread of the desire for their restoration largely to the publi- 
cation some thirty years ago of a series of articles by Canon 
Westcott, when he first came to Peterborough from Marrow, in 
Macmillarfs Magazine, The determination which has ex- 
pressed itself since then to see that every cathedral in the 
land is properly restored has been very marked. 

On the following day my father returned to Bishop 
Auckland, and notes in his text -book that he saw 
" some smiling faces in the park." A few days later 
be gathered together a private Conference at the Castle 
to consider the question of profit-sharing. 

The Bishop's brief holiday this year was devoted to 
work on the Epistle to the Ephcsians, and to the 
Charge which he delivered at his Primary Visitation in 
the following November. This Charge was entitled 
" The Incarnation a Revelation of Human Duties," 
and attracted general and serious attention. From it 

o 

I will quote but one brief paragraph which one has 
described as " a nugget of gold " : 

Men cannot, even with a show of reason, press their 
" rights " to the uttermost. They ask for forgiveness as they 
have forgiven forgiven, thai is, real wrongs forgone just 



136 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

claims. We have indeed "no rights but duties"; and these 
can never be discharged in full. In strictness of account we 
must remain debtors to the end ; and through the obligations 
of our Faith we are debtors to all who need us. 

In October 1892 the Bishop was present at the 
opening of the winter session of the Durham College 
of Medicine at Newcastle. He says of this function in 
a letter to his wife : 

NEWCASTLE, qth October 1892. 

The meeting is over. It was a wild scene, but the men 
really listened very patiently to me. As a rule, they sprang 
rattles and blew trumpets and shouted and sang "For he's a 
jolly good fellow" and the like. There was not the faintest 
attempt at discipline, and the poor men were at the extreme 
end of a long crowded room. However, I spoke over all the 
rest to them and they seemed to follow. . . . 

The following are some of the words that he spoke : 

Our work, let us remember, is our life, and not simply the 
means for our living. It is our work which makes us what we 
are and what we shall be. You are justly proud of your pro- 
fession. You are called to a work which opens for you a field 
of inexhaustible research. You are called to render direct 
service to men, and a service of which the good is recognised 
gratefully and at once. And sometimes, perhaps, in my own 
work, I have been almost tempted to envy the physician the 
speed and the certainty of his own return. But then we know 
that each profession has its dangers exactly in proportion as 
it is engrossing. I know the dangers of your profession be- 
cause I know the dangers of my own. Both studies, the 
study of theology and the study of medicine, are engrossing, 
and therefore they tend lo be one-sided. We theologians are 
tempted to regard only moral forces and moral results. The 
physician, on the other hand, is tempted only to regard 
physical forces and physical results. But if the two studies 
stand, as it were, at the opposite extremes of the one great 
study of life, here also the proverb is true that extremes 



x DURHAM 137 

meet. In old times, you will remember, priest and physician 
were one, and now when the area of knowledge has so in- 
definitely increased, when now, therefore, this is no longer 
possible, it seems to me to be of positively vital importance 
that the priest and the physician should be mutually conversant 
with each other's principles and with each other's methods. 

The close of this eventful year in my father's life 
was shadowed by the death of his " more than a 
brother " Professor Hort. The following letters reveal 
in part his loss : 

To MRS. HORT 

(The day on which Professor Ilort died) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, St. Andrews Ay, 1892. 

Dear Mrs. Hort What can I say ? A note which I had 
yesterday from Dr. Moulton, enclosing one from you, caused 
me fresh anxiety, but yet I cannot feel that an end has come. 
You know w r hat Dr. Hort has been to me for more than forty 
years far more than a brother, a constant strength and 
inspiration. His life has passed into many lives. Thus we 
cannot wholly lose him. That he should have exhausted his 
last resource of strength in devotion to a friend made the 
close of work like the whole course. We were last together 
here. We two felt the presence of a third ; and now 1 must 
strive to do what remains to be done unguided by the two voices 
w r hich, as long as I could appeal to them, never failed me. 

God will support and comfort you all.- Ever, in affectionate 
sympathy, yours most sincerely, 15. V. DUM.I.M. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OK CANTED r.ruv 

(The day of Professor Horl's funeral) 

LOLLARDS' TOWKU, *]tli Daember 1892. 

My dear Archbishop " Stet '' : yes indeed, and may it 
always be so. 1 I hardly know my true self otherwise. 

1 The Archbishop had addressed him as " My dear Westcott," and had 
decided to let it so stand. 



1 3 8 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

We knew that you would be with us as you could. The 
end was as calm and, now we know all, as happy as it could 
have been. If it had been deferred organic disease might 
have caused great distress. No doubt the effort to complete 
the article on Lightfoot, in which he was keenly and joyously 
interested, hastened the crisis, and this very devotion, as we 
believe, averted suffering. " Do not wake me," he said (for 
the usual refreshment), and the words were fulfilled. I never 
saw death more beautiful ; but indeed there was no trace of 
death, only quiet waiting for the call. 

He can have no successor as far as I can see. How have 
we failed ? But God will work in other ways. 

I hope that you keep well. Your cares are constantly 
present to me. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

On the same day he wrote to his eldest son 
saying : 

The last service is over, and I have had the last sight. 
Nothing could be less like death. It was perfect peace. 

It is strange very strange to stand now alone, the 
survivor of younger friends. Yet while it is day we must 
work still. My heart is sad for Cambridge. But God fulfils 
His will. 

To HIS SIXTH SON 

AUCKLAND, 2nd Sunday in Advent, 1892. 

You will perhaps already have heard of the great sorrow 
which has befallen us this week. Dr. Hort passed away in 
sleep in the early morning of St. Andrew's Day. Pic had 
been long ill, but when Brooke was at Cambridge he saw him, 
and found him better than he expected. I am very glad that 
he had that last talk. He was, you know, his godson and 
Dr. Lightfoot's. And now both are gone, and I, the eldest 
of the three, remain still to do what work 1 can. So the last 
link with the Cambridge which I knew is gone. The loss 
will be very heavy, and there is no one to occupy the vacant 
place. How hard to look back twenty years, when we three 
worked together, and could guide the teaching in our own 



x DURHAM 139 

subject, and now all has passed into other hands, and to other 
forms of thought. May it all be for good ! Yet I had hoped 
that Dr. Hurt would have worked on with me to the end. 

I expect to go on from Cambridge to London. On Tuesday 
evening I have promised to speak in Exeter Hall a great 
undertaking. This I have only done once before ; but I 
did not think it right to decline, as I had arranged to be 
in town. 

The Exeter Hall speech mentioned above was 
delivered by the Bishop at a meeting of the Church 
Pastoral Aid Society. He then said : 

It cannot be too often insisted on that to cope with 
prevailing evils is not alone the work of the clergy and the 
ordinary lay worker. The help of every Christ Lin man or 
woman is needed, and should be called forth to use all 
influence for the spread of Cod's kingdom. Leakage and 
loss would be unknown if every one recognised his or her 
responsibility in seeking to bring others to Christ. Above- 
all, let us show the power of example by a Christian life. 
That life lived is of infinitely more value than words. Let 
it be evidenced in the home and family life. Some say it 
is a hard thing. And so it is a hard thing. But do we 
believe in the Holy Ghost as a living Worker who takes of the 
things of Christ and shows them unto us? If we do so 
believe in Him, all things are possible ; but if not, we can 
do nothing. 

In January 1893 the Bishop visited his native town, 
Birmingham, to be present at the opening of the 
Grammar School for Girls at Camp Hill. On his way 
thither he wrote to his wife : 

VOKK, 24//' Jiuntui-y 1893. 

. . . The first crossing of the Tees 1 was as yesterday. I 
hope that things have not gone backward, and yet how little 

1 The river Tees is the southern boundary of the county and diocese of 
Durham. 



140 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

the mass of the people is touched. Yet I hardly see what 
more can be done. We don't believe enough. Sometimes I 
think that we are too weary to believe. Well, I will try to 
look at some notes now. . . . 

The address which he delivered at Camp Hill con- 
tained, besides his splendid tribute to his old master, 
Bishop Prince Lee/ a plea for " distinctive womanhood." 
He said : 

Humanity would be impoverished if women were to set 
themselves to do all that men do, as their rivals and not their 
helpmates. I do not attempt to adjust in any balance the 
gifts and graces of men and women. I only contend that 
they are different, and precious because they are different. I 
cannot compare their relative value, nor can I compare the 
relative value of the services which great poets and great 
artists render to their countrymen. But I know this : that 
the world is richer through the services of poet and artist 
alike, far richer than it would be if one were lost in the other. 
And even if it may seem to be an old man's prejudice, I can 
form no loftier wish for woman than the poet formed forty 
years ago, that 

at the last she set herself to man, 
Like perfect music unto noble words. 

The Bishop stayed on this occasion with his only 
sister, Mrs. Sabin, who resided at Mosclcy. From her 
house he wrote to his wife : 

MosEi.F.v, 5.45 \2.&h January 1893]. 

. . . All has gone off well, I think. Every one was most 
kind. Dr. Dale was singularly cordial, and even spoke of the 
"Lord Bishop" once or twice; but he rightly preferred "Dr. 
W." I saw Dr. Watson - also. The afternoon was very wet, 
but there was a good gathering. . . . 

1 Sec vol. i. pp. 25-28. '-' Sec vol. i. p. 174. 



x DURHAM 141 

On the last day of April 1893 the first three years 
of my father's episcopate were completed. On that 
day he wrote to a son : 



AUCKLAND, 
i\th Sunday after 1'lastcr, 1893. 

To-morrow, as you may rcmemher, is the anniversary of 
my consecration. I have completed three years of service 
here. It is very hard to believe. Very little seems to have 
been done, and yet I have tried to do all that lay in my 
power. As yet I have not seen all the parishes in the diocese, 
but I am corning gradually to know them. It is at least a 
satisfaction that many good men have come to work here. 
The change which has been made in the last twenty years is, 
every one says, very wonderful. But there are troublous 
times before us, and things move quickly. 

Several of the Sermons and Addresses delivered by 
the Bishop in these first years of his episcopate were 
published by him in a volume entitled Tlie. Incarnation 
and Common Life. In the preface to this book he 
says : 

It can very rarely happen that one who has spent long 
and busy years as student and teacher should be suddenly 
called at the close of life to the oversight of a diocese in 
which the problems of modern life are presented in the most 
urgent and impressive form. Such a transition brings with 
it of necessity many strange experiences. It gives by its very 
unexpectedness a singular reality to earlier thoughts. The 
Faith which has been pondered in quiet must without pre- 
paration be brought into the market-place and vindicated 
as a power of action. In the following pages I have 
endeavoured to express what I have felt from time to time 
when I have been called upon to consider some particular 
phase of our present life, and to mark, however imperfectly, 
the application of the Gospel to our own difficulties and 
sorrows and duties. The highest conceivable attestation of a 



142 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Divine revelation lies in its power to meet each new want of 
man as it arises, and to gain fresh force from the growth of 
human knowledge. The message of the Incarnation satisfies 
this criterion in unexpected ways, and our distresses enable 
us to feel its wider applications. 

In concluding a review of this volume, a writer in 
the Cambridge Review says : 

In this, as in all Dr. Westcott's writings, the grace of his 
thought finds fit expression in beautiful language. As regards 
the tone of this book, perhaps the most marked feature is its 
never-failing brightness and hope. The writer fully realises 
that these are days of trial, but to him "days of trial are 
days of insight." In the second of two sermons which are 
added as an appendix to the volume he deals with a subject 
which he has made in a special sense his own the Con- 
ditions of a Progressive Revelation. He shows how many a 
time gain has come to Christian faith through apparent loss, 
and then touches on the questions about the Bible which are 
to many the special trial of the present day. I cannot re- 
frain from one last quotation on this subject : -" It is not 
surprising that those who have not been specially led to 
study the problems of Biblical inquiry should be startled 
when they are told abruptly how many points of contact in 
form or substance our Scriptures have with other writings, 
how fragmentary they are, how intensely human in their 
structure and characteristics, how we can see them, as it 
were, built up out of different parts, witnessing to different 
sources, reflecting natural influences. It is not surprising 
that many devout believers should by admitting such con- 
clusions seem to lose a Divine Presence in the light of which 
they have lived. Yet here also the Power, which they have 
clothed for themselves in a vesture of man's device, says with 
a voice of tender warning, It is expedient for you that 1 go 
away; and already we are coming to know the blessing 
which the withdrawal of old opinions discloses; to know, as 
we have never known before, that the Bible is a living Book, 
one in many parts springing directly in external form out of 



x DURHAM 143 

the manifold fulness of that human life to which it still 
speaks ; to know that it offers the past to us not as a dead 
thing but as a clear mirror of eternal Truth ; to know that in 
that record of the Divine, marked in some sense with the 
traces of our infirmities, we can find the interpretation of 
God's present dealings with the world." 

Another work published during these first years at 
Durham was Religious Thought in the \Vcst. The 
Essays contained in this volume were written earlier, 
very much earlier in some cases, in my father's life, and 
mention has already been made of them. The work 
was planned " very early in life," but unhappily was 
never finished as desined. 






The completed book was to demonstrate of Western 
civilisation that "it is true in every realm of man's activity, 
true in action, true in literature, true in art, diat the works 
which receive the most lasting homage of the soul are those 
which are most Christian, and that it is in each the Christian 
element, the element which answers to the fact of the Incar- 
nation, to the fellowship of God with man as an accomplished 
reality of the present order, which attracts and holds our 
reverence." 

This clear statement of the scope and aim of the writer is 
made still clearer by the denial that it can be shown that 
"the vital force of any other great religion is alien from 
Christianity," and by the insistence that " we are, we must be, 
as believers in Christ, in the presence of a living, that is, ot a 
speaking God." To show what is meant by this last sen- 
tence, the paper on Browning's Teaching is inserted ; and to 
enable us to comprehend quite fully the spirit in which the 
whole scheme was to have been carried out, Dr. Wcstcott 
gives us the charming sketch of Benjamin Whichcote, which 
might almost be called the soul of the volume. The elaborate 
essay on Christian Art atones for the absence in the earlier 
essays of any attempt to prove that in great art Christ must 
be found making it great, 



144 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



The sentences we have quoted above contain indeed a 
splendid and a sufficient creed ; a creed which gives a real 
and glorious content to the phrase so easily spoken the 
divinity of Christ. But it is so far from the creed of orthodox 
Christianity that to recite it saddens us rather than cheers. 
Most Christians do not dare to allow any inspiration to 
" profane " writers, as they profanely call them, lest the authors 










rnmiSf 

\\! ^r^^p 

' V 



:r^_~ 



SANCTUARY KNOCKKR OK DURHAM CATIIKDKAL. 
From a Sketch by Bishop \Vestcott (see p. ^4). 

of the New Testament should be jealous. . . . Against this 
blindness, this indifference to Christ's honour, Dr. Westcott's 
book was to have protested. He would prove the Incarnation 
by demonstrating that poets and painters and philosophers 
have achieved greatness when they have expressed with con- 
viction some part of the truth of Christianity when they 
have agrec'd with Christ. We find it hard to reconcile our- 
selves to the loss of the completed work. 1 



x DURHAM 145 

The following letters belong to the first two years 
of my father's episcopate (1890-92) : 

TO HIS FOURTH AND FIFTH SONS 

CAMBRIDGE, 14/7* March 1890. 

My dear George and Foss I must economise, you see, and 
I rejoice too to think of you as one in two forms. Mamma 
will have told you of the work which I have dared to accept. 
Happily I was only called to obey. There was practically no 
choice. That is a comfort to me. But the chief comfort is 
that I know that from our household, and from many friends 
and strangers, will come streams of silent help. The piles of 
letters which have reached us already tell this ; and I trust 
that I may be enabled to do something to make the reality of 
the one life more evident. My first text will be, I think, 
" Brethren, pray for us " " Brethren and children, pray for 
us." To hear of your work is a great encouragement. May 
God bless you in it ! Ever your most affectionate father, 

B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To ARCHDEACON FARRAR 

CAMBRIDGE, 24/7* March 1890. 

I cannot wonder that you need some change and rest. 
The perpetual strain which you are able to bear amazes me. 
But the joy of the work in reaching so many thousand hearts 
must be a great support. 

The lessons of the last few months have taught me as I 
never knew it before the reality of the One Life in which we.. 
live, and which shows itself in many ways through us. Nothing 
is ours, and there can be no separation. 

If the day of Consecration comes we shall greatly miss you, 
and still we shall feel you to be very near. 

I have never been further than Milan. You will, I 
hope, go to Assisi. It is one of the shrines which I 
should gladly have visited. The town, I fancy, retains its 
old character. 

VOL II. 



146 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To ARCHDEACON WATKINS 

CAMBRIDGE, -2nd April 1890. 

It is a great relief to me to have Mr. Lee's letter which 
you have kindly enclosed, but these anxious delays are a piece 
of salutary discipline. 

If I may give counsel, I should charge you earnestly to 
avoid all risk. You have assured me and this assurance I 
value that you would concur in the nomination which will 
be submitted to the Chapter, and I imagine that provision 
can be made for their legal action. 

Our visit to Auckland was most satisfactory. It opened 
out indeed fresh and even bewildering prospects of work, 
but the charge which has been received in loyal obedience 
can be borne. . . . 

To ARCHDEACON FARRAR 

CAMKKIIX;K, 5/// April 1890. 

First of all, let me ask most earnestly that to you I may 
always be "Westcott." What have I done to lose my person- 
ality and become an office ? For the present, financial reasons 
give an answer to the proposal which you most kindly make. 
The expenses of entering on the office are so considerable 
that I shall be obliged to borrow largely from my bankers for 
necessary things, and I should not feel it right to do so for 
what is at least unnecessary. At present, indeed. I am not 
technically eligible, and I hope that whatever claims a bishop 
may seem to have for the honour will not be injured by delay. 
It would indeed be an honour and a pleasure to meet face 
to face the most distinguished men who are found at the 
Athcnneum, but I feel that my working time must now be very 
short, and I must confine myself more closely than heretofore, 
if possible, to my proper work. The Archbishop has most 
kindly offered me rooms at Lollards' Tower, so that I shall 
have a home in London. r To belong to the Athenaeum was 
a dream of early days, but I remember consulting Lightfoot 
about it, and he said decidedly, " It is not worth while," and 



x DURHAM 147 

my dream was scattered. I do hope that you will have real 
rest and find new life in Italy. 

One word more. I am too old to change my name : 
please let me be " Westcott " to the end, or you will rob me 
of myself. 

To ins ELDEST SON 

(In reply to congratulations on his appointment as Hon. Fellow of 
Trinity) 

WESTMINSTER, tyh May 1890. 

Yes, I was pleased, for the honour was unexpected. There 
was, however, an opinion, I believe, that as long as I was on 
the foundation as Professor I was ineligible. In any case, the 
appointment was very gracefully made now. 

I have not thanked you for mostly kindly taking care of 
poor Mep. 1 The dog is far more than a dog to me. He is 
a symbol. . . . Your cats will, I trust, teach him forbearance. 
Anyhow, thank you very much for caring for the creature. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

WESTMINSTER, izth May 1890. 

The pressure of necessary work at present would make it 
impossible for me to touch the question of which you write. 
. . . Gore is perfectly able to take care of himself, and it is 
significant that he has been elected Bampton Lecturer. My 
fear is that the reaction will go too far. 

I spoke to the Archbishop last night, and he completely 
agreed with me. ... I strongly object to the word iuscitia. 
The idea of knowledge does not come in at such a stage. 
The position as to critical details is purely neutral and inde- 
terminate. This is, I think, a vital point. David is not a 
chronological, but a spiritual person in relation, e.g., to Ps. ex. 
I write hastily and crudely after more than three hours' letters. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 26? h May 1890. 

Will you offer to the Council of the Clergy Training School 
my warm thanks for their most generous words. Nothing in 
1 See vol. i. p. 317. 



148 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

which I have been allowed to take part at Cambridge offers 
more full assurance of becoming a permanent source of bless- 
ing to the University and the Church. The School has 
slowly and naturally grown, and it will grow. 



To ARCHDEACON WATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, iqthjune 1890. 

The question of stained windows requires careful considera- 
tion, and I think that it must be considered without delay 
and rules laid down ; but I have not felt it well in the one 
case which has come before me to depart from the precedent 
which I found. I only required that the Incumbent at whose 
request the permission for the insertion of the windows was 
granted should state that in his opinion the design was suited 
to the Church, to the particular position, and to any other 
windows which the Church contained. You will agree, I am 
sure, with the necessity of the queries. 

To HIS WIFE 

STOCKTON, ^rd Sunday after Trinity 
\_\st Jnly\ 1890. 

One word only to say that I preached my sermon without 
MS., was welcomed by two Mayors, marched between two 
lines of scarlet volunteers Tambour-Major at the head and 
this afternoon I shook hands with about four hundred church 
workers, and said to each group the most appropriate words 
I could muster; visited a home of G.F.S. ; and now after 
service have met the Churchwardens. The day has been 
fine, and I hope that some good may have been done. 

LOLLARDS' TOWKK, 2.\st July 1890. 

... On Saturday I heard of Dr. Vaughan's attack, and 
walked to the Temple. I had a long talk with Mrs. Vaughan 
for two hours, I should think. Dr. Yaughan was sleeping 
then, but I promised to go after the afternoon service on 
Sunday. So I went to the Abbey Dr. Farrar preached 



DURHAM 149 

and after service I necessarily had a few words with the Dean 
and Dr. Farrar. Both seemed to be very well. Then I went 
to the Temple, talking all the way with an American, who 
said that that was the way busy men did business in the States 
(alas !), and then I found Dr. Vaughan. He was as kind and 
sympathetic as usual, and interested in the work of the North, 
which he curiously watches. He seemed to be weak, but the 
tea was forthcoming. "I think nothing," he added, " of a 
house in which tea is not laid on to every storey." So we talked 
a little, and then I hastened back to Lambeth, having originally 
promised to have tea there, and stayed till after ten, talking 
of many things. Mrs. Vaughan gave me the occasion for a 
merry laugh. Two American literary ladies strolled along a 
road from Boston till they came to the first milestone, which 
bore the inscription, " 1 m. from Boston." They took it for a 
sepulchral monument, and in enthusiasm exclaimed, "How 
touching ! How simple ! How human ! 'I'm from Boston.' 
So the dead speak ! " I hope there are milestones in America, 
and if not the incident may be transferred to Lincolnshire. 
She said likewise that the following appeared in an Indian 
paper : " A new god has appeared on the frontier, but the 
police are after him." You have the two occasions of my 
laughter, and I hope you will use them. 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, z^th July 1890. 

. . . Yesterday I went by penny boat to St. Paul's. It 
was really enjoyable. The river and trees were bright and 
sunny. My neighbour looked at me for a time, and conclud- 
ing, I hope, that I was a "conversable" person, said, "I wish 
my wife were here. I'm trying to describe the scene to her 
in a letter ; but who can do it ? " So he put away paper 
and pencil. Then after a pause he said, "Now, who are 
you ? " I told him, and after a few more words he said, 
"Well, it does me good: it makes my heart warm. You're 
the Bishop of Durham ! I had the Bishop's hand laid on me, 
you know the good old Bishop of St. David's ; but I never 
had a word from a Bishop since." So he shook hands and 
went with kind wishes, having made the edifying discovery 
that even bishops are men. 



150 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To THE BISHOP OF MINNESOTA 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, 
BISHOP AUCKLAND, zyd August [1890]. 

My dear Brother What can I say that does not altogether 
fall short of what I feel ? Even in a very humble way I feel 
here how those whom we do not see are chief powers in our 
life. In the few weeks in which I have been allowed to work 
I can feel how to me and to others Bishop Lightfoot is the 
great present power. We all recognise him, and hear his 
voice, and perceive his guidance, and know that now the 
influence is freed from every earthly admixture. The truth 
was forced upon me last week when it was my duty to conse- 
crate the Church of St. Columba a duty which he was 
eagerly looking foward to, so that on his last journey to 
Bournemouth he took with him all the literature to prepare 
his sermon and it fell to me to preach as at the twin Church 
of St. Ignatius, not quite a year ago, when we were full of 
thanksgiving for his restoration. . . . You will be constantly 
in our thoughts, and we are glad that you know the home 
that is lent to us. Perhaps you may even see us in it. It is a 
great thing that every one must feel that the Chapel is the 
heart of it. Such memories are a marvellous inheritance to 
be used for the whole Church, and I think that they can be 
used. . . . With most grateful and affectionate remembrances, 
ever yours, B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

9/7/ September 1890. 

It seems to be a clear duty to be present (all being well) 
at Eden's consecration, yet I hardly know how I can spare 
the time; and 1 must obey you, though I cannot be of use. 
My heart often fails me. Things seem to be so utterly 
wrong. Perhaps God will give us the grace of self-surrender. 
The confidence and self-assertion of men terrify me. 



x DURHAM 151 

To THE REV. E. PRICE 

(On his acceptance of the Vicarage of Bishop Auckland) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ^tk October 1890. 

My dear Mr. Price It is a cause of very great thankful- 
ness to me that you see your way clearly to undertake what 
is a heavy charge and yet, I believe, a noble opportunity for 
work, and that Mrs. Price feels the call no less deeply. May 
God give you both the joy of service to the fulness of every 
gift ! There will be room for all. I have written to the 
Churchwardens to announce the appointment. 

For every reason it will be desirable that you should come 
among us with as little delay as possible, and if you can 
formally enter on your work on St. Andrew's Day it will be a 
most happy omen. 

You will forgive a short note. Just now I hardly know 
how to do my necessary work in any way. Again, may God 
bless you ! Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, *]th October 1890. 

The general spirit of the Congress was excellent. Lord 
Halifax was most affecting. I think that his extremes! 
opponents would feel his intense devoutness. I must not try 
to write more. It seems to be true of our Church, ME 6 



(On receipt of proof of the Lambeth Judgment) 

G.N.R., 2isf October 1890. 

. . . The corrections seem to be all improvements. I 
have made a few notes on my way to Newcastle (not an in- 
vasion of my brother's Diocese). The last page you do not 
give, I see. It seems very hard to criticise that in writing. 
Something should be said, but the manner of saying is in- 

1 God is with us. 



152 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

finitely difficult. The Court needs to be majestic and yet 
fatherly in its counsels. Is not power given with work done 
as God's work ? XAPlSTflGlL 1 

I cannot but be very thankful for the Judgment, and 
believe with fresh confidence that it will prove to have been 
a great opportunity greatly used. 

OENAPEAMEXOSEniTEAEZEI. 2 

The above note is written in pencil. On it Arch- 
bishop Benson has endorsed " See final note of 
approval. Deo gratias." 



To ARCHDEACON FARRAR 

(On his appointment as Chaplain to the House of Commons) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2-]th October 1890. 

My dear Farrar Day after day I have wished to write 
one line to say with what pleasure I heard of your 
appointment to the House of Commons. It is an office 
of singular interest and dignity, and binds together with a 
natural fitness St. Margaret's, St. Peter's, and St. Stephen's. 
Happily it will not perceptibly add to your labours. 

The work here seems to grow. Reading is absolutely 
impossible ; yet there are some things to encourage, but 
sorrows which startle. So it must be in parish work. Kver 
yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2"jt/i October 1890. 

... 1 have found "Cherry Ripe '' :: and brought it to the 
study, so that now I hope that I may like the room better. 

1 Thanks be to God. 

- Me who began . . . will perfect. 1'hil. i. o. 

z My father was very pleased with the coloured print of this picture. 
It had hung for years in his room in the Divinity School at Cambridge. 



DURHAM 153 



To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, Sf. Mtf/ien's Day, 1890. 

My dear Archdeacon If we are strong, and I believe 
that we are, by the sympathy and help of our fellow-workers, 
I certainly ought to be able to face my overwhelming work. 
At least I feel how much I owe to you and other counsellors. 
May God enable us to do His work, and give us the joy of 
knowing that we strive to t serve Him in the fulness of our life ! 

Mrs. Westcott joins me in heartiest good wishes to Mrs. 
Watkins. Ever yours most sincerely and gratefully, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

To THE REV. E. PRICE 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ^ist January 1891. 

My dear Mr. Price After very careful consideration, I 
think that I shall best consult the interests of the Rural 
Deanery by inviting you to undertake the office of Rural 
Dean. The only senior clergyman who might naturally have 
been asked to undertake this office would not, I have reason 
to believe, do so. I am, as you know, very anxious to put 
the greatest energy possible into the organisation, and it will 
be an advantage to me to have a Dean near at hand to 
whom I can show unreservedly what is in my mind ; and I 
think that you would be ready to consider independently and 
sympathetically what suggestions I might make. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, i6t/t March 1891. 

If the "," in Luke xxiv. 45 was deliberately adopted I 
don't know how I agreed to it without margin it must remain 
but I think that we shall do well to use the first opportunity 
to settle some reserved points (when ?). All these things are 
rapidly going out of my mind, and the pressure of work in- 
creases as rapidly as strength fails. 



154 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

I rejoice that you are going to West Malvern. No place 
except Norway has done me so much good. We were even 
dreaming of getting there for a few days soon, but it is quite 
hopeless. 

The Extension Meeting was in some ways the most im- 
pressive meeting, except one or two at Hull, that I ever 
attended. The number of young men was very large. 

There must be no change in my name on the title-page. 
All is true and as it should be. 

I have to preach about St. Patrick to-morrow, all being 
well. What a striking figure he is ! 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2nd April 1891. 

My dear Archbishop Not in courtly Spanish phrase, but 
most simply and truly, what I may seem to have is yours. If 
you can use any or all of things which bear my name I shall 
be delighted. 

How fascinating the Visions must be : half pictorial and 
half symbolic are they not ? Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, St. .1/ar/Ss Day, 1891. 

... I must speak in the same sense as to the suggestion 
of my name for a statue. I am quite sure that it is best for 
me to express no opinion on any matter connected with my 
old work. It might easily be perplexing. That volume is 
quite closed. 

To THE REV. J. Li,. DA VIES 

Bisnoi' ArcKi.AM.i, 6/// May 1891. 

My dear Davies It was a very great pleasure to welcome 
your Hulscan Lectures this morning. No subject is more 
hopeful, and I can divine in some way how you will give it 
force. At present I cannot read, and I can hardly think ; 



x DURHAM 155 

yet there are a few things which can be done of which the 
doing seems to give pleasure wholly beyond their worth. 

Now that spring seems to be coming I venture to ask 
whether you and Mrs. Davies could not promise us a little 
visit, say next month. You know that the place is worth 
seeing, and it would be a very great pleasure to us to sec 
you. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, i$th May 1891. 

To my dismay I see that the C.M.S. meeting is in June. 
I fancied it was in July. When shall we be quiet ? 1 rejoice 
that you have a day or two of change. If your work did not 
bring the needed strength I should be afraid. But happily 
work that is offered as a sacrifice always does. 

Every refreshment and joy of peace to you all in the 
fulness of Pentecost. 

To HIS WIFE 

HOUSE OF LORDS, igthjunc 1891. 

You see, my dearest Mary, I have come to fulfil my duties 
by appearing. Our meeting is over. It was full of interest. 
Mr. Gladstone, who bore traces of illness, spoke vigorously 
and well. It was delightful to watch his eye catch fire as 
he went on, and at the end he spoke touchingly of Cardinal 
Manning as the one other survivor of those who had taken 
part in the first meeting. Cardinal Manning, who occupied 
relatively the place which I had, was one of my points. I 
said something of what I had intended to say. 

I am rather tired, but still I get on very fairly well. It is 
very close still. Love to all. Ever your most affectionate 

B. F. DUNELM. 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 2yd June 1891. 

We had a very fair Delhi Meeting, but our statesmen 
could not come. There was a great Indian debate in the 



156 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

House. The Bishop of Calcutta came, but at 4 J. Wright 
had not appeared. We waited some minutes ; still he did 
not come, and Mr. Cubitt said we ought to begin. So 
after a few words I began. In ten minutes or so Wright 
came in. I finished and he began. Then after a time he 
paused, hesitated, paused longer, and was obliged to sit down, 
almost fainting. The Bishop of Calcutta most kindly rose, 
and I took out Wright for a little quiet. He soon recovered, 
and promised to come to tea here ; and then I went to the 
House, for I felt that a Bishop ought not to be absent at an 
Indian debate. It w r as fairly interesting. The Government 
were well defended. The Duke of Argyle spoke very brightly. 
I could not stay to the end, for I asked J. Wright to come at 
8. Love to all. I am just expecting Mr. Tupper. 1 Ever 
your most affectionate B. F. DUNELM. 



JARROW, yd July 1891. 

So far I have done my work, and am just now preparing 
for my evening sermon. I spent an hour or more this after- 
noon in looking over the great shipyard. I could only get 
a glimpse, yet it was full of interest. At one end ironstone 
came in, and at the other end it had passed out an iron- 
clad. I saw several of the men and the managers, and learnt 
something and hope to learn more. 



TO HIS FOURTH AND FIFTH SONS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 307 h fitly 1891. 

My dear George and Foss May God continue to bless 
and keep you in your w r ork ! I do not know when I have felt 
deeper joy than in reading your last letters, or greater thank- 
fulness. The quiet confidence was a sure sign of Divine help. 
The work, as far as I can judge, which has been given you to 
do is full of encouragement. 

The work here grows and grows, and I have always to be 

1 A favourite Harrow pupil of my father's, nuw holding a distinguished 
position in the Indian Civil Service. 



x DURHAM 157 

talking. Yet I hope to move some to action, and now I. am 
looking forward to a brief space for thinking. 

Again and again may God bless you ! Ever your most 
affectionate father, B. F. WESTCOTT. 

To HIS WIFE 

NEWCASTLE, \*]th October 1891. 

I am living a vagrant life, and to-day have not been able 
to write a single letter. It has been the day of the formal 
opening of the Bensham Schools, for which I secured Lord 
Londonderry. . . . The function, to which I had looked for- 
ward with some anxiety, passed off very well, and I think that 
Lord L. was satisfied that it was worth attending. It 
was his first visit to Gateshead. He asked kindly after you. 
On Monday I go to Darlington for S.P.G., and I find that it 
is a magic-lantern lecture. I have mildly remonstrated. I 
hardly think that it was worth my while going. The Bishop 
is, I find, very rightly under the circumstances, in smaller 
letters than the lecturer. 

Mr. Tupper left this morning. We had some quiet talks. 
. . . Mr. B. was very much impressed by him. He learnt 
more, he said, from him in one talk than from both our Indian 
visitors. ... I caught the charwoman kneeling on the stones 
without a mat, and duly scolded her, but she w r as deaf ! So 
much for well-meaning efforts. 

The Bishop, though " in smaller letters," went with 
becoming humility to the lecture, and remarks, " My 
lecture, i.e. the lecture to which I partly listened, went 
off well last night. ... As soon as the room was 
darkened I escaped, and did a little fair work before 
returning." 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, zist October 1891. 

Our Conference is over, and it has been most hopeful. 
The spirit of every one was beautiful, and if nothing comes 
but a better understanding of great employers and the leaders 
of labour, the work is a true bishop's work. 



158 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



To ARCHDEACON FARRAR 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 31^ October 1891. 

My dear Farrar It is difficult to know how to thank you 
for your new work. I can only marvel at the magnitude and 
variety of the services which you are enabled to render by 
bringing to every type of reader the most noble truths. The 
power is a gift for which we must all be thankful. May it 
bring to you more and more the joy of fruitful service ! 

The experience of constant action and constant speaking 
is new to me. Books are practically inaccessible. My heart 
often fails me, yet I try not to look backward. Ever yours 
affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

G.N.R., 8M February 1892. 

. . . My "opium literature" has been far from cheering. 
It is extremely difficult to tell what the truth is. The 
violence and contradiction of authorities is bewildering. I 
wonder whether Lord Cross will be able to throw any light 
upon the subject. He wishes, I am sure, to do right. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

G.N.R., \Stli February 1892. 

. . . The best hope for our Church, whatever the future 
may be, lies, I feel sure, in the clear affirmation of the final 
responsibility of Bishops. I have, you know, a private long- 
ing for a pope, but that is a development. It is hard, indeed, 
to accept the burden of government, but when accepted it 
must be borne, and we must wholly forget ourselves, and 
think only of what is done through us and Who works. . . . 

Mrs. Benson will admire (?) my openness of mind if she 
hears that I have spent sixpence to learn what " Mrs. Jose- 
phine Butler, Mrs. Sheldon Amos, and Mrs. Bramwell Booth " 
think of "Woman's Place in Church Work." 



x DURHAM 159 

To HIS WIFE 

BISHOPTIIORPK, 2yd February 1892. 

... I got to the Minster in excellent time, and, after 
finishing a letter or two, was able to robe for the service. All 
the Bishops of the Northern Province were there. The 
Bishop of Liverpool looked remarkably well. The general 
effect of the Minster was singularly beautiful. It has a 
wonderful power of space, of grandeur, of far-reaching ampli- 
tude, and then the stained glass in the bright light was 
radiant. The Bishops' scarlet too gave colour to the scene. 
After the service the two Houses met in full Synod. The 
Archbishop proposed very quietly and well an address to the 
Queen, and a letter of condolence to the Prince and Princess 
of Wales. Then but all this will be in the papers the 
Bishop of Liverpool proposed a resolution about the late 
Archbishop, and I proposed a resolution about the Bishop of 
Carlisle. I said, as far as I can remember, pretty nearly all 
that I intended to say. . . . 

After lunch the Upper House went to their deliberations 
alone. To my great surprise, the Bishop of Wakefield's reso- 
lution about the R.V. came on. The Bishops of Manchester 
and Liverpool spoke, and then I was obliged to speak on the 
moment. I said some things, I hope, which were worth 
saying. In any case, I felt what I did say, and I think that 
I made that at least clear. . . . 

Perhaps it may be worth while for me to have a few notes 
which I made on a Report on the Prayer Book. Mr. Bout- 
flower will find them in my little packet of engagements, and 
perhaps he will send them. There is a printed paper on 
"Variations in the Modern Editions of the Prayer Book," and 
inside it are two sheets of note-paper with some facts recorded 
on them. I should like to have the Report and the notes, 
but it is of no consequence if they are not easily found. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yd Af arch 1892. 

. . . Mr. Magee's letter was touching. I was very fond 
of the Archbishop, and I think that he knew it. 



160 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To HIS THIRD DAUGHTER 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 17 'th March 1892. 

My dear Daisy The three subjects which you give are 
all good. I don't know that I could write a paper on any one 
of them. Perhaps I should try the third : " The Danger of 
making Children's Lives too Pleasant." " It is good for a man 
(and for a woman) to bear the yoke in his youth." There 
is a good lecture by Professor Maurice on the different 
theories of education in his Lectures on Education. I read 
it before speaking at Harrow. Next, I should take the first 
subject. Here, again, you would find help in one of my 
very few favourite books, Maurice's Social Morality not 
directly indeed, but suggestively as to what the family is, and 
how it leads onward and is not complete in itself. Either of 
these subjects would repay thought, I am sure. As I have to 
speak about everything, it may be that I shall have to speak 
about these matters before long. Then I must ask for your 
paper. Sometimes I should be glad to be silent and not 
have to listen a vain effort, alas ! too often. Love to all. 
Ever your most affectionate father, B. F. DUNELM. 



To MRS. WATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 8//i April 1892. 

My dear Mrs. Watkins The ready worker is always 
burdened. The enclosed comprehensive request, I confess, 
made me angry. I shrink with my whole nature from the 
Chicago Show ; yet Baroness Burdett - Coutts claims respect. 
Would it be possible for you to put on a sheet of paper for 
me the names of the societies in the Diocese which come 
within her scope ? You can do this more easily and more 
completely, I think, than any one. I can add a few notes 
most unwillingly and grudgingly for such a purpose. Yours 
most sincerely, B. F DUNKLM. 



x DURHAM 161 

TO HIS ELDEST SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \\tk May 1892. 

My dear Brooke May C.od bless your work and you in 
the doing of it ! The old words are true, KaXov TO aOXov i<a.l 
?} e/\7n.$ /y.eya/Y?/. 1 May the prize be won and the hope fulfilled ! 
Ever your most affectionate father, B. V. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 



SHIELDS, \2lh May 1892. 

... I duly went to Sunderland yesterday. We had a 
good meeting, and tea, and I hope that some results may 
follow from it. Canon Scott Moncrieff told us that he had 
met an excellent old-fashioned Churchman who thought that 
" the Bishop ought not to come so frequently to the town or 
take part in a Parish Tea. ' In old times,' he said, ' we saw 
the Bishop once in two or three years, and we thouglit a great 
deal of him? " 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 2\st June 1892. 

Five years ago how short the time and that great 
service ! It seems yesterday. 

My journey was accomplished well. I had tea at Gran- 
tham, and again when I reached here. The Bishops of 
Chichester and Oxford are in residence. I hope that the 
Bishop of Salisbury may come up to-day. The quiet of this 
place is soothing and disturbing. It reveals such a spectacle 
of things undone and unattempted and miserably done and 
overwhelmingly rewarded. What will be the end ? 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 22nd June 1892. 

... I saw Mrs. Benson this morning, and hope to go 
with them to the Queen's Concert : so I shall be well cared 
for. Now my " few words " this afternoon are heavily on my 
mind. There is very little time to think. I saw Mr. Rich- 
mond yesterday. He was driving, and got out to tell me of 
his work at St. Paul's. 

1 Fair is the prize and the hope great. 
VOL. II M 



1 62 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



TO HIS ELDEST SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ist July 1892. 

. . . Mr. Welldon was very cordial when I saw him at 
Governor's Speech Day, to which I was happily able to go. 
The Concio spoken by a son of Mr. Bosworth Smith had a 
touching reference to the Durham strike. It was just forty 
years since I went to Harrow. Things have, I think, 
improved in the interval. Mr. Tom Mann, I hear, says that 
Mr. Drage's tale Cyril expresses better than anything the 
views of his party. When I asked for the book at King's 
Cross, the keeper of the stall, with a magnificent air of offended 
superiority, said, "I never keep the book." Who is Messrs. 
Smith's censor ? 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

(On the Confirmation of a Romanist) 

ROBIN HOOD'S BAY, ^th August 1892. 

. . . The question raised in the letter is one on which I 
have had occasion to act. A similar case occurred in Durham 
and the clergyman consulted me. I directed him to inquire 
whether the candidate was clear that he had received no 
imposition of hands a blow is essentially different in idea, 
and so is the application of chrism for I have been told 
that some Roman bishops, following the old ritual, use the 
imposition. And when he replied quite definitely that he 
had not, I said that he ought not to be received to Holy 
Communion in our Church till the imposition of hands had 
been given. I offer no opinion as to what is Confirmation 
elsewhere or in the abstract, but there can be no doubt that 
our Church requires the laying on of hands. In like manner 
I could imagine that if I joined the Creek Church I might 
reasonably yet on far less strong grounds, as I think be 
required to accept chrism, and I should gladly obey. The 
fulness of the conception of Confirmation the open confession 
and the laying on of hands seems to me to have been pro- 
videntially committed to our keeping, and we are bound to 
guard the trust jealously. . . . 



x DURHAM 163 

Ron IN HOOD'S BAY, 1st September 1892. 

It will be delightful if you can spare us a day or two at 
Auckland. . . . Could you say some quiet words about the 
perils of statistical religion? It is alarming how the energies 
of the clergy are taken up in tabulating results. I have 
boldly cut out all figures from the Visitation questions. 

To HIS SECOND SON 

ROP.IX HOOD'S BAY, September 1892. 

It is a great pleasure to us to read your bright, hopeful 
letters week by week. Life and work have evidently gained 
by your great change. 

May the gain grow in blessing ! You answered quite truly. 
I am obliged to decline every invitation to write or speak out 
of the range of my own proper duties. It grows harder and 
harder to write. Since I have been here I have been work- 
ing uninterruptedly at my Charge, and shall barely finish it. 
What you say of missionary policy is most true. You know 
how earnestly I have always pleaded for strong centres. 
These ought to be amply provided for and left with the 
responsibility for aided w r ork in their districts. The general 
idea is now finding acceptance. Delhi is recognised as a 
thoroughly good type, and I hope that Cawnpore may be 
organised on the same model. Unfortunately I cannot 
attend the S.P.G. meetings, for I am very rarely in town. 
If you could send a memorandum I would make a point of 
going to the discussion. It would, I think, be perfectly 
proper for you in your new office to oifer suggestions. 

This is the finest day we have had, and I hope that we 
may have an expedition in the afternoon. 

With love to you and your wife included in you. Ever 
your most affectionate father, B. 1<\ DUNELM. 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

ROBIN HOOD'S BAY, izth September 1892. 

My dear Davies We are delighted to hear that you will 
be able to come to us. Month after month now for more 



164 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

than two years I have been longing for the occasion, but 
there has been no quiet space. Now I have been obliged to 
give up the purpose of going abroad for a fortnight, so that I 
can look for comparative freedom till the Ordination. How 
much there is that I should like to talk over. It is the 
rapidity and irreversibility of movement that most alarms me. 
Every time we read Jeremiah the most tragic book in the 
Old Testament thoughts of the future must grow sad. Yet 
there is time. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

To PROFESSOR HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 27/7* September 1892. 

My dear Hort It is at least satisfactory to have so full an 
account of your summer, though I would not willingly have 
given you the trouble of writing so long a letter. I feel able 
to interpret the whole not unfavourably, and I could not but 
feel very anxious about the return journey. Of our summer 
I have little to say. The thought of my Charge and the 
draft of it occupied me while I was at Robin Hood's Bay. . . . 

These Ordination times always bring hope ; but it is im- 
possible not to feel here that things are moving with alarming 
rapidity, and that power is going to those who have not learnt 
to use it. 

LI. Davies and his wife were to have come to us last week, 
but at the last moment they were hindered by the death of 
Professor Robertson, his wife's brother-in-law. It was a great 
disappointment, for I had waited for two years for a leisure 
time to see him. He still seems to be very happy. How 
many things one would have gladly heard from him. . . . 

You will be glad to know that Brooke is in very good 
spirits and happy at Sherborne. Ever yours affectionately, 

P.. F. ])UN ELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

^oth Scplrnil'Cr 1892. 

... I actually drove into Durham. I had a complica- 
tion of engagements and I shrank from the walking to and 
from the station, etc. 



x DURHAM 165 

TO HIS YOUNGEST SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2.\st Sunday after Trinity, 1892. 

My dear Basil I am very glad to hear that your work 
goes on so happily. I should like to go to Professor Mar- 
shall's lectures. 

Remembering the south-west spire and the inserted porch, 
I will send for the picture of the West Front these words : 

Love crowns a broken purpose with the grace 

Of loyal duty ; 
And finds in fault acknowledged a new place 

For strength and beauty. 

Ever your most affectionate father, B. F. DUNELM. 

The West Front spoken of in the above letter is that 
of Peterborough Cathedral. My father loved to gaze 
on it, especially in the sunset glow. He greatly 
admired the south-west spire, which is far superior to 
the north-west one. It is, I believe, the work of a later 
architect, who, loyally following out the designs of a 
predecessor, crowned the work with a spire of exquisite 
grace. He would often point out how the porch in- 
serted at a later date into the central arch of the grand 
portico as a supporting wedge, really gave new beauty 
as well as strength to the Front. 

To HIS WIFE 

SOUTH SHIELDS, 15/7^ November 1892. 

... I have just been looking at the Schools under in- 
spection. The children are of the poorest : bare feet and 
rags, with sad sickness-stamped faces in many cases. It is 
hard, very hard, to look to their future. Would it have been 
better for them not to have been ? Yet that cannot be. 
We can and must hope still. , . . 



166 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



TO HIS ELDEST SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2gth November 1892. 

I was really glad to have an opportunity of seeing the 
work. A graduate . . . translated yvovs airo rov KCVT. 
eSw/r/jo-aro TO Trrw/wx, 1 " he purchased the sepulchre from the 
centurion." It is hard to trace the connexion in letters or 
thought. There certainly is a wonderful disregard of grammar 
in these latter days. 

To A CLERGYMAN 

November 1892. 

Since I am called upon to impose a burden, I dare not 
shrink from laying it on him who will, I believe, by God's 
help, bear it best ; and in doing this I think that I follow the 
guidance of the Spirit. God grant that you too may see your 
own duty plainly ! To His counsel and love I commit you. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2nd December 1892. 

May God bless the sacrifice which you have made ! The 
decision is, I believe, for the good of our whole work. 
Nothing shall be said of the change till you announce it. I 
will enclose a few words for your people. Just now I cannot 
write more. 

The following arc some of the " few words " 
enclosed : 

My dear Friends You know well what deep interest 
I have taken in the work which - - has most happily 
done among you. I feel, therefore, that I ought to tell 
you myself that I have felt it my duty, having regard 
to the wellbeing of our diocese, to place on him a 
heavy burden, in bearing which he will have, I am sure, your 
sympathy and prayers. . . . 

1 When he learned it of the centurion, he granted the corpse. 



x DURHAM 167 

I need not tell you how great is the sacrifice which he 
makes. But he has himself learnt, and he has taught you, 
that it is by willing and glad sacrifice that we show our life. 
You then in giving him to others share in the joy of wider 
service, and know that you contribute, as I believe, to the 
good of our Church. . . . 

May Cod in His great love make your loss a gain to you ! 

Believe me to be your faithful Father in (loci, 

B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, Innocents Day, 1892. 

Every good wish from all our household to all yours. 
How thoughts press in the " changes of life " ! To stand 
survivor ! 

... It would be a very serious thing if the Archbishop 
were to decorate men of the older Universities who can seek 
from their own University whatever degrees their work fairly 
claims. I have never been able to assent to the degree of 
D.D. honoris causa apart from special work. If Dr. Hort 
joined in the request I will heartily support it. 

I shrink from testimonials and memorials, except such as 
are purely personal. A portrait is almost the only thing 
that I care for. There ought to be a portrait of Dr. Hort 
at Rugby. . . . 

I am trying to prepare for the Visitation of the Cathedral 
a very hard task. There has not been so I find to my 
amazement a regular Visitation since 1725. What a wonder- 
ful power of life there is in great societies ! . . . 

To THE REV. C. H. PRIOR AND FAMILY 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \2.th January 1893. 

i. My dear Charlie I must endeavour to write six letters 
on a sheet ; which even my daily experiences in efforts for 
brevity leaves difficult. At least I must begin by thanking 
you for the very beautiful night clock. I feel as if I should 



1 68 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

hope to wake (at least at first) a dozen times in the dark to 
read its message ; but then 

2. My dear Daisy You will warn me of the perils of 
curiosity, and bid me take all things quietly, and if need be 
wait to be called. Still, even years don't take away the 
desire to do all one can, and my skating was quite heroic (in 
its way) ; yet 

3. My dear little Daisy I am not sure that I should be 
as nimble at Blindman's Buff as I used to be, or at Turn the 
Trencher, when your mother and uncles and aunts thought 
it excellent fun to call " Shoe-strings " every moment, and 
laugh at my struggles to catch the ill-spun plate; but at 
least 

4. My dear Herman You will think that it is very bold 
of me not to be afraid to tumble on the ice, even when Mep, 
who was my constant companion, ran across me and jumped 
up with ill-timed attention ; for you know 

5. My dear Foss That old men can't be wound up like 
trains, and I almost think that they like to sit quietly over 
their desk better than have dinner-parties ; and now 

6. My dear Lallie You must have the last line, which 
shall be thanks and love and kisses to all, that you shall give 
for me. Ever your affectionate B. F. DUNELM. 



To ARCHDEACON WATKIXS 

LOLLARDS' TOWKK, 201/1 /anua>y 1893. 

My dear Archdeacon It seems best to send the enclosed 
to you. I have told Mr. Macmillan (i) that 1 do not know 
whether anything fuller is designed ; (2) that you know more 
than any one of the Bishop's Durham life; and (3) that Mr. 
R. Burn knows perhaps most of his active Cambridge life. 
He withdrew from University business in a great degree after 
I returned most characteristically, I think, to leave me a free 
field. Ever yours, B. F DUNELM. 



x DURHAM 169 

To MRS. HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, iy/i February 1893. 

Your most precious present has just reached me. Apart 
from the general reasons which make the hooks a most 
welcome treasure, each one has a peculiar value. The Greek 
Testament, because it is a Greek Testament, and has been 
used. I have also one which belonged to Dr. Tregelles. 
The Primasius, because it belonged to Bleek, and seems to 
have been used by him in preparing his edition of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, which is a very familiar work. The 
Rupert of Deutz, because Rupert attracted me more perhaps 
than any mediaeval writer, and I remember talking in old 
days of writing a lecture on him. I must then feel very- 
grateful to Professor Ryle for interpreting your most kind 
wish most perfectly. 

To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, $th J\Iarch 1893. 

My dear Archdeacon Wherever you are absent you will 
be sorely missed: wherever you are present your help will be 
valued. Having uttered this oracle, 1 must leave you to 
compare the claims of the Province nnd the Diocese. The 
Prolocutor writes to me rather sadly as to the prospects of the 
Sustentation scheme. 

To HIS SECOND SON 

YORK, gt/i March 1893. 

The great event in the family, the carrying on of the name 
to a new generation, requires me also to send you all con- 
gratulations and good wishes. It is a strange and happy 
coincidence that the fresh link should be added at Madras, 
and the names which you have chosen bind the past to the 
present. 1 May the grandson have the joy of good service 
when his time for work comes ! 

1 The birth of George Foss Westcott, who was named after the eldest 
son of his great-great-great-grand father, Foss Westcott. The ehild was 
baptized in the same church, St. .Mary's in Fort St. George, in which 
Foss Westcott was first married and his eldest son christened. 



1 70 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP, x 

I have come here for a meeting of Convocation. The 
main work, I imagine, is the Church Patronage Bill, and 
perhaps the Distress of the Clergy, which in agricultural 
dioceses is very serious. . . . 

The Indian letters are a weekly delight to us. G. and 
F. seem to be happy and doing a good work, and laying the 
foundations for the work to come. At least they know what 
the difficulties are. 

As yet there is no light on the Tinnevelly Bishopric. . . . 
But I am still an optimist. Your work seems to be full of 
hope. Love to the little one, however you may be able to 
convey it, and to his mother. 



To PUS WIFE 

GATRSHKAD, 2isf March 1893. 

. . . The Confirmation was perfectly ordered and most 
reverent. There were about 150 candidates. What pleased 
me most perhaps was a line of bright, dirty little children and 
mothers with babies sitting on each side of the path to the 
church on the raised kerb. They looked as happy as could 
be, and replied to my few questions most merrily. There is 
a good deal of unlooked-for power ot getting pleasure in the 
world. 

To ARCHDEACON WATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, iSM April 1893. 

I left my blue rug in Cosin's Library this afternoon. 
What such a portent of forgetfulness can mean I dare not 
ask; but will you kindly shelter the neglected comforter till 
I can claim it. Fortunately I have another. 



CHAPTER XI 

DURHAM (continued) 

1893-1897 

THE year 1893 will be memorable in Church History 
for the determined attack made upon the Church ot 
England by means of the Welsh Church Suspensory 
Bill. In opposition to this measure the Bishop made 
several speeches and wrote sundry letters. His own 
very decided view was that the nation must have its 
spiritual organ, and his great speech made at the 
Church's demonstration in the Albert Hall was ex- 
pressive of that belief. A few days previous to the 
Albert Hall meeting he had addressed a vast con- 
course at Sunderland and had been cheered to the 
echo, but such a crisis as that which then threatened, 
demanded of him service beyond his own Diocese, 
so that he ventured to speak in a building wherein 
in younger days he would have been totally inaudible. 
The effort was most exhausting and only partially suc- 
cessful, but even so he " made a profound impression 
on his hearers, who cheered again and again whilst his 
lordship was speaking." No doubt oratorically the 
feature of the meeting was the speech of the Duke of 
Argyll, who, being a Presbyterian, stood on an Anglican 

171 



1/2 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

platform and " won the heartfelt sympathy of the ten 
thousand listeners when, in a manly apologia, he ad- 
mitted the mistake which was made in disestablishing 

o 

the Church of Ireland." However, it was generally 
admitted that the Bishop of Durham's speech was the 
one that really went to the root of the matter. His 
subject, as already indicated, was " The Idea of a 
Spiritual Organ of the Nation." In the course of his 
speech he said : 

The English nation has had from the first a spiritual organ 
in the National Church. It has proved on the largest scale 
the truth of that noble line of Spenser 

For soule is forme, and doth the bodie make. 

Shall we then disown that which is the peculiar glory of our 
inheritance ? Shall we mutilate the body of our common 
life ? Shall we cast away for ever that which openly proclaims 
that the life of the nation is Divine ? Is such a change, is 
such a sacrifice, in view of the general direction of human 
growth, an advance or a fall ? Is it a generous reaching forth 
to a nobler ideal or a disastrous national retrogression ? And 
why is the sacrifice to be made? It is said that the National 
Church has failed as a spiritual organ of the nation. Has it 
failed more than any other organ through which the nation 
exerts its vital forces ? The confession of the national faith 
through the National Church may be imperfect, but it is in- 
creasingly powerful as a witness and rich in promise for the 
future. The National Church, I say, is powerful as a witness. 
It witnesses that religion is not an accident of human nature, 
but an essential clement in every true human body. It brings 
all the great crises of national life into direct connexion with 
the unseen and the eternal ; and this continual, unforced, 
natural exhibition of the sacred destiny of things exercises 
silently a subtle, penetrating influence far and wide. It is 
different in kind from the acknowledgment of the spiritual by 
an assembly of individual citizens. The fulness of the truth 
may not yet be apprehended, but the idea is with us ; and, 



xi DURHAM 173 

for statesmen, ideas are the support of resolute patience, and 
for the people they guard political enterprise from the irony 
of selfishness. At the same time the National Church is, as 
I said, rich in promise. It is progressive, because it is living. 
It has proved from age to age that it can embody the spirit 
of the people. It has taken up and interpreted new thoughts 
according to the proportion of the faith at the Reformation, 
at the Caroline reaction, at the Evangelical revival, at the 
Oxford movement, and now, again, amidst the social aspira- 
tions of the present day. The National Church is no exotic. 
It is not the representative of a particular school, or a small 
group of men. Guarding treasures new and old, it assures to 
its members a healthy freedom. It is in constant touch with 
every class of society, and draws from the contact sober 
wisdom. It cannot, as long as it is national, become, like 
the Roman Church in France, a power antagonistic to the 
State. It is sustained and stimulated by the sense of a uni- 
versal obligation an obligation to bring all the beneficent 
activities of the faith to the poorest as their birthright, and 
to offer the solaces of religion to those who need them, and 
not only to those who seek them. We have, then, in Eng- 
land (to say all briefly) that which gives unique completeness 
to our national life, a truly National Church; a Church which 
has shaped popular aspirations and welcomed popular in- 
fluences ; a Church which has again and again proved its 
power to assimilate new truths and to awaken dormant 
forces ; a Church which in great crises has been able to 
reconcile order with progress ; a Church which has used in 
the past, and with quickened energy is striving to use better 
now, for the good of the whole people, its great possessions 
and great place, and to bring together all classes in the unity 
of one life, and to offer, in all its freedom and grace, the 
Gospel to the poor. Shall we, then this is the question 
proposed to this vast and representative gathering shall we 
take the first step, I do not say to destroy the English Church 
that is impossible ! but to deprive the English nation of 
its spiritual organ? "By nothing," it has been said most 
truly, " is England so glorious as by her poetry " glorious, 
that is, by the " noble and profound application of ideas to 



174 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

life." The National Church is, I believe, the most con- 
spicuous sign and the richest source of this characteristic 
glory, for it maintains through every failure the application 
of the divinest idea to every fragment of a people's life. 

On ist August 1893 the Bishop preached a sermon 1 
in Newcastle Cathedral before the British Medical As- 
sociation. The sermon was entitled " The Manifold 
Revelation of Truth." Another specially interesting 
sermon 2 of this year was that which he preached before 
the Church Congress at Birmingham. On this latter 
occasion he spoke from the pulpit of St. Philip's Church, 
which stirred in him the memory of his baptism. The 
Bishop's text was Ephes. ii. 19, and his subject 
" Citizenship, Human and Divine." In the course of 
his sermon he said : 

Such thoughts are natural to me here and to-day, when I 
recall how England and Birmingham have grown since I was 
christened in this church. Every great building which re- 
presents the social life of the city a city, alas ! still without 
a cathedral schools, libraries, art galleries, halls, council- 
chambers, courts of justice, have arisen since then. Taken 
together this splendid array of municipal institutions is an 
impressive witness to the fulness of life. Each one ought to 
be, each one may be, a sanctuary in which fellow-citizens of 
the saints meet to prepare for their work and to fulfil it. 
Each one whatever occasions may seem to have been lost 
is still a sign and a call to men who are citizens of heaven 
and earth. 

The Bishop was obliged to leave Birmingham in 
haste and proceed to Stockton, to be present at the 
opening of the Ropner Park by H.R.H. the Duke of 

1 Published in his The Incarnation anil Comment Life. 
- Published in his Christian Aspects of Life. 



xi DURHAM 175 

York. In a speech delivered there after the luncheon 
he said : 

The chief magistrate of this ancient Corporation, which 
was in old times so closely connected with the Bishops of 
Durham, has made a noble provision for his own people, and 
has handed down, as we trust, his name as an example to 
those who will come after him ; and the head of our Royal 
house in the third generation has been graciously pleased to 
share in the joy of the town, and, by sharing in it, to increase 
it a hundredfold. I say that such munificence and such 
sympathy must greatly help and encourage all those who, 
like the ministers of Christ, have devoted their lives to the 
service of the people. 

In December 1893 my father attended a Conference 
at St. Paul's on " Commercial Morality." I mention this 
fact not because it was the only, or even the most im- 
portant, conference that he attended in the course of 
the year, but because in connexion with this meeting 
he has noted in his text-book that he conversed with 
some one unnamed on the matter of " laughter " and 
" the clown." Many a time have I heard him remark 
that he could not fit the clown into his scheme of the 
universe, and have often wondered whether the very 
funniest of funny men could, if allowed a chance, have 
induced him to smile. Never during the whole course 
of his life, I suppose, had he any leisure or inclination 
for amusement, and he deeply lamented what he con- 
sidered to be the overdoing of amusements in these 
latter days. 

In the course of the year 1893 my father wrote a 
Prefatory Note to the late Professor Hort's Hulscan 
Lectures entitled The Way, the Truth, the Life ; and one 
also to the brief Memoir of the late Bishop Lightfoot, 
which was reprinted from the Quarterly Review. The 



1 76 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

following two letters to Mrs. Hort are concerned with 
this labour of love, and the former of them mentions 
the window in Great St. Mary's Church in Cambridge, 
in which my father's features are depicted in the re- 
presentation of St. Thomas, Bishop Lightfoot as St. 
Matthew being on his right and Professor Hort as St. 
James on his left. It may here be remarked that 
Bishop Lightfoot portrayed my father to illustrate 
Benedict Biscop in a window of the Chapel at 
Auckland. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 28/// September 1893. 

The very beautiful photographs 1 reached us safely yester- 
day, but I delayed my thanks till to-day in the hope that I 
might be able to send the little Prefatory Note for your con- 
sideration. This I am able to do. You will feel how hard 
it was to write anything : how very hard not to write too 
much or too little. I have tried to say just the few things 
which general readers ought to know and no more. You 
cannot feel as strongly as I do how utterly inadequate the 
words are. 

The treatment of the figures in the windows is very strik- 
ing, as far as I am able to judge, and Mrs. Wcstcott is greatly 
pleased with all. Till I covered up Dean Stanley's beard I 
could not recognise him. The idealisation of Dr. Arnold is 
very fine, and it was an impressive thought to make him the 
young man of the whole group. The look of Dr. Lightfoot 
is also most beautifully rendered. How solemn to stand in 
the company of the unseen ! 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, zist November 1893. 

My dear Mrs. Hort It was a great pleasure to receive 
the long-expected volume. Its appearance is most attractive. 
The colour is a relief from our habitual brown livery, and the 
w r hole form of the book seems to be worthy. Thank you 

1 The photographs of the window. Dean Stanley s features serve for 
St. Matthias, Professor Maurice's for St. Simon, and Dr. Arnold's for St. 
Jude. 



xi DURHAM 177 

for connecting this copy with happy memories of the past. 
Almost at the same time I was called upon to write a few 
lines in introduction to a reprint of the article on Dr. Light- 
foot from the Quarterly. I do not suppose that any one ever 
had such friends as have been given to me, and 1 feel them 
to be my friends still. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

An interesting event of this year was the Bishop's 
Visitation of the Cathedral. He approached this enter- 
prise in the regular discharge of his duties, and was 
much surprised, as he commenced his arrangements, to 
discover that the Cathedral body had apparently not 
been visited since the days of Bishop Cosin (1660- 
1674), his amazement being but slightly mitigated by 
a subsequent discovery of a Visitation in 1725. These 
discoveries, however, did not deter him from performing 
what he considered to be an obvious duty, and the 
Visitation was held accordingly. 

My father \vas a frequent advocate of the cause of 
the Church of England Temperance Society both on 
public platforms and otherwise, but he was, of course, 
temperate in his speeches on this subject, and would 
not condemn the moderate use of pure beer. In fact, 
his zeal in the cause of pure beer involved him in a 
correspondence which was published in the newspapers 
in the latter part of 1893, and his picture, together 
with some of the following words spoken by him, was 
utilised for the adornment of the advertisement of a 
brewer of pure beer : 

My idea is that they might have a public-house in which 
good beers alone would be sold. ... If they were to estab- 
lish what I would call a temperance public-house, it should 
be limited to the sale of good beer together with non-intoxi- 
cants. I would rigidly exclude wine and spirits. 

VOL. II N 



1 78 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The Bishop proceeded to define pure beer as " the 
product of barley malt and hops only, no chemical or 
other injurious substitute for malt being used." 

The Bishop was himself a teetotaller because of 
the present necessity, and although he sometimes with 
seeming seriousness professed to be much drawn towards 
beer, I never saw him taste any of the seductive fluid. 

My father's last visit to the Continent was paid in 
1894. He then went to the south of France, having 
his youngest son for a companion. The following 
letters to his wife narrate some of their experiences : 

AVIGNON, nth April 1894. 

. . . Avignon is, I think, the most impressive city I have 
ever seen. There is scarcely any trace of the industries of 
to-day. All except one straight street to a modern Place 
and the Place itself is of the Middle Ages, or at least of the 
old world. Even our hotel has an old tower included in it, 
with some illustrious shield carved on its walls. There is, 
too, a most beautiful public garden on the edge of a cliff over 
the Rhone which commands a view of the city and the country 
round. The view is magnificent, with walls of distant moun- 
tains on all sides, and in front, opposite to the Castle of the 
Popes, the Castle of the King. After breakfast we started to 
see the Cathedral and the Papal Palace. The Palace is a 
barrack for 1500 soldiers. They sleep in what was once 
Chapel and Council- Chamber. The sight of the military 
arrangements was not the least interesting part of the visit. 
The Cathedral has a good bit of Roman work built into it. 
After an early lunch, we went to see the King's Castle across 
the river, in which is a wonderful little Byzantine chapel, 
utterly unlike anything Western, just as if it had come from 
Greece. We then visited the fragment of the great twelfth- 
century bridge, which has on it another chapel of great in- 
terest. Then we went to the public gardens for another 
survey of the place, and I was filled to the brim with sight- 
seeing. This morning we start for the Pont du Card and 



xi DURHAM 179 

Nismes and go on to Aries ; to-morrow night we intend to 
return here. 

AKLKS, nth April, 10 P.M. 

We have accomplished our day far more easily than I ex- 
pected. We had a splendid time at the Pont du Gard. I 
could not but think that perhaps every block had cost the 
life of a captive Gaul. It was laid assuredly in men. We 
saw Nismes also very well. The old amphitheatre was being 
arranged for a bull-fight next Sunday. The ages meet. 



ARI.E.S, I2/// April 1894. 

Having seen Avignon, Nismes, and Aries, we have changed 
or rather I have changed our plans, and we propose to go 
to Paris and on to-night so as to reach London on Friday 
evening instead of Saturday. Three days' sight-seeing is as 
much as I can accomplish. It is most exciting work, and I 
have accumulated more experiences than ever before, I think, 
in so short a time : Rome, early Christianity, and the Middle 
Ages have in some way lived before us. Still, I shall be 
glad to be quiet (?) at home again. We have seen no paper, 
heard no news, and had no letter since we left, but we hope 
to find a letter at Avignon before we start. . . . 

P.L.M.R., iqth April. 

We have nearly accomplished our journey to Paris, so that 
we are almost in sight of home. We (i.e. Basil) chose the second 
train for our journey. When it reached Avignon, it appeared 
that it was quite full. We (i.e. I) went all along the carriages 
and found no place. ... At last I saw a carriage in which 
there were only three people, one reposing at length, and T 
boldly entered ; Basil lingered, but I bade him mount, and 
all proved well. . . . The journey was fairly comfortable. 
A wash and coffee restored us, and I had provided a bottle 
of milk for my own satisfaction. B. will have none of it. 

This shall be posted at Paris. We had no letter before 
we left last night, but I asked the landlord to forward it. 



i8o 



LIFE OF BI-SHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



Subsequently, in a letter to his youngest son, he 
recalls the memories of this brief excursion : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 27 tk May 1894. 

I often think of the basement of the Roman wall at Aries : 
that and the Pont du Gard impressed me most of all the special 
things we saw. All the spirit of Rome was in them. Per- 
haps the spirit of Faith was in the cloisters of St. Trophimus, 







PONT DU GARD. 
From a Sketch by Bishop Wcstcott. 

or even more in the West front, and in one or two of the 
sarcophagus' (I cannot write a plural) ; the spirit of war in 
Avignon ; and the spirit of the world in the Amphitheatre. 
Patience, sympathy, co-operation as yet were not. I never 
learnt so much in three days. 



Conference of the 
in London. My 



Tn May 1894 a Missionary 
Anglican Communion was held 
father preached the inaugural sermon of this Con- 
ference in St. Paul's. He also presided at some of 
the meetings, which were held in St. James's Hall. 
The following letter to his wife tells of these events : 



XI 



DURHAM 181 



LOLLARDS' TOWKR, zyh May 1894. 

A. told me this morning that he had written to you about 
the service. 1 I think that he enjoyed it, and I was very glad 
that he was able to be there. It was a strange experience. 
I am glad, on the whole, to have had it, but 1 certainly don't 
want to have it again. It was rather like a great [tarty. 
After the service was over I saw Bishop Smyth. He said, 
" Do you remember Miss Saunders ? She is waiting to speak 
to you." And to my amazement by Miss Heaton's side Aggie - 
was standing. She had come home unexpectedly : for health's 
sake, 1 think. I contrived to get to the meeting this morn- 
ing. Of course, the first person whom I saw was Precentor 
Venables. But I saw many other old friends. The second 
person I saw was Canon Young. He spoke kindly. The 
last person I saw was Miss Patteson. Then in the midway 
1 saw Bishop Hicks. He seemed to be very well. He said 
that he tried to catch Basil. 3 Then the Bishop of North 
Dakota and other Americans. . . . 

Will you send me the pair of black cloth gloves which is 
in my right-hand top drawer (I think) ; or, failing this, a right- 
hand glove, of which you will find several on the hall table. 
At present I feel inadequately clothed with one glove. The 
other was sacrificed to St. Paul's. 

On I 7th June the Bishop was at Cambridge, where 
he preached a sermon before the University, and spoke 
at a meeting of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge on the following evening. He thus de- 
scribes his Cambridge visit in a letter to his wife : 

1 I happened to be home from India on furlough at this time, and was 
engaged to take a modest part in this Conference, so my father invited me 
to be his chaplain on this occasion. Similarly, in the following year, when 
he preached the annual sermon before the Church Missionary Society at 
St. Bride's, he invited another missionary son, George, to be his chaplain. 
Both sermons are published in his Christian Aspects of Life. 

~ Miss Agnes Saunders, daughter of the late Dean Saunders, engaged 
in mission work in Natal. 

' J His youngest son, for work in Bloemfontein Diocese. 



1 82 LIFE OF BISHOP VVESTCOTT CHAP. 

CAMBRIDGE, iSthJtme 1894. 

Well, my Sunday is over. It was a very hard day, but 
full of interest. It was more pleasant to see old faces and 
old places than I had expected it would be. Every one was 
very cordial. . . . After the sermon I walked with the V.C. 
(and the Bedells) to King's Lodge. Then I went to Chapel 
(in surplice and M.A. hood, to claim my membership), and 
sat in my old stall next to Canon Churton, and looked again 
upon the Angel of the Baptism. The music seemed to me 
interminable and unintelligible. Really, one must try to think 
what Church music means. I could not fit this in anywhere ; 
but then I was tired. 

After service I went to the Lodge to tea, and invited 
myself to Hall to-night. The Provost took me over the new 
buildings. In one most beautiful set of rooms I found to 
my surprise the author of Dodo. 1 I returned home by the 
Backs, rested a little, and then C. 2 and I went (by invitation) 
to Hall at Trinity. The Master was most kind. I met a 
good many old friends ; and after leaving the Combination 
Room we saw all the inmost recesses of the Lodge. . . . 
The Lodge was never in such order. 

This morning I am keeping in to write letters. I go to 
lunch with the Master of Clare in order to prepare for the 
meeting ; then to tea with Basil ; 3 then, as I said, with C. to 
Hall at King's. 

In December of the same year he was again in 
Cambridge, whither he had gone to deliver his Pre- 
sidential Address at the annual meeting of the Chris- 
tian Social Union. At the opening of the address he 
said : 

It is impossible for me not to express my thankfulness 
that I am allowed now, at the close of life, to welcome here, 
in Cambridge, the representatives of a great and vigorous 

1 Known lo my father as the son of Archbishop I>enson. 
- His son-in-law, Charles II. Prior, Tutor of Pembroke. 
:; His youngest son, an undergraduate of Trinity. 



xi DURHAM 183 

society of the young, which embodies the desire of my under- 
graduate days fifty years ago, that we who believe should 
seriously endeavour to make our Christian Faith the direct 
rule of our whole life of our social and civic and national 
life keeping our ideal steadily in view while we face the 
perplexing details of conduct. 

In July of this year the Bishop bad addressed some 
thousand members of a great and vigorous society of 
the still younger, called the Dicky Bird Society. It 
was at Newcastle that he spoke to these. He said : 

My dear Children for it is to you I must speak now it 
would be quite impossible to put into words the one-hundredth 
part of the thoughts that are naturally stirred in one by the 
sight of such a gathering as this ; for Uncle Toby, with the 
most perfect wisdom, has strictly limited me to five or six 
minutes, arid therefore I will only offer to you three thoughts 
first, one which you have learned long ago ; one which I 
hope you are practising now ; and one which I trust you will 
fulfil in future time. You have all learned at home one 
lesson a lesson which is for all life. I mean, that we can 
all understand man and bird and beast by loving. It is true 
that not only "he prayeth best," but he knoweth best "who 
loveth best all things both great and small." And is it not 
true that when you have watched tenderly, patiently, rever- 
ently anything that falls under your notice, you have found in 
it something to marvel at ? And wonder is the beginning of 
wisdom. That is our first thought we learn by loving. 
And then our own lives grow richer as we love more. Our 
Father has committed to our care the world which He has 
made, and every insect, every leaf has a message to us from 
Him. And we can understand what each says. We can 
read it with the eyes of our heart if we will. And yet is it 
not true that many children, and many men, go about in this 
most wonderful world as if they were blind and deaf outcasts 
for whom the sky has no glory and the air has no music, 
because they have no love and are poor in the midst of 
boundless wealth ? Do you ask what the birds say what 



1 84 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

do the sparrow, the dove, the linnet, the thrush say ? "I 
love; I love." The cruel must always be solitary. Some 
one asked long ago in Rome, "Who is with the Emperor?" 
and the answer was " Not even a fly "; for he amused himself 
by killing them. How very different from the Uncle Toby 
from whom your Uncle Toby is named. " Go, poor fly," he 
said to the insect that teased him "get thee gone. Why 
should I hurt thee ! The world is surely wide enough for 
both thee and me." You remember that you have promised, 
members of the Dicky Bird Society, that you will be kind to 
all living things. Will you think it very strange if I ask you 
to reckon flowers among living things ? I never see a hand- 
ful of golden buttercups or purple spikes of foxgloves thrown 
upon the road to be trodden under foot without being very 
deeply grieved. Every petal is a miracle of beauty and ought 
to be lingered over very lovingly. There may be a dull, 
coarse, selfish man 

A primrose by a river's brim 
A yellow primrose is to him, 
And it is nothing more 

but for the kindly soul, which can recognise its Father's 
works, " the meanest flower that blows can give thoughts that 
do often lie too deep for tears." That is our second thought. 
Our whole lives grow richer as we love more. And here is 
the third thought that love grows stronger; that the gentle, 
kindly love of children will, if it is duly cherished, grow in 
time to the strong, courageous love of men and women. No 
true member of the Dicky Bird Society, when grown up, will 
ever take share in cruel sports or will ever use ornaments 
which mean the destruction, the death of some of the most 
beautiful of God's creatures. My dear children, lay this to 
your heart, and resolve now, here, together in this grand 
assembly, that you will never " blend with pleasure or with 
pride the sorrow of the meanest thing that feels." We learn 
by loving; we grow richer as we love more. Love grows by 
use; and, my young friends, when the time comes for you, 
by your conduct, to shape custom, dare great things through 
love and for the sake of love. 



xi DURHAM 185 

One of the chief events of 1894 as concerning my 
father was his attendance and speech at the Northum- 
berland miners annual Gala at Blyth. This will be 
described on another page. My father notes in his 
text-book that it was a " thoughtful, impressive gather- 
ing." In the same book he notes the birth of a new 
granddaughter in the Castle, and her christening by 
himself in the Castle Chapel on All Saints' Day. Other 
items of domestic interest are chronicled there, one of 
which tempts me to say a word. On Christmas Day 
he enters : " Evening reading : Andersen : Goblin 
Market." The meaning of this is that after we had, in 
family conclave assembled, exchanged Christmas gifts, 
receiving them with appropriate words from my father's 
hands, he read to us, according to ancient custom, a 
fairy tale. This was always a great treat, reserved 
exclusively for Christmas Day. Some of these tales 
so read have left a lasting remembrance. I can hear 

o 

him now reading of the dog with " eyes as big as 
saucers," every tone of his voice adding to the marvels 
of the story. But the dog with eyes as big as saucers 
was, I remember, eclipsed by one " with eyes as big as 
towers," after mention of whom an impressive pause 
was made that we might summon up the vision of this 
awesome animal. 

The Bishop took the greatest pleasure in sharing 
the moving associations of his official residence, and 
especially the Chapel, with as many as he could receive. 
It would be a long task to chronicle all such gatherings, 
but one of the most interesting was held in July 1894, 
when the Bishop entertained at Auckland Castle the 
members of the University Extension Committee of 
the Seaton Delaval Colliery. These Northumberland 
miners were particularly keen in the matter of in- 



i86 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



tellectual pursuits, and had on previous occasions 
availed themselves of the counsel of their learned 



:if!fwlf:-':p =-m\ 







mm 







\VINDO\V IN AUCKLAND CASTLK. 

I''roni a Sketch Ij Pjishop \\'L-.stcntt. 



neighbour, who had once by their invitation addressed 
their University Extension class. This, therefore, was 
their return visit. The Bishop's son met the party at 



xi DURHAM 187 

the station, and on their arrival at the Castle the Bishop 
greeted each one, and showed them the interesting 
features of the house. After luncheon the Bishop took 
his guests round the garden, pointing out his favourite 
views, and his collection of Alpine and other plants, 
which were a special feature of the garden. The after- 
noon was enlivened by the music of the Pclton Fell 
Colliery Band, who had come over to express their 
general goodwill towards the Bishop, and to " show him 
that there was a Brass Band at Pelton Fell." The 
Bishop subsequently conducted both parties of his guests 
round the Chapel, and gave them tea in the big drawing- 
room. After tea the Bishop held a short service in the 
Chapel, and gave his blessing to his guests. The Seaton 
Delaval miners, feeling that a mere verbal expression 
of their thanks was inadequate, sent the Bishop an 
illuminated address of gratitude handsomely framed, 
which for want of wall space was placed on a chair in 
the Bishop's study, and so situated, faced the Bishop 
for the remainder of his life. 

On 1 2th January 1895 my father notes in his text- 
book : " Full term of years completed. xdpis rw (Jew" 
On the same day he wrote to his youngest daughter, 
Mrs. Prior, in the matter of his birthday cake, which she 
purposed to adorn with the number of candles appro- 
priate to his age. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \2tJi January 1895. 

. . . Ah ! the seventy candles ! The only way to deal 
with them which occurs to me is to abolish the cake : which 
could not find room for them. The necessity is a parable. 

It is strange to feel that the working time that comes now 
is a clear gift over and above the allotted span. In some 
ways I feel as strong as ever. 

So, his years notwithstanding, he entered on the 



1 88 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

duties of the new year with wonderful vigour, and per- 
formed numerous diocesan engagements, not the least 
important of which was the opening of the Lightfoot 
Memorial Chapter -house at Durham. Having been 
installed in the Episcopal chair therein, he said : 

This seat shows most plainly what is the relation of the 
Bishop to the Dean and Chapter. It shows most plainly 
that the Dean and Chapter are the appointed Council of the 
Bishop. It shows most plainly that the Mother Church of 
the Diocese is the centre of all diocesan work. Friends, if 
that great truth had been recognised during the last four 
centuries, we should have been spared, I believe, many of 
those unhappy divisions by which we arc at present distressed. 
If that great truth can be embodied actively while there is 
still opportunity, I believe that we shall be enabled to over- 
come many of the difficulties which we can foresee in the 
near future. Here we have the members of the foundation 
once gathered together in their full numbers the signs of 
corporate life which is enriched by all difference of opinion 
and which is strong enough to overcome all individualism. 
Here we have a solid basis for wise and effective government 
and administration. Here we have the promise of a unity 
necessarily far more abiding than any unity which can be 
created by the commanding influence of any single man. 
Thoughts, my friends, crowd upon thoughts when we look 
forward to the future. May those who come after me, and 
who occupy this place, be able to fulfil the hopes which are 
natural to-day! And may I say that I believe the fabric itself 
is fitted to sustain such hopes. A Bishop of Durham can 
never come to this Cathedral or Chapter-house without reading 
afresh in the most impressive form the spiritual lessons may 
I say inspiring principles? of his office. His Throne in 
the Cathedral was built by one of his predecessors over the 
tomb in which he now lies. His seat in the Chapter-house 
is a loyal tribute paid in honour of a life of service. In the 
one place the most solemn thought of a certain Divine judg- 
ment deepens the sense of a responsibility ; in the other place 
the thought of human sympathy kindles an enthusiasm for 



xi DURHAM 189 

labour. And for those for whom the Spirit of God hallows 
that sense of responsibility that passion for labour all 
things are possible. Therefore, I venture to say that our 
hopes are as laudable as our aims, and I trust in my heart 
God will fulfil them to our children. 

The Bishop was also able to perform several extra- 
diocesan services, including a speech at a great Temper- 
ance demonstration in Newcastle, where he appeared 
on the same platform with the present Archbishop of 
Canterbury. One of his many missionary sermons 
also was preached in the earlier part of 1895, being 
the annual sermon before the Church Missionary 
Society in St. Bride's Church. Concerning this he 
wrote to his wife : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 30^ April 1895. 

. . . After tea George and I went together to St. Bride's. 
1 had him as Chaplain, which appeared to be seemly. It was 
a most impressive gathering. Every one seemed to take part. 
I was told that I might preach an hour, but I was merciful 
and contented myself with seven minutes less. I saw a good 
many friends after : Sir J. Kennaway. Mr. R. Lang, Mr. W. 
Hough, Mr. G. Gedge, and Mr. Knight. 

One brief quotation only from this sermon must 
suffice. The words express his convictions as re- 
gards missionary work compressed into the smallest 
compass : 

Foreign Missions, St. Paul teaches us, are an open witness 
to the will of God for the world. Foreign Missions proclaim 
a living Saviour and King of all men. Foreign Missions 
vindicate for the Church the energy of a Divine life. Foreign 
Missions, in a word, express a great hope, kindle a sovereign 
love, feed an unconquerable faith ; and we, too often de- 
pressed, chilled, disheartened by the cares of the passing- 
day, require the inspiration which they bring for the blessing 
of our lives. 



190 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The Royal Agricultural Society of England held their 
Annual Show at Darlington in 1895, and the Bishop 
was invited to preach at the service held in the Show- 
yard on Sunday, 23rd June. The service was intended 
solely for those connected with the Show, and the 
Bishop was given to understand that his congregation 
would be chiefly composed of farm -servants, grooms, 
stockmen, shepherds, and the like ; and so indeed it 
was, and a more interesting congregation than some 
eight hundred of such he can seldom have addressed. 
The Bishop spoke to them on " The Fellowship of 
Work," introducing his subject with these words : 

My dear friends, when a great assembly like this is 
gathered together, of men who meet for an hour or so in 
public worship, and then, so far as we can judge, will never 
meet again face to face till we stand before the Judgment 
Seat of God, it is necessary that he who speaks should choose 
some subject which equally touches all some subject which 
enters into the common business of our daily life some 
subject which calls into play all the forces of our Christian 
faith. It is necessary that he should use words which are 
most certain, which are of the widest meaning, and which 
every one who hears can prove for himself. Of such a subject 
I wish to speak. I wish to speak of the fellowship of work, 
in which we are all united, and I would ask you all for your- 
selves to try my words, and see if your hearts do not assure 
you that they are true. 

But this continuous strain taxed his strength ex- 
ceedingly, and a local paper, speaking of a speech which 
he delivered at the opening of the Candlish Memorial 
Hall at Seaham Harbour in June 1895, said : 

The right rev. gentleman displayed remarkable energy 
while delivering his speech, but towards its close he had to 
rest against the wall. His Lordship has for about half-a- 
dozen years done an ama/.ing amount of what may be called 



xi DURHAM 191 

extra-prelatic work, and considering his advanced age his 
effort last Saturday was really wonderful. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the Bishop's 
health should have failed as it did when he went for 
his summer holiday to Spennithorne, in Wensleydalc. 
There he suffered much pain, and was unable to sleep at 
nights, making little progress with his Ephesians, 
which was still his chief holiday work. The local 
medical man, however, inspired him with confidence, 
and he describes him in his text-book as a " wise, 
quiet, thoughtful man of a former age." 

The following entry in his text-book is interest- 



24/7^ August. A weary day. Jlambbas wild and utterly 
unhistorical. Think of Pilate and Caiaphas. 

I forbear comment. 

Under the wise and thoughtful doctor's care the 
Bishop made some progress, and was able to enjoy the 
last few days of his holiday and enter on his work 
again. 

On his return to Bishop Auckland he invited 
the members of the North of England Primitive 
Methodist Preachers' Association to visit the Castle. 
" Addressing the members in the Chapel, the Bishop 
expressed the pleasure he felt in meeting them in a 
place so full of the records of the Christian heroism of 
their common ancestors. In such circumstances they 
were made to feel that they were in very deed one 
family. But their thoughts were carried a little further, 
for they could not help feeling a desire for more of 
that outward unity without which they could never 
make a true impression upon the world. It was not for 



I 9 2 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

him to say how this unity would be brought about, 
but there were two things about which he felt quite 
sure. The first was that it was not God's will 
that they should for ever continue to be divided as 
they were unhappily at the present, for though in His 
infinite wisdom God might bring blessing out of their 
divisions, yet it was not such a state of things as would 
convince the world. The second point was that it was 
quite clear that no scheme of man, no scheme of man's 
wisdom, would ever bring back their lost blessing. 
This would be the work of the Divine Spirit as they 
unwearieclly prayed to Him to fulfil His will. Mean- 
while, he could say at least this much, that the end 
would be brought about sooner as they strove to under- 
stand each other better, and as they endeavoured not 
only to speak but to live the truth in love. His hope 
was that these feelings might be encouraged by their 
meeting in that unique chapel. His Lordship then 
called upon the Rev. R. Fenwick to read the first 
sixteen verses of 4th Ephesians, and, after a period of 
silent prayer, the Bishop pronounced the benediction. 
The company were next entertained to tea by Mrs. 
Westcott ; and the Rev. R. Fenwick having expressed 
the acknowledgments of the company for their re- 
ception, an adjournment was made to the lawn, where 
a photograph was taken of those assembled." 

My father's health was sufficiently restored to enable 
him to preside over the Diocesan Conference at Stock- 
ton in the following October. A Report of the Con- 
ference says that he " opened the proceedings by one 
of the ablest and most suggestive addresses he has ever 
delivered since he came to Durham." 

In November the Bishop fulfilled several engage- 
ments in London. One of these was the delivery of 



xi DURHAM 193 

a sermon under the auspices of the Church Army at 
St. Mary at Mill, Eastchcap, on " The Deserving Un- 
employed and how to help them.' 1 In the course of 
this address he said : 

The problem of the unemployed in the next genera- 
tion is pressed on our serious study ; hut the problem 
which is before us now is humbler and simpler, and yet 
vast enough to perplex the most sagacious. A fortnight 
ago I had the privilege of discussing a fragment of the 
question in a conference between men representative of 
capital and labour, and nothing came out more clearly than 
the necessity of determining a definite policy before the time 
of action has come. We must consider our aim, and the 
course which we intend to follow, and the grounds of our 
confidence while there is opportunity for calm reflection. 
So it is also with regard to the distress by which we are 
always encompassed. We must have a policy and know the 
ground of the hope with which it inspires us, and while we 
must deal with men individually, we must remember we 
cannot deal with them rightly if we deal with them as if 
they were alone. We are severally members of a body. 
As to deserving unemployed and how to help them, I 
assume that it is our duty and our desire to help them ; 
but help is of many kinds. There is material help, moral 
help, and spiritual help, and all three forms of help are 
necessary. The Church Army offers all in wise and effec- 
tive harmony. It has a policy which is wise and effective. 
The material help is so administered as to develop self- 
respect, to discipline and encourage the feeble and the 
broken-hearted. The moral help is supplied by the natural 
intercourse of an ordered family, to which the destitute and 
the wanderer are introduced. The spiritual help is offered 
simply and directly in every case ; for I read joyfully that 
at the free meals a short, bright (iospel service is given to 
revive hope. 

The Bishop also pointed out in the course of this 
sermon that multitudes of those who are called the 
VOL, II O 



I 9 4 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

richer and busier classes are in reality both poor and 
unemployed. " Are not those poor whose feelings are 
atrophied ? Are not those unemployed whose power 
of devotion and service find no exercise ? " This 
striking address led The Spectator to discourse on 
"the rich poor" and "the busy unemployed," It 
penetrated even further, and led to an invitation 
to the Bishop to preside at a Demonstration of 
the Unemployed in Trafalgar Square. This invita- 
tion the Bishop declined, stating in his reply to the 
Secretary of the Society for the Promotion of Social 
Concord, from whom it emanated : " I could not offer 
an opinion on your particular scheme without more 
particular information. In any case, I cannot but 
think that such a scheme could not be profitably dis- 
cussed at a mass meeting." 

About the same time the Bishop addressed the 
following letter to the editor of the NortJi- Eastern 
Daily Gazette : 

Sir It is unnecessary to dwell on the comparative 
failure of special funds raised for the relief of the unemployed 
in periods of exceptional distress under the management of 
committees formed at the time. Experience shows that the 
larger part of such funds fall to those who are chronically 
unemployed either from moral or from physical incapacity, 
and not to those who suffer from temporary causes. It appears 
also that the distress itself is sometimes exaggerated by men 
who habitually depend on the casual benevolence of others, 
and so use the opportunity for their own advantage. There 
are even cases in which the distribution of the relief is made 
to serve private ends. On the other hand, special funds, 
which under the same circumstances have been placed at the 
disposal of the Guardians of the Poor to be distributed 
through their own officers, have fulfilled their object admir- 
ably so far as they have reached ; but this method of 
administering relief offends a natural sentiment, and is un- 



xi DURHAM 195 

popular with the class which it is desired to assist, it seemed, 
therefore, to some who were familiar with the problems 
of poor relief in Durham and on the Tyneside, that it would 
be desirable, at a time when there is no pressure of distress, 
to consider whether it would not be possible to combine the 
popularity of the "public" fund with the effectiveness of 
administration secured by the officers of the.; poor law. With 
this view a Conference was held at Auckland on 251!) and 
26th October, when, after full discussion, the subjoined 
Resolutions were unanimously adopted. They furnish an 
outline of procedure which, while it uses to the full the 
special knowledge of those who are in the largest sense 
guardians of the poor, both in the establishment and in the 
distribution of the special relief fund, yet by the method 
of distribution sharply distinguishes this relief from the relief 
provided by the Poor Law, to which the chronically unem- 
ployed are rightly left. The Resolutions are published in the 
hope that they may lead to a careful consideration of the 
subject in the district, so that if, unhappily, another period 
of distress come upon us, a general policy may have been 
adopted in the great centres of population by which it can 
be dealt with effectively. Those gentlemen to whose names 
an asterisk is prefixed were unable to attend the Conference, 
but expressed afterwards their approval of the Resolutions. 
Yours faithfuly, B. F. DUNKLM. 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, 2-$nt November 1895. 



COPY OF RESOLUTIONS 

It was resolved : 

I. That where exceptional distress exists, or is said to 
exist, it is desirable that all efforts to relieve it should be 
made in concert with the Guardians ; and that any body 
which may already have been formed, or may be formed, to 
relieve it should co-operate with them. 

II. That with a view to such co-operation it is desirable 
that a permanent representative committee of men and 
women should be formed in each Union on the lines of the 



196 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Charity Organisation Society, which would be prepared to 
deal with the distress. 

III. That such committee determine, after communication 
with the Guardians, when it is desirable that an appeal for 
funds should be issued. 

IV. That while every advantage should be taken of the 
knowledge of the relieving officers, the actual distribution of 
the funds should not be in their hands, but must be in the 
hands of paid agents of the committee. 

V. That in view of the evils of overlapping and multi- 
plication of agencies, it is desirable that all administration of 
relief should be centred in such a committee ; and that on 
the one hand the co-operation of existing charities should 
be sought, and on the other the institution of rival funds 
should be discouraged. 

C. D. BAINES. W. MOORE EDE. 

HUGH BELL. *J. HARRISON. 
C. B. P. BOSANQUET. *A. HENDERSON. 

*B. C. BROWNE. R. LAUDER jun. 

T. BURT. R. ROPNER. 

DAVID DALE. WALTER WILLSON. 

B. F. DUNELM. *J. WILSON. 

2$tk November 1895. 

Another of the Bishop's London engagements in this 
November was a Conference held in London House, 
under the presidency of Bishop Temple, to discuss 
Temperance legislation and obtain the united views of 
clerical representatives of the various Christian bodies in 
England and Scotland. My father was one of the 
representatives of the Church of England. The 
Conference adopted several resolutions. One was as 
follows : 

(2) That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following 
reforms are ripe for legislation : (a) The more effective treat- 
ment of habitual inebriates ; (ft) Further restriction of Sunday 



xi DURHAM 197 

trading (England) ; (c) Registration of clubs ; (d) Raising the 
age under which the sale of alcoholic liquors to young persons 
for their own consumption is illegal ; (e) Determining an age 
under which the delivery of alcoholic liquors to very young 
children shall be illegal ; (/) Shortening of the hours during 
which public-houses shall be open on week-days, subject to 
discretion of the local authorities to make exceptions where 
necessary. 

Towards the close of November the Bishop visited 
Manchester, where he discoursed to the Christian Social 
Union on "The Christian Law," it being the fundamental 
principle of the Union " to claim for the Christian Law 
the ultimate authority to rule social practice." In 
opening his address he said : 

But what is " the Christian Law " ? We are often reminded 
that Christ left no code of Commandments. It is in Him 
in His Person and His work the Law lies. He has given, 
indeed, for our instruction some applications of the negative 
precepts of the Decalogue to the New Order. He has added 
some illustrations of positive duties almsgiving, prayer, fasting. 
He has set up an ideal and a motive for life ; and at the same 
time He has endowed His Church with spiritual power, and 
has promised that the Paraclete, sent in His Name, shall guide- 
it into all the Truth. 

The Christian Law, then, is the embodiment of the Truth 
for action in forms answering to the conditions of society from 
age to age. The embodiment takes place slowly, and it can 
never be complete. It is impossible for us to rest indolently 
in the conclusions of the past. In each generation the obliga- 
tion is laid on Christians to bring new problems of conduct 
and duty into the Divine light, and to find their solution under 
the teaching of the Spirit. 

The unceasing effort to fulfil the obligation establishes the 
highest prerogative of man, and manifests the life of the 
Church. From this effort there can be no release ; and the 
effort itself becomes more difficult as human relations grow 
fuller, wider, more complex. 



198 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

At the time of these annual public meetings of the 
Christian Social Union meetings of the Union's Council 
were usually held. I am led to conclude from brief 
remarks in my father's text-book that he sometimes 
found these meetings somewhat trying. The nature of 
his trouble may be inferred from information supplied 
that " he acted as a restraining influence upon those 
who would confine the Union practically to the promul- 
gation of advanced socialistic views." 

Concerning this visit to Manchester he writes to his 

o 

Canadian son : 

MANCHESTER, 25^ November 1895. 

You see I am in a kind of strange land. We have had a 
public meeting of the Christian Social Union, of which I am 
President. I felt bound to come, though it is, I think, the 
first meeting that I have attended outside Durham, except 
in London. 1 It was a very remarkable meeting. The hall, 
which holds about 1500, was crowded to overflowing. Canon 
(lore and Canon Scott Holland were the other two speakers 
Westminster and St. Paul's. 

In Advent 1895 the Bishop received a letter from 
some of his younger clergy on the subject of Foreign 
Service. In this letter the following paragraph occurs : 

Will, then, your Lordship, we would deferentially ask, con- 
sider whether in any way men can be encouraged to intimate 
either unitedly or individually, but privately, to their Bishop 
that they wish to be at his free disposal, if occasion should 
arise, for home or foreign service, at least until further notice ? 
Would your Lordship be willing to keep some such confiden- 
tial list of names as that we indicate, and from time to time 
definitely to invite your younger clergy to face the question of 
volunteering ? Such an offer might, we presume, be accom- 

1 lie seems to have reckoned Newcastle as part of Gateshead ; but was 
careful not to invade his brother of Newcastle's Diocese without per- 
mission. 



xi DURHAM 199 

panied by any limitations as to sphere or term of service that 
God may have already made plain to the offerer ; indeed, it 
is just to find guidance where these fail that the scheme is 
proposed. We say that we cannot judge for ourselves the 
comparative needs of the foreign and home policies of the 
Church. We note that it is not expected of the private 
soldier in an earthly army to select his own post and his own 
manoeuvres. We do not think that it should be always left 
to private soldiers in the Divine army of aggression to do so. 
We think that those who stand on the Church's watch-towers 
may be willing to organise and direct us if they are once 
convinced that we are willing to obey orders and thankful to 
have them to obey. 

The Bishop replied : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, Epiphany, 1896. 

My dear Sons It was impossible for me to read your 
letter without the deepest emotion and thankfulness ; and 
perhaps the feeling was stronger because I received it on the 
morrow of the largest ordination that I have been allowed to 
hold, in which I seemed to have a vision of the generation of 
labourers who will carry on the work which 1 must soon leave. 
Your letter rightly recognises that our ministerial commission 
is essentially world-wide, even as our Church is ; and that the 
choice of our place of service ought to be made in full view 
of the whole field. In many cases, no doubt, the work which 
has been "afore prepared" for the young minister is plainly 
determined by circumstances, which are part of God's disci- 
pline for us, or by some clear voice of Mis Spirit ; but in 
many more there are no decisive claims at home or abroad to 
guide his choice. Where this relative freedom exists you 
think that it is an opportunity for the right use of which you 
may reasonably seek counsel from those who are set over 
you, without laying aside your own personal responsibility, 
and this the more because during the first two years of 
your ministry, when new thoughts are revealed, new powers 
developed, new hopes kindled, you are brought into intimate 
and filial relations with them. You think, if I understand 



200 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

you rightly, that a Bishop, from his age and experience, is 
likely to know the needs of home and foreign work far better 
than you can, and to weigh them impartially. You think 
that if you follow his judgment where your own judgment 
fails you will be saved from the misgivings which attend the 
fulfilment of a charge that has been self-sought, or taken, as it 
were, by chance and without conviction. And, above all, you 
think that if a Bishop is commissioned to " send " no less 
than to " ordain " ministers of Christ, he may look for special 
guidance if he undertakes the weighty charge which you pro- 
pose to lay upon him. Taking account of all these things, I 
dare not decline the charge which you offer, however much I 
may shrink from it, believing most surely that, through the 
prayers of many, the grace which was given me at my conse- 
cration will help me in my endeavours to fulfil it. There will 
indeed be need of great care in determining the details of the 
scheme. But these can be left for future consideration. It 
is enough now to say that I accept the charge as a duty of my 
office. And I accept the charge with better hope because I 
feel that your movement tends to present missionary work as 
the work of the Church through the spiritual action of its 
appointed rulers, without disturbing in the least degree the 
work of the great Societies. It shows openly that the work 
of our Church at home and abroad is one work one work 
throughout the world, one in its conditions, its requirements, 
its qualifications, its outward recognition, so that, by the 
interchange of clergy, many stations in the mission field 
will become, so to speak, outlying parts of English parishes 
as we have known at least in one case in Durham and 
the living sense of the Communion of Saints will be to us 
even in this form a strength and an inspiration. Men united 
by such a purpose can hardly fail to deepen and spread 
intelligent interest in Foreign Missions, and, without limiting 
in any way our wider obligations, call out in our whole body 
a worthier acknowledgment of the primary debt which the 
National Church owes to our fellow-citizens and fellow-subjects 
in other lands. May I go yet further and say that your 
letter appears to me to have a message of hope wider than the 
immediate subject of it. It touches indirectly the character 



xi DURHAM 201 

of our Church life. You speak of "the independence which 
is at once the safeguard and the danger of our English ( 'lergy.' ; 
At the present time this independence, unless it is chastened, 
threatens to destroy our corporate unity. Authority is already 
in some cases held of light account in the presence of resolute 
and impressive self-assertion, and those to whom authority is 
committed are tempted to doubt the validity of their endow- 
ment. Strong and happy shall we be if, in the spirit of your 
letter, we all come to recognise that the title " Father in God " 
is not merely a venerable phrase, but the acknowledgment 
of a divine gift whereby the Church is at once disciplined 
and supported when dutiful respect is the instinctive response 
to watchful love. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. R DUNELM. 

On 25th April the Bishop was present at the laying 
of the foundation-stone of the New Shire Hall in 
Durham. After the happy accomplishment of this 
ceremony, a luncheon followed, whereat it fell to the 
Bishop's lot to propose the toast of the Durham County 
Council. In the course of his speech he said : 

There are some things which I still desire, and you will 
pardon me if I take an unfair advantage of this opportunity of 
speaking to the Council. I am anxious to see two things 
done in this county. I wish to see some experiments made 
of a labour colony. I have no doubt the chairman has read 
the remarkable report of Mr. Hazell, of Leicester, as to his 
small experiment. If you will consider that recital, I think 
you will feel that it is worth your while to see if something 
may not be done in Durham to solve, it may be only in a 
small degree, but in an effectual degree, the problem of the 
unemployed. I have mentioned one of my great desires, now 
as to the second. I have visited the County Asylum with 
the deepest interest and the greatest thankfulness. I have 
never seen an institution which more completely deserves our 
confidence and more admirably fulfils its office. What 1 
desire is some asylum for a class of sufferers even, perhaps, 
more pitiable than our lunatics our inebriates. It is a 



202 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAR 

question which I think ought to be taken up by the County 
Council. What the Council has done in the past encourages 
me to hope they will face that problem too. I trust that 
this day will be a fresh beginning in the Council's service to 
the county. I do trust that the building, of which the founda- 
tion has been so happily laid this morning, may gather round 
it associations worthy of its purpose that it may be a land- 
mark of our civil progress. And I trust that the Shire Hall 
of the county will stand in time to come by the side of the 
Cathedral and the Castle, and witness no less worthily to 
the growth of the public life of Durham to those who shall 
come after. 

In a letter to one of his sons he makes mention of 
this ceremony, and further describes how he was occu- 
pied about this time : 

AUCKLAND, yd Sunday after Easter, 1896. 

Yesterday I had an unusual and interesting function, 
taking part in the laying of the foundation-stone of the new 
home of the Durham County Council. The Lord Lieutenant, 
Lord Durham, laid the stone, and I said a short prayer after- 
wards, and then there was a great luncheon and speaking. 
This week there are many meetings : one for the Missions to 
Seamen, at which Miss Weston is to speak. To-morrow I 
am hoping to go to see the friends of the men killed in the 
terrible explosion at Willington, of which you will have seen. 
some notice. It happened that only a few men, compara- 
tively, were down the pit at the time ; otherwise the loss of 
life would have been enormous. Only four, I think, were 
saved out of all. 

The Bishop had been in London on February 1896, 
when, besides attending various meetings, he was pre- 
sent at the opening of the Church House by H.R.H. 
the Duke of York, and, with Bishop Temple, was a 
member of a Deputation which waited upon Lord 
Salisbury to solicit legislation on the lines of the re- 



xi DURHAM 

solutions of the London House Conference on Temper- 
ance. He was there again in May involved in a round 
of conferences, committees, and other meetings. The 
effect of them appears to have been depressing, for he 
writes to his wife : 

CHTRCM HOUSK, \YKSTMINSI KK, 
K)fh May 1896. 

. . . These meetings always make me rather sad. It is 
so difficult through one's o\vn fault to feel that they are 
Divine Councils. They ought to be. It is all our fault, our 
own fault, our own great fault yet it is. Then I feel that 
there is so very much that I don't know ; and it is too late to 
learn. By this time one is "there" and one stays "there." 
Alas ! 

The Bishop spent his summer holiday of 1896 at 
Scdbergh. Here, on 3<Dth August, he preached at a 
Flower Service. Altogether this Flower Service was 

o 

rendered an " unique " occasion, for the Bishop preached 
in the evening, his eldest son, Brooke, in the morning, 
and his fifth son, Foss, in the afternoon. The Bishop's 
text was " Consider the lilies." In the course of his 
sermon he said : 

Consider l the lilies : learn the lesson - of the lilies. Study, 
that is, diligently what Nature teaches in all that comes before 
you, and take the teaching into life. For many obedience to 
the command is impossible. For many, " barricadoed ever- 
more within the walls of cities," no green meadows, or golden 
corn-lands, or flower- bordered lanes, or fern-wreathed hill- 
sides are accessible. They have indeed great problems of 
life pressed upon them in the din and tumult of street and 
mart. Of these, however, we do not speak now. But you, 
my friends, have about you all the varied wealth of the 
country, and God bids you consider it, learn its lesson. To 
do so requires, as I said, a continuous effort. You will be 

e, St. Luke xii. 27. 
, St. Matt. vi. 28. 



204 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

learners to your lives' end under this discipline of loving 
watchfulness. The reward for a lesson mastered will be to 
the true scholar a new lesson : the reward of a precept, as it 
was said in old times, is a precept. A duty fulfilled opens 
the way to a new duty. " Grace for grace " is the beneficent 
law of the Divine school in which we are all scholars. To 
him that has used his talent well more is given. 

I saw here a few days ago, as many of you must have seen 
often, a perfect parable of human life. I was standing in sun- 
shine : a storm-cloud hung over the valley. On the cloud 
was the rainbow, the token of the covenant ; and on the 
horizon the distant hills lay in untroubled light. From the 
light to the light not from the darkness to the darkness 
that is the figure of the life of faith, though transitory shadows 
may cross the way of the believer. 

My father's love of flowers and of all the beauties 
of Nature was very marked. When we were children 
he would take us for long walks, and be for ever find- 
ing interesting flowers, ferns, and mosses. His ardour 
was never chilled, though we were wont to receive his 
discoveries with decided coldness. He would never be 
induced to believe that we were unfamiliar with the 
Latin names with which he greeted his flowery friends. 
At Peterborough, I remember, he offered a prize to the 
boys of the King's School for the best collection of 
wild-flowers. 

At his September Ordination the Bishop ordained 
his youngest son Basil a Deacon, and a few clays later 
bade him a last farewell as he started for India to join 
the Cambridge Brotherhood at Delhi. He thus de- 
scribes his leaving : 

Hisiioi' Art Ki.AM), 7 tli October 1896. 

I saw Basil off this morning. Me went in good spirits, 
and is quite clear and happy as to his future work. The last 



xi DURHAM 205 

tew weeks have been a busy lime, full of many thoughts, bin 
there is very much to be thankful for ; yet it was strange to 
feel when the train passed out of the station that it is most 
unlikely, all being well, that I shall see him again. 

In the latter part of September the feelings of the 
country were greatly stirred by the news of "Armenian 
Atrocities," and my father, who was possessed of con- 
siderable information on the subject, addressed a large 
meeting at Bishop Auckland, proposing a resolution 
" urging Her Majesty's Government to expedite such 
measures as in its judgment shall secure the permanent 
discontinuance of such barbarities in the future." He 
also wrote the following letter (which was read at a 
public meeting in Sunderland) to one of the clergy of 
that town : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, -$otk Stptonber 1896. 

Dear Mr. Talbot I should have deeply regretted my 
inability to attend the meeting on Friday evening if I had not 
already spoken at some length on the Armenian question ; as 
it is, I have nothing to add to what I no id here ten days ago. 
I don't think that more words are necessary to deepen the 
horror and indignation which all our countrymen, without 
distinction of class or party or creed, feel at the events of the 
last year. But it seems to me that we ought to lay to heart 
more seriously than we have done the sad and unexpected 
lesson which we have received as to the intense and general 
suspicion in which our foreign policy is regarded on the Con- 
tinent, and to use every effort to modify a judgment which we 
know to be utterly unjust. In this respect the meetings which 
are being held throughout the country are likely to be of per- 
manent service. They have already, it is evident, produced 
a sensible effect abroad. The clear and spontaneous voice 
of the whole nation will be sufficient to convince the most 
sceptical of our sincerity and unselfishness at the present 
time. When this end is gained we may be sure that active 
sympathy with the victims of Turkish misrule, which has 



206 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

hitherto been checked by inveterate distrust of us, will find 
powerful expression in France and Germany and Russia. 
Meanwhile, I cannot doubt that isolated, aggressive action 
on our part would be disastrous to the Armenians and dis- 
astrous to Europe. Our duty is to show our desire to fulfil 
our own obligations in loyal co-operation with all who share 
them. And for my own part I cannot but trust that the 
present distress may lead us to the establishment of a cordial 
understanding with Russia, on which hangs, as far as I can 
judge, not only the fate of Armenia, but the fate of Asia. 
We have, I venture to think, adequate grounds for con- 
fidence. Those who disparage the concert of the Powers 
appear to have forgotten Crete. Not many weeks ago Crete 
seemed to offer a problem not less full of peril than Armenia. 
That problem has been happily solved by the joint action of 
the Powers. The difficulties in dealing with the Armenians 
are no doubt greater, and for these difficulties I cannot but 
hold the Armenian Revolutionary Committee largely respon- 
sible (see Blue Book, pp. 37 H., 57); and it seems to me 
that every friend of Armenia is bound to condemn openly the 
acts and words of reckless conspirators, which are scarcely 
less detestable than the bloody reprisals of the Sultan. At 
the same time, there is ample scope for our prayers and for 
our alms ; and I trust that the generous sympathy of the 
meeting will take a practical shape in the opening of a county 
relief fund, to which I will give ^"25, for the homeless and 
destitute sufferers. With the most earnest hopes that the 
meeting by its wise moderation and unanimity will contribute 
effectively to the cause of justice and peace, I am, yours 
most truly, B. F. DUNELM. 

The Rev. R. T. Talbot. 

On 23rd September 1896 the Bishop, in reopening 
St. Stephen's Church at South Shields, unveiled a 
memorial tablet placed there in honour of some brave 
pilots of that town and of others who had lost their 
lives by the capsizing of the lifeboat Providence some 
years before. There was a crowded congregation, com- 



xi DURHAM 207 

posed largely of pilots and their wives, members of the 
volunteer Life Brigade, and the Lifeboat crews, who 
wore their uniforms. After unveiling the tablet tin. 
Bishop said : 

There is a very old familiar saying that it is men and not 
walls which make the city, and its truth has been confirmed 
by the experience of all ages. And we to-day in our own 
happy country are, I think, coming more and more to feel 
practically that our wealth lies in noble men and women. 
When we reckon up this wealth of human lives we must count 
in our treasure not only those who are still labouring with us 
in all the toils and dangers of earthly life, but those also who 
have passed from our side, who have entered into their rest. 
They also are still with us, helping us by the recollection of 
what they have done, and helping us also by the effects of 
their deeds, which go on for ever bearing fruit whilst the world 
lasts. But memory is fleeting, and therefore it is well that we 
should provide ourselves with some memorials which may 
recall the past to our side. It is well that we should com- 
memorate those who have served their countrymen nobly and 
well, and that we should commemorate them in our churches, 
that those whom God has enabled to do great things in 
the past may speak to us still from the walls of His house. 1 
can well remember with what deep interest and thankfulness, 
on my first visit to South Shields, I saw in the chancel of 
St. Hilda's, hanging from the roof, the model of the lifeboat. 

The path of the seafaring man's life is beset with unusual 
hardships and perils, and the least reflection shows what a debt 
we owe to them. We owe to them in a large measure our 
world-wide empire, the very means of our subsistence, the 
necessaries and luxuries of our daily life, and I often think we 
do not remember sufficiently clearly at what a cost of life these 
services are rendered. 

There is just one incident in the history of the calamity we 
are thinking of which especially touches me. I read that a 
week or two after that great sorrow, when twenty men out of 



208 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

twenty-four perished in a moment, the same boat was manned 
to carry succour to a vessel in distress, and its coxswain was 
one of those four men who had escaped from the terrible and 
recent catastrophe. Men of self-denying bravery have there- 
fore their reward. In this sense we can say in truth that 
perfect love casts out fear. I trust this memorial will be to 
other pilots an encouragement, and that in some human fashion 
it may make the house of God dearer to them. 

The death of Archbishop Benson (i ith October) was 
a painful shock to my father. His deep sorrow and 
sense of loss is reflected in many of the letters which he 
wrote in the autumn of 1896. The following letter, 
addressed to his son Bernard in Canada, in part reveals 
his distress : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2Oth Sunday after Trinity, 1896. 

You will have felt with us much this week in the heavy loss 
which we have suffered. No blow ever came so unexpectedly, 
and for me it changes the whole future. No one can take the 
Archbishop's place in my life. I hardly know how I can go 
again to Lambeth with another there. To lose the last of the 
close friends with whom I began work nearly fifty years ago is 
indeed terrible, and I was the oldest of the four. Still, alone 
I must endeavour to do what is still given me to do. It was 
very touching that the first message of sympathy which I had 
was from Dr. Vaughan, who is himself lying between life and 
death. 

Yet, bereft of his three life-long friends, he laboured 
on, never for a moment permitting his private sorrows to 
interfere with his public duties. 

A few days later he commenced his second Visita- 
tion, and in the opening of the first part of his Charge, 
delivered in his Cathedral Church at Durham, he thus 
referred to the sad event : 



xi DURHAM 209 

I have said that a Visitation is necessarily a most solemn 
season ; and this Visitation comes at a time when the whole 
Anglican communion is bowed down by a sudden and over- 
whelming blow. Not many days ago, when we looked for- 
ward to the coming year, which must deeply affect the future 
of our Church at home and abroad, we rejoiced in the con- 
fident hope that one who was uniquely fitted by natural gifts 
and varied experience to vindicate its apostolic authority and 
bind in closer fellowship all its members, would use nobly to 
the glory of God and the good of Christendom the great 
opportunities over which he had long meditated. A visit to 
Ireland had proved under new conditions his power to inspire 
the enthusiasm of service and to win all hearts by gracious 
sympathy and self-forgetful devotion. The public mission 
was accomplished. The words of peace fell on his ears in 
the House of God, and, as we humbly believe, he entered 
into life. In a crisis of anxiety he bade us pray to God that 
he would "cleanse and defend His Church." In our bereave- 
ment let us not doubt that the prayer we know r not how 
will find uninterrupted fulfilment. Such losses, indeed, bring 
a corresponding gain. They give a human reality to the 
unseen world. Those on whom we look no longer, are, in 
some sense, felt to be more continuously near than when they 
moved among us under the conditions of earth ; and their 
spiritual presence supplies a living and intelligible form to 
the Communion of Saints, through which we enter on the 
powers of the eternal life. The lesson is for us all ; but for- 
give me if, in this stress of universal grief, I venture to speak 
of that which is personal, for I need your help more sorely 
than ever. It was by the counsel and with the encourage- 
ment of the late Archbishop that I dared to come here. 
During the six years which have passed since, that counsel 
and encouragement have never failed me. Now he has 
passed away, the last of the three friends with whom I began 
to work forty-seven years ago, and I, the eldest of the little 
band, must face alone whatever may still be given me to do. 
Once again, then, I am constrained to repeat the request 
which I have made twice before, and made, as I know, not 
in vain, "Brethren, pray for us." 

VOL. II p 



210 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The remaining portions of the Charge were delivered 
at Sunderland and Bishop Auckland, the title given by 
him to the complete Charge being " Some Conditions 
of Religious Life." 

In November my father spent a day at Cambridge, 
whither he went to support the movement, for estab- 
lishing a Cambridge House in South London. He 
thus describes his visit in a letter to a son : 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
24/// Sunday after Trinity, 1896. 

On Tuesday I went to Cambridge. The meeting about 
the " Cambridge House " was in the large room of the Guild- 
hall. It was crowded from end to end. I never before saw 
such a meeting in Cambridge. The men were most enthusi- 
astic, and I fully hope that the work will be accomplished. 
The Committee Charlie was a very active member must 
have worked hard to organise the gathering. I proposed the 
main resolution, and Mr. Balfour seconded it. It was very 
good of him to come. The next morning I had to go to 
Sunderland, where we had a good meeting of Church Workers. 
The journey and speaking were together fatiguing. Yester- 
day we had a large meeting of National Schoolmasters. To- 
day I have kept in all day, and trust that the rest will do me 
good, for I have to go out to-morrow and the next day. 

On ist December 1896 the Bishop presided over 
the annual public meeting of the Christian Social 
Union, which was held in the Colston Hall at Bristol. 
On his way to Bristol he wrote the following letter to 
his wife : 

N. ];. R., \st December. 

MY DIARY 

Reached Darlington quite happily. Began letters. Found 
place in an empty through compartment. 

Tldrsk. Have now finished day's letters, and found the 



xi DURHAM 2ii 

missing spectacles such is the gift of peace and shrill begin 
to think over papers. The sun is shining brightly. 

York. Have my ticket to Bristol, and two fellow-travellers 
with rugs and furs, enough to make me warm by reflection, 
if I needed it ; but cape and rug are most effectual. 

Chesterfield. Still getting on well. About to take egg. 
Hope that it is the right time. 

Derby. We have had quite a long wait, but there is no 
excuse yet for tea. I have made a hole in my mountain of 
sandwiches. Now we are off for Birmingham, I suppose. 
The carriage is wonderfully smooth in running. 

Birmingham. We had quite a long pause in the Central 
Station, and now I am once more alone. I saw no familiar 
sights, and we went out by some new line. Now we have 
passed Bromsgrove, and shall pause next, I suppose, at 
Worcester. 

Gloucester. We did not visit Worcester, and now the 
journey seems to be drawing to an end. I have just given 
up my ticket, which brings the fact home. The clouds came 
over the sky about midday, and there were no glimpses of the 
Malvern Hills. Now, too, it is quite dark, and I shall not be 
able to see Stinchcombe. How like a dream it all seems 
fifty-five years or more. How much better the opportunities 
of work might have been used ; and how great the transitory 
rewards have been. I will read my paper again and get it 
ready. 

Bristol. I have had tea. Mr. Abbot has called, and I 
am just going to the meeting. 

On this occasion Canons Scott Holland and Gore 
also addressed the meeting, and the three speeches were 
published together. My father's subject was " The 
True Aims and Methods of Education." In the course 
of his address he said : 

We are at all times unconsciously educating others by our 
own example. Our standard of duty in the discharge of business 
and in the use of leisure necessarily influences the desires 
and the actions of those who look to us for guidance. The 



212 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

young are quick-eyed critics, and the sight of quiet devotion 
to work, of pleasure sought in common things and all truly 
precious things are common will enforce beyond question 
some great lessons of school. We do not, as far as I can 
judge, rate highly enough our responsibility for the customary 
practices of society. Not infrequently we neutralise our 
teaching through want of imagination by failing to follow out 
the consequences of some traditional custom. We seem to 
be inconsiderate when we are only ignorant. 

And here I cannot but remark that the right use of leisure 
is an object of education not second this is, you remember, 
the judgment of Aristotle even to the right fulfilment of 
work. In this respect an obligation is laid upon the more 
cultured classes to watch needfully the pattern which they 
set, lest those who follow them at a distance should be cor- 
rupted in their amusements. 

The public meeting at Bristol was followed, as 
usual, by the Council Meeting, and by a second meet- 
ing at Oxford. He thus relates the story of his annual 
excursion on the Union's behalf in letters to members 
of his family : 

BRISTOL, 2nd December 1896. 

One line only. I am just starting for Oxford very indif- 
ferently prepared. We had a long meeting this morning, 
partly exciting, but all ended well. The meeting last even- 
ing was very large and hearty. I was not so tired as I 
expected to be. Probably to-night will tire me more. . . . 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2nd Sunday after Advent , 1896. 

My great expedition to Bristol and Oxford passed off 
better than I could have hoped. On Tuesday I had an 
eight hours' journey to Bristol, and then in the evening I 
spoke to a big meeting of 2000 or so in the largest hall in 
the city. On Wednesday there was an early service and a 
Council Meeting of three hours, then a journey to Oxford. 



xi DURHAM 213 

Again I spoke in the evening to a large meeting in Christ 
Church Hall. It was very generous of the College to let us 
have the meeting there. On Thursday I came home through 
Birmingham, and it took me nearly twelve hours. So you 
see I must still have a reserve of strength, though I generally 
feel tired. 

On 5th January 1897 the Bishop presided at a 
meeting of the Peace Society in Darlington. He there 
said that, as slavery had been put away, they might also 
confidently look for the suppression of war. Some 
weeks later he was speaking on the same subject, in a 
sermon on War, preached in St. Thomas' Church, 
Sunderland. This address " was delivered to a large 
congregation of men ; and, probably to the dismay of 
the Bishop, it was repeatedly applauded. His Lord- 
ship, however, took no notice of this innovation." 

On i pth January the Bishop delivered a speech at a 
conversazione at the Newcastle Church Institute. He 
was there by the invitation of the Bishop of Newcastle, 
who also spoke. The Bishop took the opportunity of 
explaining his relations with Newcastle. He said : 

A Bishop of Durham must feel when he crosses the Tyne 
that he is coming in some sense to his old home. However 
we may regard the relations between Northumberland and 
Durham whether we look upon Northumberland as, through 
Lindisfarne and Hexham, the mother of the See of Durham, 
or whether we look upon Durham as in later years the 
mother of the See of Newcastle it is ever clear that the rela- 
tions of the two dioceses are most close, most affectionate. 

On 22nd January the Bishop addressed a very large 
congregation of men in St. Columba's, Gateshead, 
taking for his subject "Fellowship in Work." He notes 
in his text-book that this was a u very striking service." 



2i 4 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

On I 5th February the Bishop addressed the follow- 
ing letter to the Chairman of the Church Reform 
League : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
I5//J February 1897. 

My dear Mr. Fry I have carefully considered the papers 
which you have sent to me. The main objects of the C.R.L., 
by which I understand the power of self-government in the 
Church, subject to constitutional limitations, the recognised 
authority of the laity within definite spheres, and the estab- 
lishment of an effective discipline, can hardly fail to com- 
mend themselves to those who desire to see our Church life 
developed in full vigour. At the same time, the proposed 
method of legislation is that which, under present circum- 
stances, is alone likely to be practicable. But the attainment 
of the objects of the League will require wise and resolute 
patience. The reformation of Convocation, and the legal 
establishment of corresponding Houses of Laymen, form the 
first steps ; and we can all feel the difficulties by which these 
fundamental changes are beset. However, frank discussion 
of such questions can only do good, and it may lead in due 
time to the formation of a concordant opinion among Church- 
men which will make legislation both possible and effective. 
For such a result we can gladly work and wait. Yours most 
faithfully, B. F. DUNELM. 

On 3 ist December 1896 my father had sent to 
press the first packet of papers for his new book. 
This book is entitled Christian Aspects of Life, and 
contains most of the important sermons, speeches, and 
addresses delivered by him during the years 1893- 
1896, including his second Visitation Charge. The 
book was not published until the year 1897 was far 
advanced, but it seems fitting to mention it here, be- 
cause it is a memorial of the four years with which this 
chapter deals. 



XI 



DURHAM 215 



This volume is dedicated " To the most dear 
memory of Joseph Barber Lightfoot, D.D.,D.C.L., LL.D., 
Lord Bishop of Durham ; Fenton John Anthony Hort, 
D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Lady Margaret's Professor of 
Divinity, Cambridge ; Edward White Benson, D.D., 
D.C.L., Lord Archbishop of Canterbury whose friend- 
ship has been inspiration and strength throughout my 
life." 

In the preface he says : 

We require, I cannot doubt, to modify very largely both 
our ideas and our practice ; to study more carefully than we 
have ever done the characteristic endowments and history of our 
nation and of our Church in relation to other peoples and other 
faiths ; to calculate the moral effects of the popular types and 
aims of education ; to bring the differences of our work and 
circumstances under the ennobling influences of one supreme 
fellowship ; to cultivate generally the capacity for delight in 
the common treasures of mankind and Nature ; to strive 
habitually to see God in His works and in His working. All 
this has been made possible for us by our faith ; and the pre- 
vailing currents of opinion are favourable to an effective 
review of our present position. There is a growing tendency 
to judge conduct by reference to the whole, and to the eternal; 
to subordinate personal to social interests. 

The book was very warmly welcomed, and from the 
numerous notices of it many remarks of interest might 
be gathered ; but of all that I have read I think that 
the following is almost the most striking remark, as 
calling attention to a very important feature in my 
father's method of dealing with men, and solely for 
that reason I quote it : 

" He has found a way," says a reviewer in The Yorkshire 
Post, " of speaking to the heart of the people to the rugged 
nature of the Durham miner no less than to the trained 
intelligence and the cultivated mind. Other teachers are no 



216 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

less sincere, and in their way no less outspoken. Why is it, 
then, that the Bishop of Durham moves men where others 
seem only to create a passing interest ? We suspect that the 
explanation may be found, at least in part, in one character- 
istic of the Bishop's words. He is not content to explain 
Christian duty and urge its performance : he always suggests 
in some subtle way his conviction that men only want to know 
their duty to discharge it. He has faith not only in his 
message, but in those to whom he declares it. Such a faith 
is often infectious. Men who are trusted are put upon their 
mettle, and the Bishop's hearers feel the fascination of his 
confidence in their good intent." 



The following are selected letters written during the 
years 1893-96: 

To A CLERGYMAN 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yd May 1893. 

Before the day closes let me offer you my warmest con- 
gratulations on the happy work crowned by to-day's Festival. 
Let me also at the same time thank you not less warmly for 
the courage and candour and devotion with which you have 
fulfilled a most difficult charge. The response which you have 
felt shows that the people of the North know how to honour 
and trust manly virtues. May God bless you and the partner 
of your service with the fulness of the Lord's joy ! 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yd May 1893. 

My dear Davics We are rejoiced to hear that you can 
come. I will write to Vaughan, and will you back up my re- 
quest ? I can get some free time at any dates within the 
first fortnight of June. Controversy is always distressing, but 
the Welsh Liberals are grievously provoking. The narrow- 
ness of their view is humiliating for thinking men. Ever 
yours affectionately, 15. !'. Dux ELM. 



xi DURHAM 217 

To A CLERGYMAN 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2^/1 May 1893. 

... As for your kind thought of me, I shrink from any- 
thing which costs money. If a workman engaged on the 
Church could put together two pieces of wood with his own 
hands, that I should value. 

This was done, and the Bishop treasured the Cross 
so made. 

To KIS WIFE 

\AfiliJune 1893. 

... It was a quiet little service. A curious phial placed 
on a dish on the Retable exhaled a column of incense-like 
smoke or vapour in the midst of six candles. But the candles 
perhaps were needed, and the incense rose spontaneously (as 
far as I could see), so that it was not an " ornament " or a 
" ceremony," and no rubric was broken. One smiles some- 
times with a heavy heart. . . . 

To THE EDITOR OF THE " NORTH-EASTERN DAILY 
GAZETTE " x 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
\yh July 1893. 

Dear Sir Allow me to thank you for the copy of the 
article on the late trial, which I have read with great interest. 
The whole result will, I hope, tend to the advancement of the 
causes which you have at heart the elevation of our pit 
village population and the strengthening of the spirit of 
conciliation in trade disputes. I have derived very much 
instruction from your articles, and I may add that when I 
have thought it right to make private representation to the 
owners of pit property, I have been greatly encouraged by 

1 This letter was not intended for publication, but was published by 
permission. 



2 IS LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

the spirit in which my words have been received. A higher 
standard of life is everywhere coming to be acknowledged ; 
and when the family is held in due honour, as you most 
rightly say, the better times for which we look will be near 
at hand. There is nothing which I endeavour so earnestly 
to teach at Confirmations as the duties and the privileges of 
the family, and I am grateful to you for the courage and the 
wisdom with which you have spoken on this vital subject. 
Yours faithfully, B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE SECRETARY OF THE COUNTY BREWERS' SOCIETY 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
l$t/i NOTCH liter 1893. 

Sir I am not sorry to have an opportunity of explaining 
what I said at Sunderland on 2nd November, as unhappily 
my words were not correctly reported. I did not say that 
" all the brutality that makes drunkenness so hideous is due 
to adulteration." What I said was: "The more I examine 
the facts brought before me, the more I am convinced that 
the brutality which makes drunkenness hideous is due (either) 
to (the use of) adulterated beer or to (the use of) spirits." 

These words express my present conviction. At the same 
time, I accept without reserve the statement of the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer that "in no case was the existence of a 
noxious ingredient found " in the samples of beer analysed 
last year ; but this fact does not touch my contention. 

The Excise Acts are largely to blame for the present 
unsatisfactory state of things. Let me explain my meaning. 
Alcohol is not, as I hold, uniform in its effects wherever present: 
I believe that its effect depends very greatly on the combina- 
tion in which it is found. This has been pointed out by Dr. 
Mortimer Granville both elsewhere and in a paper read at the 
annual meeting of the Diocesan C. E.T.S. -it Stockton last 
year. Thus, the action of distilled and fermented liquors on 
the drinker is, I believe, essentially different. I regard 
distilled spirits as a powerful and often salutary drug, but 
not as a safe beverage in any case. On the other hand, I 
consider " pure beer/ 1 by which I understand (to quote the 



xi DURHAM 219 

words of a brewer's advertisement which was sent to me a 
few days ago) " the product of barley-malt and hops only, no 
chemicals or any other injurious substitute for malt being 
used," to be an innocent and wholesome beverage. But the 
Inland Revenue Act of 1880 has recognised substitutes for 
malt, and beer may be made, as far as I can see, without any 
malt. Such beer I can only regard as "adulterated" 
because it is not what the purchaser demands and expects 
though it would be passed by the public analysts as satisfying 
the legal tests. The case is fairly stated in an article from 
Food and Sanitation, reprinted in The Temperance Chronicle for 
1 5th September 1893. Nor have I sufficient evidence, as I 
have in the case of beer made of malt and hops, to assure me 
that the liquor, which is certainly not "pure beer," is innocent 
or wholesome. Much that comes under my notice suggests 
a different conclusion. I may be wrong ; but the wholesome 
or unwholesome character of the drink can only be deter- 
mined by careful observation in a sufficient number of cases, 
and I desire that the truth or falsity of my statement may be 
established in this way. No chemical analysis can settle the 
point. 

Here, then, may I ask for your co-operation ? You are, I 
cannot doubt, as anxious as I am to lessen the unquestionable 
evils of drinking. If in every charge of drunkenness the 
magistrates were to ascertain what the person charged had 
been drinking, and where he had been drinking, and to 
record the details, we should soon have a body of facts at 
our command which would guide to a right course of action. 
It might appear that pure beer is not so harmless as I hold it 
to be or that " beer " made wholly or largely with substitutes 
for malt is as harmless as pure beer, contrary to my present 
conviction or that spirits are not so dangerous as they seem 
to be. In any case, light would be gained on a most difficult 
question, which every Englishman must desire to see solved 
for the good of his country. 

Will the brewers of Durham join me in a request to the 
magistrates to make such a record as I have described ? 
The inquiry is for their interest, as it is for the interest of 
temperance. 



220 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

I need not say that I greatly regret that my words were 
misreported, and that what I did say has been misunderstood ; 
but if the suggestion which I have made be adopted, I shall 
feel that real good has come from the correspondence. 
Yours faithfully, B. F. DUNELM. 

H. A. Newton, Esq. 

To HIS WIFE 

(j.N.R., 4//z December 1893. 

... I have been reading Ruskin, as far as I have 
attempted to read, and was amused to find one of my own 
favourite sayings word for word "that the question is not 
why men don't go to church, but why they do." It is a very 
grave question, and one or two things which I said last week 
will indicate why I think that its gravity is overlooked. 



To THE REV. DR. MOULTON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2nd January 1894. 

My dear Dr. Moulton It was a very great pleasure to me 
to find your letter and kind greetings when I returned just 
now from a meeting of the Lightfoot Memorial Committee at 
Durham. How strangely the past comes before us ! Of the 
little company who were so closely and so long bound together 
in work and thought and feeling, you and I now alone remain, 
and it has been my task to write prefatory words to the 
writings of two younger friends of forty years' fellowship. 
Yet I trust that the past lives in its fulness and bears fruit 
in some way through us. No change of duties could be 
more complete than mine, and yet 1 do not feel changed. 
In a week or two I hope to send you a little collection of 
words spoken here in the last three years. I hope that they 
show no break in continuity. But the rapidity with which 
social questions move often alarms me. On the 28th I am 
looking forward to a very important and anxious meeting of 
employers and employed on conciliation. You will perhaps 
be interested in the invitation, of which I enclose a copy (in 



xi DURHAM 221 

bad imitation, I think, of my writing), and I know that I 
shall have your sympathy. With heartiest good wishes for 
the coming year and kindest remembrances, ever yours 
affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

I wish that you would address me, as my old friends do, 
by my old name. 

To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 17 th January 1894. 

My dear Archdeacon It would be wrong for me to 
decline to answer your question, though you know how un- 
willing I am to seem to wish to influence your judgment 
by my own. 

I know perhaps more of Tyne Dock than of any parish, 
hardly excepting Bishop Auckland, partly from Mr. Bout- 
flower's devotion to it, and partly from my knowledge of the 
younger clergy there. 

You may remember that I was called upon to appoint a 
curate -in -charge shortly after I came here. I made most 
careful inquiries, and Mr. King was one of the two men who 
were named to me with unanimous and emphatic com- 
mendations for a most difficult work. Mr. King accepted 
the charge, and I cannot speak too highly of the wisdom and 
power with which he has fulfilled it. He has a singular gift 
of considerateness and sympathy. His spiritual influence on 
characters hard to approach is remarkable. He has given 
strength to a society of Church workers for the town. He 
has very largely by his own efforts built a fine parish room. 
I need not speak of his self-denial and devotion. . . . 

If he were appointed to the Vicarage he would, I believe, 
make the parish a centre for the young devout life of the 
Diocese even in a fuller degree than it has been for the last 
few years. 

I do not know who the other candidates are, and I write 
absolutely and not relatively. Ever yours, 

B. F. DUNELM, 



222 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To HIS WIFE 

G.N.R., 2gtk fanuary 1894. 

We have now passed Peterborough, my dearest Mary, and 
I must begin my report. My three-quarters of an hour at 
Darlington allowed me to deal with some correspondence. 
Then in due time I got into the shakiest train by which I 
have travelled for years. It was almost impossible either to 
read or write, and for a long time I wrapped myself up as 
warmly as I could and applied the smelling-bottle- we must 
get a new one and tried to compose myself to philosophic 
composure. It was a hard and only partially successful 
struggle. However, at Grantham, by prodigious efforts, I 
got a cup of tea, which was refreshing, and illustrated the 
movement of the train in unexpected ways, and now I am 
warm again. It has not, however, been a fruitful journey, 
nor yet a restful one. It may have other equally great merits. 
If shaking up is good for a "recluse," I shall be improved 
assuredly. You will see how hard writing is. Ever your 
most affectionate B. V. DUNKLM. 

Finsbury Park tickets collected King's Cross. 

LOLLARDS' TOWER PRESENTATION, 1894. 

. . . The Debate last night was lively, but I hear very 
little (alas !). However, I saw Lord Ashcombe, and had a 
long and pleasant talk with him. He introduced me to 
Mr. Forster, the author of the Parish Councils Bill, and I 
had a pleasant talk with him. I noticed a strange oversight 
in the Bill, which I pointed out to him that there is no 
provision in it guarding Sundays. Public meetings may be 
held in schoolrooms on Sundays as it stands at present. He 
seemed to be quite willing to have it amended in this respect. 
I hope to see him again to-night. What a wonderful answer 
Mr. Gladstone's was. Three paragraphs to say nothing and 
everything and anything. 

I enclose a proof of the Lent Letter. I am sorry that you 
could not look through it in MS. It is clear, I hope. 



xi DURHAM 223 

As far as I can see, I shall come home to-morrow. The 
Archbishop goes to Oxford to preach on Sunday, so that there 
is no reason for staying. . . . 



To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, Ash Wednesday [1894]. 

My dear Davies Very many thanks for your sermon, which 
I have read for my Homily this afternoon. I need not say 
how heartily I agree with it. More and more I feel that the 
secret of all life of man and the world lies in the words a< 
\pio-TM. You will receive in a day or two, if you have not 
already received them, some endeavours to express the 
thought in many ways which I have made since I have been 
h ere a ll indeed that I have been able to write. I know 
that you will sympathise with me. Do not therefore acknow- 
ledge it. 

I was very sorry that I could not see you either here or 
at Durham when you came for the D.D. I was half inclined 
to accuse you of faithlessness, but we cannot make our own 
arrangements. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \tyh February 1894. 

/ 

I am very much obliged to you for showing me the letters 
on the Madras bishopric. It is strange that neither of the 
Bishops seem to realise the idea of a Tranquebar bishopric 
with a commission for parts of Madras. The case is parallel 
to Lucknow and not to Chota Nagpore, at least according to 
my wish. Nor do I see why the Government should object. 

I have read w r hat you say on "Spiritual Power" with the 
greatest thankfulness. It seems to me that Rome and the 
Ritualists force on us "working substitutes." I feel more 
and more inclined to press a greater reform. The external 
is smothering all true life. 

May I say too that I agree with all you say on " The 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Higher Criticism " ? (Why " higher " ? The word bewilders 
me always.) 

I trust most earnestly that something will be done in the 
visitation of Churches. I think that I shall make a beginning 
at home and sacrifice the vases of flowers in the Chapel. (It 
will not cost me much.) They are post-Cosinian. 

It is so cold that I can hardly hold the pen. 



To SIR C. DALRYMPLE, BART., M.P. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, St/i March 1894. 

My dear Dalrymple It is most kind of you to have 
written something more than the brief bulletin which I have 
seen from day to day. That on Tuesday night first caused 
me great alarm. Dr. Vaughan is the last of those whom I 
looked to as my masters. We must wait and hope. There 
is no one to do his unique work. . . . 



To HIS WIFE 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
5/// Sun/lay after Easier, 1894. 

... I expect that you will have been to Little St. Mary's 
this morning, and I wonder whether you will go to King's. I 
ought to have given you an order, if that is one of my 
privileges. It may be you will prefer Trinity. I was 
delighted with the Psalms at Peterborough. I am very 
proud of having helped in that work. I often wished that 
King's would have followed. There is an article on Miss 
Rossetti by Lily Watson in the Sunday at Home, very well 
written. She appears to have taken literature for lawn- 
tennis. 1 ... I must have a little walk round the garden. 
We have no lilacs out yet, but I have a saxifrage or two, and 
one or two blue trumpets of gentian. 

1 My father appears to have confounded Mrs. Watson, the writer, with 
Miss Watson, daughter of his old friend the Rev. II. \V. Watson, D.Sc., 
V. R.S., at one time lady champion at lawn-tennis. 



xi DURHAM 225 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, $ist July 1894. 

My dear Davies It would be impossible for me to thank 
you and Mrs. Davies enough for my delightful visit. I only 
regret that Mrs. Westcott was not with me. The weather 
helped to make the pleasure complete, though I am not sure 
that I understand what to do ,vith flies which will not go 
their way. Such meetings bring many thoughts. Above all, 
perhaps, the sense of the mysterious unity of life dominates. 
That 6i$ in Galatians is one of the most wonderful syllables 
in the N.T. 

But I must not attempt to write a letter. The old power of 
routine work has possession of me. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

The following letters to Miss Bunyon, who had 
asked my father to write a paper for the first number 
of The Children of the Church, illustrate the care he 
bestowed on the accomplishment of such an under- 
taking. As Miss Bunyon says in forwarding these 
letters, " that the Bishop should have taken the trouble 
not only to make a fresh calculation, but far more to 
explain it to me with his own hand, was a lesson and 
encouragement." 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 8th November 1894. 

Dear Madam I took some pains about my figures. The 
estimates quoted by Bishop Light foot are more than forty or 
fifty years old. However, the latest calculation which I find 
is that by Wagner and Tapon, 1 which gives the whole popu- 
lation as 1,480,000,000, and the Christians as 327,000,000. 
It is, of course, impossible to ascertain exactly or even approxi- 
mately (with certainty) the population of Asia and Africa. 
Still, taking this latest reckoning, it might be well to write 
"one-fourth" instead of "one-fifth." I was struck by the 

1 Bevolkering der F.rde, 1891. 
VOL. II - 



226 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

correspondence of the other proportion with that in our 
Empire, where we are sure of our figures. Still, as Bishop 
Lightfoot says, let us avoid exaggeration. Yours most faith- 
fully, B. F. DUNELM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, io//i November 1894. 

My dear Madam I shall be glad to let the estimate 
stand as I have now given it, as it is based on one definite 
calculation ("not one-fourth according to the latest reckon- 
ing "). This form of words will show that the estimate is 
made from special data and give it more weight. 

With all good wishes for the success of your work, yours 
most truly, B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

N.E. R., 5/// December 1894. 

. . . Would it not be well to point out to - that 
there has never been any authoritative theory of the Atone- 
ment laid down in our Church, or in any of the historic 
Churches? The fact that Christ died for our sins and for 
the whole world is firmly held, and we endeavour to see what 
lights this fact throws upon our own state and our relations 
to God and man. That is all. I wish that I were better read 
in Anglican literature on the subject. I have been told that 
A. T. Lytielton's essay in Lux Muudi is good, but I have 1 
not read it. The only books which T found helpful when 1 
was endeavouring to study the question ten years or so ago 
were the familiar books of Dale and M'Leod Campbell. The 
latter would. I think, appeal to from its subtlety. Dale's 
later treatment in his last book Christian Dt>cfrinc is, 1 
think, fair and thoughtful. 

I do not think that I ever took more pains on anything 
than on the lectures on the subject which 1 gave at Hereford 
Cathedral (The Victory of the Cross). Xo doubt many do 
not agree with me, but I do not think that any one would 
say that the view which I maintain is opposed to anything in 
our formularies. I wish that I could be of more help. 



xi DURHAM 227 

I enclose a letter from Canon Grey, which will, I trust, be 
intelligible in itself. He suggested to me a public meeting 
on the Disestablishment question. I pointed out the 
undesirability of a Bishop taking such a step, but said that 
I could attend any meeting called by the Lord Lieutenant. 
... I do not myself think that such a meeting would really do 
good. I have written two letters to the Diocese already, and 
spoken at least twice at great meetings. It is, I feel sure, 
the quiet work in every parish which will tell. Still, I shall 
be glad of any word of counsel which you can give me. So 
the care of all the Churches must come to you. 

I am on my w T ay from Cambridge, where I spent yesterday 
at a meeting of the Christian Social Union, which was full of 
interest. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, St. JoJui's Day, 1894. 

. . . May your strength be stronger than your cares : then 
we shall all rejoice, and be strong with your strength. 

How one's thoughts go back to-day to that open grave, 
and feel that he lives still. 



To THE REV. DR. MOULTON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, New Years Day, 1895. 

Alas ! that I should have caused you to take so much 
trouble by a passing word. At least you give me occasion to 
wish you all blessings in the coming year. This year brings 
me to the normal term of life. Yet work remains on all sides 
while days are given, but it is ever harder to do. I hope 
that the sense of dependence grows stronger. Hope itself 
does not grow less. My day's visit to Cambridge was filled 
up with engagements, but it was encouraging to see that 
fulness of young life again. 

To HIS WIFE 

G.N. R. , 2tyh January 1895. 

I have just used my stylograph for the most important 
service of stirring up my tea ; that work successfully done, 



228 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



leads naturally to its normal use. At Doncaster I looked 
out for the tea-boy, and you would have been amused (not 
without some touch of compassion, I hope) if you had seen 
me struggling to manipulate without apparent effort a half- 
gallon (or so) earthenware teapot. However, I broke nothing, 
and was refreshed. . . . Now I think we have come to Fins- 
bury, but the windows are sheets of ice-tracery. . . . 

To A CLERGYMAN 
(On " receiving" Nonconformists) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, Lady Day, 1895. 

It is, I think, edifying to "receive" into the congregation 
those who have been baptized by Nonconformists ; but the 
service deals only with the case of infants. Yet adaptation is 
allowable. The Confirmation Service altogether omits the 
case of persons baptized as adults, and I am constantly per- 
plexed when I ask the question as it is given. Latitude of 
interpretation must be assumed. In the matter of reception 
it seems to me that our practice is too lax. Still, no absolute 
command is given : "it is expedient." 

To MRS. HORT 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 271/1 September 1895. 

Let me thank you for the new volume, 1 which reached me 
last night. This is of exceptional interest to me, for if ever I 
find a few spare minutes I spend them on the Epistle to 
the Ephesians, to which I have turned longing thoughts for I 
hardly know how many years. 

To HIS WlFK 

YORK STATION, nth October 1895. 

... At Lincoln I walked up to see the Roman gate, which 
edified rue, and just looked through the gate at the Minster. 

1 Professor Hort's rrolciVincna to I lie Romans ami the Eplicsians. 



xi DURHAM 229 

In a photographer's I saw a large photograph of Bishop 
Whipple, and I could not resist asking if they had it in cabinet 
size. They had the negative and could print one. I could 
not resist : I hope that it was not extravagant. . . . 



To A CLERGYMAN 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
26t& December 1895. 

You will know how constantly and how anxiously I have 
thought of your Mission since I read the correspondence of 
the Bishop of - - and - . 

I have endeavoured to regard the question from every 
point of view, in order to see my duty clearly, if I might be 
enabled to do so. One thing appears to me to be evident, 
and this is the essential point, that the question at issue is 
not the edification of the parish, but the fundamental prin- 
ciple of our corporate life as a Church. If any Priests of our 
Church are allowed without check to disregard its formularies, 
however richly they may be endowed with spiritual powers, 
there is no longer any tie to bind us together. Our Church 
becomes a mere aggregate of congregations. I am fully 
satisfied by the testimony of others as to the remarkable 
work which - has done, and as to the influence which 
he is able to exercise by his presentation of the Gospel. Yet 
I cannot but doubt whether in the end a teacher can bring 
permanent spiritual blessing to others as long as he is 
obviously deficient in the elementary graces of humility, 
meekness, and obedience. After all, these are the graces 
which are least conspicuous in our own communion, and it 
seems to me to be the duty of us all, at whatever cost, when 
the opportunity is given, to show how highly we rate them. 

You will see, then, that for this reason, which touches, as 
you will recognise, the very soul of our common life, I counsel 
you most earnestly to put off your Mission. Believe me that 
I feel very deeply the disappointment and pain which this 
will cause. Yet God in His love provides for us wonderful 
and unexpected compensations. Not one prayer, not one hope 



230 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

will be made void ; arid you will be enabled to strengthen in 
your measure that which is weakest among us. 

May God guide you to see His will ! We are come, as it 
seems to me, to a turning-point in our history. 

Believe me to be, in truest sympathy, yours affectionately 
in our one Lord, B. F. DUNELM. 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
Sunday after Christinas ', 1895. 

Even to-day I must write to express my deep thankfulness 
that you have been enabled to follow my counsel. Though 
I could have wished that you should have felt as I do the 
gravity of the point at issue, it is a joy to me that you accept 
my judgment, as of one who must give account. You do not 
indeed recognise, as far as I can see, that the reason why I 
cannot welcome 's services among us is that he claims 
to set aside at his own will the solemn promises which he 
made at his ordination and his licensing to serve in our 
Church. . . . Nothing that has happened since I came 
to Durham has caused me more anxiety and distress. The 
trial will be, I trust, not without lasting fruit. I shall confide 
more than ever in the loyalty and affection of the clergy, and 
feel that this loyalty adds a more solemn character to my own 
responsibility. May God through the prayers of many enable 
me to fulfil it ! 



To THE REV. DR. MOULTON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \yh January 1896. 

Your unfailing kindness leaves nothing unnoticed. There 
is now no one living with whom I have been allowed to work 
so long and so closely as yourself, and your good wishes are 
proportionately precious. I know how often my impatience 
has been reproved and corrected by your example. Every 
day i feel now to be a special gift, yet I find it ever harder 
to use what comes beyond my full period of labour. Some- 
times I look half sadly at notes on the Ephesians. That was 
my great disappointment last summer. Still, the days are 



xi DURHAM 231 

filled with little duties which are, I hope, not without some 
fruit. On the whole, I think that England has borne all our 
recent sorrows well. You will, I hope, remember the doctor's 
orders. I do carefully. 

To HIS SEVENTH SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, &th January 1896. 

My dear Basil I must send one line to say with what 
thankfulness we heard this morning that you had satisfied the 
doctors. Now we can confidently hope that your wish will be 
fulfilled, and the more I think over the prospect, the more 
confident I am that you have been called to a work in which 
you are likely to offer the best service, and so to find the 
surest joy. Our strength is to feel that we have welcomed 
the work " which God afore prepared " for us. ... 



To HIS SECOND SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, $th March 1896. 

... I was particularly interested in your reference to the 
" backward " influence of faith. It is one of my pet visions. 
It came to me when I tried to recall the original of "to 
perform the mercy promised to our forefathers." The Greek 
was a great revelation of hope. . . . 

To HIS WIFE 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2O/// May 1896. 

I got through a hard day yesterday very fairly well, and in 
the interval between two engagements I had an hour at the 
National Portrait Gallery. The chief thing which impressed 
me was the very small place which the clergy occupy in the 
history of England. . . . Late in the afternoon I went to a 
small conference at Grosvenor House. Just as I was going 
in another meeting was coming out. Even Dukes, you see, 
do work. I spoke to Cardinal Vaughan, though I am not 
drawn to him. . . . 



232 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To CANON AUSTEN 

WHITBY, 17 th Sunday after Trinity 
[i6th September'] 1896. 

My dear Canon Austen If I endeavour to answer your 
kind request, 1 I can do so only according to my own experi- 
ence. We can each see only a little of the infinite, and not 
perhaps that which rightly attracts the eyes of another. 

To me it appears that the Spirit is teaching us now above 
all things the unity of life, of all life, nay, of all being, of the 
seen and the unseen ; and that specially for the inspiration of 
our action He is leading us to give reality to the fellowship of 
man with men and of man with God. 

Since I have been here I have spent the chief part of my 
time in reflecting on the Epistle to the Ephesians, which in 
the fewest words commends this aspect of Creation to us, and 
it is to my mind of intense practical significance. If we be- 
lieve in the unity shown under three different aspects in Eph. 
ii. 14-18, hope and confidence will return, when we look on 
the unfathomable sadnesses of life ; if we believe that for each 
one of us a w r ork is prepared which we can do if we surrender 
ourselves to God (ii. 10), we shall be saved from the restless 
anxiety of self-chosen plans ; if we believe that all the details 
of ordinary life have a spiritual side and opportunities of 
service (v. 20 f . ; comp. Col. iii. 17), we shall be enabled 
perhaps to preach our Gospel a little more effectually in life. 
TOIIXEYMATHCAAH0EIACOAHrHCEIYMACEICIIA 
CAXTHNAAH0EIAN. 
Eri2EIMIHAAH0EIA. 
KPXOMA1TAXY. AMHXEPXOYKYPIEIHCOY- 

Let me ask your sympathy and help. OKOYKCAIUXCYX 
KITOJ. "'--- Yours most truly, II. F. DUNELM. 

1 For some helpful thought. 

- The Spirit of truth shall ^ui<lc you into all the truth. I am the truth. 
I conic quickly. Amen : conic, Lore 
'' We arc ( lod's fellow-workers. 



xi DURHAM 233 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, $tA October 1896. 

... I read your paper, I need hardly say, with hearty 
agreement. A party of Baptist ministers came here a few 
days ago to see the Chapel and have tea. After some kindly 
words, the President said, in reply to some remarks about 
their having a share in the treasures of the place, " Well, yes, 
after all the Church is the mother of us all." Certainly 
bitterness is diminishing. . . . 

TO HIS ELDEST SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \^th October 1896. 

God bless you for your kind words of sympathy in this 
great sorrow, which changes all the future. Now one seems 
to stand alone. But while I can work in any way the work 
must be done. . . . 

To SIR C. DALRYMPLE, BART, M.P. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, i*jth October 1896. 

My dear Dalrymple The kind thoughts of friends are a 
great comfort to me in this overwhelming sorrow. To be left 
alone at the end of life is an unexpected and sore trial. Yet 
for a little while work must be faced in the loneliness. How- 
ever, the unseen world seems to be brought nearer as it grows 
fuller. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

The first message I had how characteristic was from 
Dr. Vaughan. 

To HIS SON-IN-LAW (THE REV. C. H. PRIOR) 

AUCKLAND, 2yd October 1896. 

My dear Charlie My heart sinks within me, but it is a 
clear duty to do what I can. My one desire will be to be 
as quiet as I can during my brief visit. ... I tremble at the 



234 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

thought of going to Lambeth. There is no one now to 
whom I can naturally turn. 

Love to all. Ever yours most affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

G. N. R. , 2nd November 1896. 

... It has been very hard to work, but I have done a 
little, as I had forty-five minutes at Darlington. I hope that 
I shall be able to think quietly at Lollards' Tower, but it will 
be very difficult. It is impossible not to feel like a survivor 
of another order one of the erratic blocks on the downs. 
Still, there is some work to be done still, and if I can say 
what I want to say at Cambridge, it will be just the last word 
which I should like to say there, summing up the twenty 
years' work. But speaking depends on the mind. . . . 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 
2^rd Sunday after Trinity, 1896. 

This has been rather a sad Sunday, my dearest Mary. 
It could hardly have been otherwise. I went to the early 
service in the Parish Church, and then had my morning 
prayer in the Chapel. It was impossible not to think of the 
past of the changes since I first sat in the gallery, and of the 
coming change at Llandaff. If I could work with any heart it 
would be different, but I seem to be quite unable. It has been 
a happy thing that the Bishop of Oxford has been staying here 
all the time. He is always cheery, and so is Mrs. Stubbs. 

Yesterday Mr. Hensley came in to afternoon tea. He is 
still very busy with new work, which he does not like so much 
as the old. . . . 

This afternoon I went to the Abbey and saw some old 
faces. Alas ! I could not hear the sermon. Good-night. 

To THE REV. DR. MOULTON 

BlSHOP ArCKl.AM>, \2.tJi Junuury I&97- 

. . . Certainly as the years go on one grows more and 
more anxious to see the Faith translated into daily life. 1 



xi DURHAM 235 

cannot think that society is a true embodiment of the Gospel ; 
and my daily grief is that, while I have had visions of a better, 
I have done nothing to give the vision a permanent shape. 
"The world is too much with us." Still, the news of the 
Arbitration Treaty with the U.S.A. this morning is a message 
of hope, and we ought to take courage. Scarcely a day 
passes when I do not try to make the promise my own : 
KT^creo-^e ras \pv\a<s v/^wv. 1 

But in your letter, so full of thoughts for me, you say 
nothing of yourself. 

... I grieve to find that the Revisers have not given 
a place to the Latin addition in Eccius. xxiv. iS' 2 in the 
margin. The phrase is a philosophy of education. 

Perhaps your son will send me a line to tell me how you 
are. 

To A CLERGYMAN 

$Qtk January 1897. 

I am very sorry that I shall not be able to take much out- 
ward share in the Mission. I have no hope of being able to 
go out to-morrow. My visit to Gateshead was a sharp lesson ; 
and I seem to be unable to shake off my cold. But my 
thoughts will be constantly with you, and I earnestly pray 
and trust that your efforts will be blessed by a great quickening 
of devotion among us ; above all, may I say, by a deeper sense 
of the responsibilities and the opportunities of home. 



To HIS THIRD DAUGHTER (MRS. C. H. PRIOR) 

... I have written to the Bishop of Stepney, and should 
be glad to bring the plan of a University for women once 
again before the Senate. I am quite clear still, as I have 
always been, that this is the right solution of the Degree 
question in the interests of women themselves, and I am 
surprised that the Syndicate set it aside so summarily. . . . 

1 Ye shall win your souls. 

- Ego mater pulchrae dilectioriis, et timoris, et agnitionis, et cunctae 
spei. In me gratia omnis viae et veritatis : in me omnis spes vitae et 
virtutis. Vr- Cf. text of A.V. 



236 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The following letters to Dr. Moulton are concerned 
with the Revision of the Apokrypha, and belong to 
the period when they two were the only survivors of 
the Cambridge Committee : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, \qth April 1894. 

My dear Dr. Moulton I am sorry that my wanderings 
last week had delayed so long the answer to your letter, 
which reached me this morning on my return from abroad. 
The change which you propose in our work appears to be 
required, and I am glad that it has not escaped your notice : 
yet how could it do so ? What you tell me of the later 
labours which you have borne alone makes me almost sad. I 
wish that every one knew, as I now alone know, what you have 
done for the work. I hope, however, that there is joy in 
quiet, unnoticed labour. I am constantly recalling Browning's 
lines : 

" Paid by the world, what dost thou owe 
Me ? ;; God might question. 

Three days this week were spent at Avignon, Nimes, 
Aries, and the old world and Middle Ages seemed to live 
again. It was a wonderful and most unexpected experience. 
Forgive a half-sheet. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 



TYNK DOCK, 28f/i April 1894. 

. . . According to the precedent of the N.T., the Greek 
readings adopted in the Apokrypha (am I not right?) will be 
published separately. . . I should be glad to speak to you 
of tlv olives and the palms, and of the new and old worlds 
which J saw for a few hours at Avignon, Nimes, and Aries. 
The earth is full of strange mysteries. A detail which im- 
pressed me as much as anything was the base moulding of 
a singularly perfect fragment of the Roman walls at Aries. 
Men who wrought so were worthy to be masters of the world, 
though they thought nothing of human lives. 



DURHAM 237 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, 22nd May 1894. 

I have read the corrected Preface carefully, and see 
nothing to criticise. It will be necessary to date the Preface. 
Perhaps it will not be necessary to add a place to the date, and 
it would be difficult to choose between the three centres. If 
a place be named, I think that it should be Westminster, for 
the sake of the association. 

It is very satisfactory that the various readings will be 
collected. 

SPENNITHORNE, 2Q/// August 1895. 

It was a very great pleasure to get your letter this morning, 
though I do groan over the labour which you continue to 
lavish in most unselfish generosity on the Apokrypha. Yet 
it must bear its fruit. As far as I can remember, there was 
never any mention of the Americans in regard to the Revision 
of the Apokrypha. It was felt, I imagine, that they would 
not be interested in the work. . . . The Preface states the 
facts correctly, and I do not think that there is any occasion 
for referring to America. 

It is good news to hear of the Marginal References. I 
hope that the references to N.T. will be given in full in some 
edition. They appear to me to be a valuable collection. 

For the first time in my life I completely broke down 
at the beginning of my holiday nearly a month ago ; but 
now at length I am beginning slowly to regain strength, 
though I am forbidden to work. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yd January 1896. 

Your letter is a most cheering welcome to the work of the 
New Year. The account which you are able to give of 
yourself is full of encouragement, and at length the Apokrypha 
has appeared. I can only hope that no residue of burden 
is left upon you. The reception of the Revision was kind 
beyond expectation. Perhaps in time critics will see that 
when they can consider closeness of translation apart from 
natural prepossessions it commends itself, and apply the 
lesson to the R.V. of the New Testament. One thing, how- 



238 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT ,-HAP. 

ever, I much regret : that your heavy and unwearied labours 
were not recognised in the Preface. Every one ought to know 
what this book owes to you. The References will now, I 
hope, be carried steadily forward to completion. For my 
own part, I feel that years tell. I cannot work either so 
quickly or so long as in time gone by, and the sorrows of 
the great world press heavily on us just now. 

We all missed you greatly at the Temperance Conference. 
The Prohibitionists once more showed themselves to be 
unstatesmanlike and impracticable. Yet the whole effect will 
have been good. May God give you strength and blessing in 
all you do ! Ever yours gratefully and affectionately, 

B. F. DUNKLM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, izth March 1896. 

You know how strongly I feel on the question of the read- 
ings adopted in the Revision of the Apokrypha. It appears to 
me that it cannot be your duty to put these in a form for the 
printers and take the responsibility for them. If you have 
collected materials in doing a work, which again was not 
your work, you could place these in the hands of the several 
companies and leave them to provide for the preparation for 
the press. In any case, I cannot doubt that you ought to go 
on with your own work at present. If, when this is done, the 
readings are still not ready, you may perhaps then give help. 
I have grieved that you have laboured so much to complete 
work which was undertaken by others. However, such self- 
devotion must bring some great reward. But let me say 
again that your present duty lies in completing the References. 

It is very encouraging to hear that your strength does 
not fail. You ask about mine. I do not seem ever to have 
really recovered from last summer, yet I can get through my 
work in some way ; but how much is half-done or left undone. 
Yet there is endless ground for thankfulness that I have been 
allowed to do even so much. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. V. DUNKLM. 

The following letters were written to a lady who, 
having read my father's books and heard several of his 



XI 



DURHAM 239 



sermons in Westminster Abbey, wrote to him stating 
certain spiritual difficulties which perplexed her. My 
father replied, inviting her to go and see him at his 
residence in Abbey Garden. 

Miss Cordeux subsequently had several further 
interviews with my father, and continued in corre- 
spondence with him until the end. She writes to me 
saying " I cannot presume to call myself a friend of 
your father's the title means so much. I feel his 
goodness and wisdom and true greatness so deeply that 
I am conscious of not being worthy. He was kind to 
me that is all. He would have helped any one or any 
living thing that had appealed to him for help." 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
i AY Sunday in Advent, 1890. 

Dear Miss Cordeux The difficulties which you express 
more or less trouble all who venture on the perilous way of 
thinking. The real answer to them solution we shall not find 
while we are what we are lies in the recognition of the limits 
of our powers of thought and of our thoughts. In stating your 
first difficulty you have, I think, overlooked the truth which 
points to the direction in which we can find peace. The 
work of the Lord did not simply restore man to the position 
in which he was created, but fulfilled for man the destiny for 
which God created him. The fulfilment of this destiny for a 
finite creature involved (as far as we can see) the possibility 
of a fall. But in spite of this self-assertion the Son of God 
gained for man the consummation of his nature by the perfect 
fulfilment of the Divine will. . . . The fact of what you speak 
of as " unmerited sorrow " does not trouble me. I meet with 
equally unmerited good ; and both facts force me to recog- 
nise that the little life which is now my own is part of one 
vaster life to which it is my joy to minister. From the little 
which I can see I can believe that the purpose of God, as we 
speak, which cannot be truly regarded in parts, is perfectly 
fulfilled. 



240 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The difficulty about the Resurrection I have felt, and 
have dealt with in my little book. Here again the thought of 
the larger life of humanity comes to our help. We live so 
far as we do live in Christ. And here the whole tendency 
of modern inquiry comes to my help, and not to my undoing. 
Everything helps us to feel our dependence one on another 
to feel that we are but parts, members of a great body. In 
the consciousness of this fact, which finds its highest expression 
in the Incarnation, by which the Son of God took not a man 
but humanity to Himself, I find an infinite power of waiting. 
As yet we only see one side of suffering. It evidently has 
another as to God. 

If pure and noble aims for the present miss the Truth, it 
is, as far as I can judge, because they think that they may claim 
the power of perfect vision, and of drawing sharp outlines for 
that which is boundless. We are not minds only. Perhaps I 
have spoken half in riddles ; but I think that I shall so help 
you best. You will find peace, and not simply receive it. 

I am sorry that I have had no time to write before. This 
new work is absorbing. If I can think over any fresh ques- 
tions, I hope that you will be sure that I shall gladly do so. 

In our patience we shall win our souls. They are not our 
own yet. Yours most sincerely, B. F. DUNELM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, Easter Eve, 1891. 

Dear Miss Cordeux Let me thank you for your kind 
remembrance of me and for the beautiful flowers which ex- 
pressed it. The Arums will, I hope, find a place in our 
Chapel, which is the glory of the house. Happily, the power 
of life and service, and so the capacity for joy, is not limited 
by activity. I am just now trying to set down some thoughts 
about the blessing of a still life which certainly can never 
be given to a Bishop. With every good wish for Easter, 
yours most truly, B. F. DUNELM. 

BISHOP ArcKi.AND, 2<.y/i May 1891. 

Dear Miss Cordeux You will imagine how difficult it is 
for me to find here any time for quiet thought, still less for 



xi DURHAM 241 

putting my thoughts into shape. The question which you 
raise is complicated. For a certain distance we can see 
clearly, and then comes a barrier which we cannot overleap. 

Every physical effect, as physical, follows an inexorable 
sequence. This is the will of God. So far we are on certain 
ground. Under one aspect every bodily ailment corresponds 
must correspond with some violation of order near or far 
off; and we may be quite sure that, since every consequence 
in the physical order is the expression of the will of Him 
who is Love and Wisdom and Righteousness, it will in the 
end bring that which we desire. Physical suffering is then in 
itself part of God's discipline, and on a large scale contribu- 
tory to restoration. 

But then we have to take account of the connexion of 
the spiritual with the material. Hunger, e.g., is salutary in 
itself, but Satan may use it for temptation. We may give 
admission to his influence. Then he can use for evil under 
the conditions of this life that which is from God. And on 
the other side we can by God's help accelerate the healing 
power of suffering. I have endeavoured to suggest some 
thoughts on this subject in the fifth sermon on " The Victory 
of the Cross." 

The phrase " rebuked the fever " must be compared with 
corresponding phrases in the O.T., e.g. Ps. Ixviii. 30 (R.V.), 
cvi. 9; Nahum i. 4; Matt. viii. 26. It appears to me to be 
more than a personification. I can feel a little of that w r hich 
is implied in it by reference to Rom. viii. 18 ff. 

You will see that I do not think that it is possible to 
obtain an individual solution of your problem ; but in the 
endeavour to gain a larger view of the Redemption of the 
world I catch sight of that which is sufficient to bring rest 
and hope. 

You will be able and willing to fill up the meagre outline, 
which is all that I can draw. Ever yours most sincerely, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 23^ December 1893. 

Dear Miss Cordeux Let me thank you for your most 
kind remembrance of me and my great needs. Faith and 
VOL. II R 



242 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

patience are our sorest wants in the stress of work. To faith 
all things are possible, and the promise is that in patience we 
shall win our souls, and, if so, our people too. 

It would have been a great pleasure to show you Auckland. 
Our Chapel is unique in interest. 

It is happy for us, I think, that we have no choice as to 
strength or weakness. The service of waiting and bearing is 
not the least fruitful. Those who are called to it may silently 
and in a moment help weary workers. May you know this 
joy ! With every good wish for Christmas, yours most truly, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, igt/i September 1894. 

Dear Miss Cordeux On my return home I found your 
questions. They are indeed questions which must always 
haunt us, and to which we cannot find any complete answer. 
But all seems to me to lie implicitly in the fact to which 
consciousness witnesses most clearly, the coexistence of 
finite beings with an Infinite Being. If a finite being exists 
with power of self-determination, there must be the possibility 
of self-assertion, i.e. sin, and of all that must follow from this 
disharmony. We view effects dispersedly and in succession, 
and men as disconnected, but this is simply a consequence 
of our limited powers. To God " all creation is one act at 
once." And we must remember that, however great the suffer- 
ing may be which God allows or rather which follows sin 
by His righteous law He has more than matched it by 
His spontaneous love: "God so loved the world . . ." In 
this too He has shown that there is another side to suffering. 
(If you have not read J. Hinton's iMystcry of J'ain^ it will, I 
think, suggest helpful thoughts.) You speak of intellect, but 
intellect has very little to do with character; in capacity for 
love men are nearly equal, as it seems. 

You will anticipate that I should demur to your interpre- 
tation of the word "ordering." This in regard to the action 
of God does not indicate arrangement from moment to 
moment, but such laws as we speakas infallibly secure the 
end which we, with perfect knowledge, shall desire. A 
Belgian historian (F. Laurent) lias written eighteen volumes to 



xi DURHAM 243 

show, by a general survey of the life of humanity, that men, in 
endeavouring to fulfil their own ends, establish a Divine end 
wholly different. What I have said suggests that no prophecy 
requires a fulfilment. Knowledge beforehand no more causes 
an event than knowledge after. The words in St. Matthew 
xvi. 24 are very hard. But life is a perilous gift. If the 
being of Judas had ceased with his earthly life the words 
would have been true. His remorse must have outweighed 
all the joy of his past life. 

Do you not, to suggest one last thought, feel that the 
parallel between an earthly father and a heavenly Father is 
misleading ? No earthly father can feel what sin is. His 
difficulty is to realise its consequences. Our appeals to God 
are, in one sense, a feeble endeavour to make His will our 
own. If you have never looked up Bishop Butler's sermon 
on "The Ignorance of Man," you will find it very instructive. 
Yours most sincerely, B. F. DUNELM. 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, z<fh September 1894. 

... I feel sure that we can rest in the Lord and wait. 
When it is obvious that we see an infinitesimal fragment of 
life, and when at the same time we believe in the work and 
Person of the Son of Man, I do not see what ground there is 
for doubt. Love is seen to triumph through and over sin and 
suffering on the Cross and on the Mount. This is enough. 
Is it not reasonable to suppose that there may be goods which 
prove to be goods only if sought for ? Our Lord prayed for 
deliverance from His "hour." We may pray in like manner, 
and yet find that the spirit of our prayer is answered otherwise 
than we judged best. 

I cannot see that we can say that God is responsible for 
the action of creatures whom He has created with personal 
responsibility. He is (if we may so speak) responsible for the 
end, and for this He has made provision. All between be- 
ginning and end is in form determined by man's responsible 
action. I think I have said all I have to say on this in The. 
Victory of the Cross, which you may know. . . . 



244 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP, xi 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, iS//i September 1895. 

Dear Miss Cordeux It is very kind of you to tell me of 
your anxiety and trial. A Bishop naturally bears many sorrows 
in his heart, and it helps him to think of them, for in this way- 
he feels more keenly how much he is himself helped by in- 
numerable friends. From what you say, I fancy that an invalid 
daughter of ours, who is now perhaps the brightest and most 
helpful member of our household, went through the treatment 
which is prescribed for you. If it did not do all that we had 
hoped, she has had a very happy, useful life since. May this 
at least be your experience ! The most effective service is 
often that of the weak. 

May God comfort and strengthen you, and enable you to 
hear His silent message ! Yours most sincerely, 

B. F. DlTNELM. 



CHAPTER XII 

DURHAM (continued] 
1897-1900 

THOUGH the Bishop was far from well in June 1897, 
he was able to attend the " Diamond " Jubilee Service 
in Westminster Abbey on the 2Oth, and be present at 
the short service without St. Paul's on the 22nd. On 
this latter occasion he contrived to take up his position 
in a humbler room than that intended for him, and 
appears to have regarded the pageant with mixed 
feelings, for he enters in his text-book, " Is the army 
the nation ? or the strength of the nation ? " 

He wrote a short paper on Lessons of the Reign, 
which appeared in The Commonwealth for June. The 
article opens with these words : 

The memorable saying of Pascal that " humanity is a man 
who lives and learns for ever " (yiti subsiste toujours et qui apprend 
continuellemenf] suggests a standard by which we can measure 
the progress of a nation during each period of its life. To 
apply it to the present time, What have we learnt during the 
last sixty years ? And in asking the question, I do not think 
directly of the increase of our knowledge of phenomena and 
of the records of the past, but of the effect which our deeper 
insight into Nature and our completer apprehension of the 
course of history have had upon our views of life of its 
conditions, its duties, its destiny. These views finally deter- 

245 



246 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

mine the character of a nation, and reveal its growth or its 
decay. Great wealth and wide empire, which commonly fill 
our thoughts when we begin to estimate national prosperity, 
are opportunities of service and nothing more : a blessing or 
a curse as they are used. 

Looking back, then, over the experiences of my life, I seem 
to see clearly that in our Queen's reign we have learnt a great 
truth, we have received a great hope, we have been brought 
face to face with a great danger. As we deal with the truth, 
the hope, the danger, so will our future be. 

In July his illness became more pronounced, and he 
was compelled to rest. Persistent rumours as to his 
intended resignation were circulated at this time, and 
even speculation as to his probable successor was rife. 
In view of the Lambeth Conference of this year he had 
not made many Diocesan engagements for July, so that 
he was able to comfort himself with the thought that 
his work did not greatly suffer. He was, however, 
missed in the counsels of the Bishops, and Bishop 
Whipple has remarked, " The Right Rev. Dr. Westcott 
was absent from the Conference, greatly to the sorrow 
of his brethren. He has been to me a much loved 
friend, and his writings and personal letters are a price- 
less possession." 1 To the Bishop himself his inability 
to preach at the Miners' Service in Durham Cathedral, 
to which he had been looking forward with thankfulness 
and hope, was a sorer trial. 

The following letters were written by him during 
his illness 

To HIS WIFE 

liisnor ATCKI AND, ^Qtlijnnc 1897. 

... As far as 1 can tell, it is not likely that 1 shall be able 
to go to town on Saturday, but as yet the doctor says nothing 

1 Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate, p. 465. 



XII 



DURHAM 247 



definitely. We shall see. It is strange to be lying down all 
day ; but I think that I am getting on, though it is far more 
slowly than ever before. So years tell. . . . 

I contrive to get my letters done day by day, but that is 
practically all I can do. What a fortunate thing it is that I 
have no diocesan work before me. I can rest without serious 
trouble, for the Lambeth Conference does not lie very heavy 
on me. . . . 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2nd July 1897. 

I have just come in from my drive. How strange it 
seems ! The Park was looking wonderfully beautiful, like a 
magnificent series of Turners ; all the outlines, even to the 
most distant hills, were marked, and clothed in a dress of 
sunshine, soft and half transparent. We went round by the 
Old Hall, and if the flowers were not so beautiful as yesterday, 
it was a different pleasure to see a pitman gathering a handful 
of honeysuckle. 

The Bishops will be having a bright time at Richborough, 
but I never really felt that I could be with them. . . . 



To ARCHDEACON WATKINS 

K)l/iju!y 1897. 

You may have heard that I have completely broken down. 
It is a heavy blow, if not wholly unexpected. All my engage- 
ments must be cancelled, and among them, to my very great 
regret, the short address at the Service on the 24th. I will 
try to send a short message. How to rest I hardly know. 
No doubt, all being well, I shall learn. 

So the Bishop was unable to attend the Miners' 
Service in the Cathedral to which he had looked forward 
so keenly. His message was delivered to the congrega- 
tion by the Archdeacon, and was as follows : 

I need not tell you, my friends, with what keen and thank- 
ful expectation I have long looked forward to to-day, and with 



248 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

what heavy disappointment 1 now find myself unable to take 
part in this great gathering in our Father's house ; for the 
House of God is the home of men, even as the vision of God 
is the light of men. All who meet in this august Cathedral 
this afternoon must feel that they are not strangers one to 
another, but equal heirs of the divine patrimony. The service 
in which they join must press upon them with irresistible force 
the sovereign truth that they are brethren in Christ. To carry 
this truth into the ordinary life of each passing day is, I believe, 
to find a remedy for the sorrows by which we are still saddened 
and perplexed. So then may God in His infinite love enable 
all who come here year by year to realise in His presence the 
obligations and the blessings of their kinsmanship one with 
another and with their common Lord. To this end I venture 
to repeat the first words which I used in this place seven 
years ago, and say, "Brethren, pray for us, even as we with 
full hearts pray for you." 

The Archdeacon went on to mention that to his own 
great sorrow, to the great sorrow of nearly two hundred 
bishops assembled together in conference, and to the 
great loss of the whole Church, the Bishop had been 
absent from the Lambeth Conference then assembled 
in London : but that his Lordship wrote that, great as 
was his sorrow at being absent from that conference of 
bishops, his sorrow was greater still at being absent 
from the gathering in Durham Cathedral that day. 

In August the Bishop went to Fyling Hall for his 
annual holiday, and was able to make a little progress 
with his Ephcsians. He was also at this time reading 
Ruskin and Mozley's sermons, though the latter did not 
displace the sermons of Dean Vaughan as his Sunday 
reading ; for on every Sunday during the later years of 
his life he read a sermon of Dean Vaughan's, and from 
time to time he adds to the simple entry " C. J. V.," a 
reference to the particular volume he was taking up. 



xii DURHAM 249 

In October the Bishop's health was restored suffi- 
ciently to enable him to preside at his Diocesan Con- 
ference at South Shields, whereat he made a notable 
speech on the subject of Church Reform, and urged a 
plea in favour of self-government. In the course of his 
speech he said : 

In the last eleven years something has been accomplished 
towards the correction of ecclesiastical abuses. The Clergy 
Discipline Act of 1892 has removed the worst scandals as to 
criminous clerks. Successive Patronage Bills have received 
general support, and though they have been defeated by the 
opposition of an interested minority, there can be no doubt, I 
think, that their main provisions will before long become law. 
But the discussions on these measures have made it evident 
that Parliament, as it is now constituted, is not able to deal 
effectually in ordinary debate with questions of Church reform. 
It no longer represents Church feeling, and has not time for 
ecclesiastical legislation. The Church itself must obtain the 
power of self-government, with due safeguards for the rights 
of the State in accordance with the principles of the constitu- 
tion, if it is to be freed from the evils which still impair the 
efficiency of its work. There is nothing unprecedented in 
such a claim. The self-government of the Established Church 
of Scotland justifies the extension of like power to the Church 
of England. It is then, I believe, to the obtaining of this 
reasonable self-government that our efforts must be directed 
now rather than to any series of reforms in detail. And here 
the preliminary condition is to secure an adequate representa- 
tion of the whole Church, through which its mind can be 
authoritatively expressed. To quote the words of a resolution 
passed last February by both Houses of the Convocation of 
York, " The reform of the Houses of Convocation and the 
legal representation of lay members of the Church should 
precede any application for a change in the present process of 
legislation on ecclesiastical matters." If this fundamental 
reform can be effected, there are satisfactory precedents for 
legislation through reports of such representative bodies laid 
upon the table of the House. 



250 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

In the following month he visited Leicester to preside 
at the Annual Meeting of the Christian Social Union. 
In his address on this occasion he set forth some reflec- 
tions engendered by the recent Jubilee celebrations. 
He said : 

Within the last few months the whole nation has been 
moved by a spectacle in which the extent, the resources, the 
unity, and the loyalty of the British Empire were displayed 
with unparalleled completeness, and the solemn grandeur ot 
the spectacle has not been marred by any popular voice of 
vainglory. The pageant was, perhaps necessarily, military in 
form ; but no one, I think, rests in the belief that our strength 
lies in material forces. A splendid vision was spontaneously 
interpreted ; squadrons and batteries in long procession were 
recognised as symbols of the treasures committed to our 
keeping, and of our resolve to guard them. The large repre- 
sentation of colonial troops kept far away the thought of 
aggression, while it vividly expressed the variety of the elements 
united in the Empire. Two things, in a word, were set out 
before the world in speaking imagery the grandeur of our 
heritage and our readiness, if need be, to die in defence of our 
trust. In the face of such intelligible signs, the dullest minds 
have gained a new sense of what we owe to our fellow-men, a 
new estimate of our opportunities and of our responsibilities. 
Our social ideal and our personal ideal have both been 
ennobled ; we have received a powerful impulse of self-realisa- 
tion, not as units in an aggregate, but as members in a body. 
Even when the outward has associated itself with the most 
impressive majesty, the Unseen has been acknowledged as 
paramount. 

The following letter to Dr. LI. Davies illustrates his 
desire for ecclesiastical self-government, and summons 
up memories of the friendships of his undergraduate 
days : 

2yd November 1897. 

My dear Davies Your kind words were very welcome, 
and I am most grateful for them. Shall I say that I expected 



xii DURHAM 251 

that you would agree with me on our duty to seek for self- 
government for the Church, as the necessary crown of Church 
life ? The end will be far off, for we have at present very 
little Church life. Therefore it seems to me to be more 
necessary to make our object plain. But this is a subject too 
great for correspondence. I have therefore ventured to hope 
that you might be able to come to Auckland for a day or two 
and talk the question over. I am obliged to keep very quiet 
now. . . . 

I am on my way back from Leicester, where I stayed with 
Vaughan for the Annual Meeting of the Christian Social 
Union. Both he and Mrs. Vaughan were very well, and it 
was delightful to see them in their home. I had not been 
there before. We had very little time for talking, but old 
days came back very pleasantly. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

It was the Bishop's custom to write a letter each 
Lent to the clergy and laity of the Diocese, suggest- 
ing some subject for quiet meditation during the sacred 
season. From his Lenten letter of 1898 I quote the 
following : 

At the beginning of the century, the Evangelical Revival 
called out among Churchmen, as far as it reached, an effectual 
sense of personal responsibility. The Oxford Revival, in the 
middle of the century, quickened anew the sense of corporate 
life. But the Evangelical movement touched only a small 
part of human interests. It left out of account whole regions 
of thought and action. On the other hand, the Oxford 
movement was dominantly ecclesiastical and theological. 
Larger experience has taught us that all that truly belongs to 
man has its place in the divine order a place which must be 
occupied by strenuous endeavour. We need therefore once 
again to press on all those who seek Christian privileges the 
acknowledgment of Christian obligations as Christian. We 
need to accept no rest till every Churchman and Church- 
woman has recognised the good works ivhich God afore prepared 
for them to do, and has offered them for the blessing of the 



252 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

whole society in such a way that each offering is part of the 
life of the offerer. 

In spite of the innumerable sorrows and distresses by 
which we are beset, the outlook is not without encouragement. 
There are signs that English Churchmen to look no further 
are coming to realise the unique greatness of the spiritual 
charge which the Prayer Book lays upon them ; signs that 
they are learning that the master-truth which is now brought 
home to us, that our possessions, our efficiency, our life itself, 
depend on others, must find active expression through the 
faith of Christ; signs that the co-operation of men widely 
different in character and place w r ill manifest to the world the 
social power of the Gospel ; signs that once more in the face 
of unbelief and non-belief the Son of Man will vindicate His 
sovereignty by showing that He satisfies every need and 
every capacity which the struggles of a new age have dis- 
closed. 

The year 1898 was celebrated throughout the 
Anglican Church as the Bicentenary year of the 
Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, and 
the Bishop took great interest in the celebration. He 
preached a sermon on the Society's behalf in the 
Cathedra], in the course of which he said : 

The great questions by which we are disturbed are all 
finally religious questions. We have yet to learn through the 
teaching of the Spirit that in education, in work, in inter- 
course, Christian knowledge brings the guidance which we 
require. We are in danger of losing sight of the nature of 
true education, and the real significance of work, of the 
highest blessing of intercourse. \Ve are in danger, I say, of 
losing sight of the nature of true education. For the educa- 
tion which is truly education is not that which communicates 
knowledge or power, but that which quickens intellectual, 
moral, spiritual life; not that which arms the vigour of self- 
interest, but that which calls out devotion to social duty ; not 
that which concentrates our efforts on what we can gain for 



xii DURHAM 253 

ourselves, but directs us to joys which grow greater as they 
are shared by others ; which enables us, in a word, to take 
possession of the wealth for which we were made as men ; to 
gain the vision of God ; to hold converse with our Father in 
heaven. All things are ours. The whole world, with its 
innumerable beauties and its inexhaustible wonders, is a 
kingdom prepared for us. Yet how many live as strangers in 
the midst of that which is their own. Too often we fail to 
prepare ourselves in early days for the highest enjoyment of 
mature years. The immeasurable depths of the starry sky 
touch us with no ennobling awe. The light of setting suns 
kindles in us no sense of heavenly glory. We are not moved 
by the outward spectacles of earth and sky ; still less are we 
trained to interpret them. Yet everything on which we look 
is a thought of God made visible. All nature is a parable, 
but we must have the heart which watches and receives 
before we can read its meaning. Still, as it has been well 
said, "we are all poets in our youth," and it is the work of 
education to cultivate in the young the poet's faculty ; the 
faculty of seeing the infinite in common things ; of piercing 
to the spiritual which underlies phenomena. And yet more, 
true education teaches us not only to see God, but also to 
hold converse with Him. Our necessary occupation with 
material things tends to deaden our perception of spiritual 
realities. Yet the unseen is the largest part of life. Heaven 
lies about us not in infancy alone ; and by swift, silent pauses 
for thought, for recollection, for aspiration, we can not only 
keep fresh the influence of that diviner atmosphere, but 
breathe it more habitually. Words spoken to our Father are 
not measured by time. They do not so much interrupt work 
as quicken it. They open the treasuries of another world, 
hallowing, ennobling, blessing the simplest duties. We all 
feel what w r e owe to earthly friends how 7 poor and cheerless 
and ineffective our work would be without their sympathy ; 
and the Lord Himself has said in words which reach to all 
who love Him : " No longer do I call you servants . . . 
but I have called you friends." He is our friend still, seen 
with the eyes of the heart. To turn to Him, to walk with 
Him, to open to Him our doubts, our wants, our griefs, our 



254 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

joys, is to find temptations overcome, hope rekindled, earth 
transformed. 

A few days later the Bishop visited Stockton to 
open the new premises of the Stockton and Thornaby 
Boys' Brigade and Working Lads' Home. On this 
occasion he delivered a " most encouraging address " 
on the three mottoes of the Boys' Brigade : " God be 
thanked for prevention," " We help those who try to 
help themselves," " The child is father to the man." 
The following are some of the words that he said anent 
the second of these mottoes : 

You help those who help themselves. It is something 
more than a home you intend to give. And here we are 
brought face to face with what natural experience shows to be 
a practical and universal law we must ask something from 
those whom we desire to serve. We cannot benefit unless 
those who receive the benefit make some effort. We are 
often tempted to think, for example, that we can give other 
people useful thoughts. I venture to think we can do 
nothing of the kind. We can give them half-a-crown, but we 
cannot give them a real thought. They may use it, but it is 
not their own, and until they make it their own, it will really 
be of no service at all to them. You intend by what you do 
for these boys really to mould their character, and you ask 
the boys therefore, when they receive something from you, to 
give something in return. This, I believe, is the universal 
law of Nature. Nature requires us sooner or later, in some 
way or other, to pay the full price of every gift, for it is after 
all a gift that she makes us. 

After a brief Easter holiday spent at H arrogate, my 
father, accompanied by his wife and his chaplain son, 
crossed for the first and last time St. George's Channel, 
to receive the honorary degree of D.D. from Dublin 
University. This degree has been very rarely conferred, 



XII 



DURHAM 255 



only, in fact, twelve times since 1595, the last recipient 
of the degree having been the Hon. John Chctwyn 
Talbot in 1812. The ceremony took place in the 
Examination Hall of Trinity College. The Public 
Orator, Professor Tyrrell, in presenting the Bishop to 
the Chancellor, the Earl of Rossc, K.P., described him 
as " in learning a second Origen, in piety a second 
Augustine." ] 

The days spent in Dublin were by no means holi- 
days, for the Bishop preached before the University 

1 This is the full text of the speech : 

Praehonorabilis Cancellarie totaque Universitas, duco ad vos virum 
inter doctores et theologos et (quod non est minimum) inter cives ipsos 
quotidianos prae ceteris eminentem, reverendissimum Brooke Foss 
Westcott, Episcopum Dunelmensem, D.D., D.C.L. Rudimenta adole- 
scentiae optime posuit litteris humanioribus Cantabrigiae felicissime excultis ; 
postea sacrae theologiae Professor primas partes egit inter eos qui textum 
Novi Testament! firmis fundaminibus constabiliverunt, et divinas illas 
Apostolorum commentationes doctrina singular! illustraverunt. Apicem 
episcopalem consecutus, huic addidit non minus veram gloriam coronae 
civicae. Cedat mitra togae : videre mihi videor, Vir Reverendissime, 
ipsum cumulum laudis tuae, cum certamina ilia funesta inter nummatos et 
operarios composuisti, cum 

Civium ardor prava iubentium 

felici tuo temperamento victus et placatus conquievit. Prae slat dixisti, 
ut Neptunus ille apud Virgilium, 

Praestat motos componere fluctus. 

Venit mihi in mentem totius loci illius nobilissimi hunc virum contem- 
planti tarn strenuum pro veritate ac fide propugnatorem, tarn mitem inter 
cives pacificatorem : 

Ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta est 
Seditio, saevitque animis ignobile vulgus, 
lamque faces et saxa volant, furor arma ministrat : 
Turn pietate gravem ac mentis si forte virum quern 
Conspexere silent, arrectisque auribus adstant : 
Ille regit clictis animos et pectora mulcet. 

Talern virum duco ad vos purpura nostra decorandum, purpuram 
nostram decoraturum. Illvirorum illorum Cantabrigiensium, Ilort, Light- 
foot, Westcott, unum superstitem, Vitae. Evangelii auctorem et propa- 
gatorem, doctrina alterum Origenem, pietate alterum Augustinum, liben- 
tissime sane graduatis nostris adscribimus. 



56 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



and delivered an address to the Girls' Friendly Society 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral. He also, as a " distinguished 
stranger," was present at a meeting of the General 
Synod of the Church of Ireland, all the members 
rising to their feet and applauding at his entrance. 
The Bishop had ample opportunity during his stay 
of about two hours at the Synod of " making himself 
acquainted with \%\e perfervidum ingeniuin Hibernicorum, 
and of listening to some interesting and original dis- 
sertations on the antecedents of the Church of Ireland 
and its patron Saint." 

The Bishop and his wife both thoroughly enjoyed 
this visit, and were greatly pleased \vith the warmth of 
their welcome. They, together with their chaplain son, 
Henry, were the guests of Provost Salmon during their 
stay in Dublin. My father writes in his text-book on 
2 1st April, " A great day : full of interest." 

On 28th May my father was present at Mr. Glad- 
stone's funeral in Westminster Abbey. A few days 
previously, in a speech delivered at the Bede College, 
Durham, he had referred to the great leader's death, 
saying : 

I cannot forbear from saying that it must seem to many 
of us that the festival of the Ascension was a fitting day for 
the passing of him whose life, whatever we may think as to 
the measures which he either favoured or carried into effect, 
was continuously animated by the desire for truth and justice 
and righteousness ; who in everything he did was at least 
filled with a noble spirit, and who turned all his powers to 
the pursuit of noble ideals. 

Before the time for his holiday, or, more correctly 
speaking, his change of work arrived, the Bishop had 
several important summer engagements to fulfil, in- 
cluding an address to the miners in Durham Cathedral, 



xii DURHAM 257 

and a speech at the opening of the Shire Hall. He 
seems to have been making speeches most days about 
this time ; but he never appeared to be at a loss for 
ideas or for words wherewith to clothe them. Referring 
to a speech delivered by the Bishop at the laying of 
a memorial stone of the Auckland District Cottage 
Hospital, some one observed, that he was " The grandest 
ould man fer taaken ivver aa cum akross yit wen y'eer 
'im taak et's just like reeden a byuk clivvcr. He tyuk 
his hat off i' th' blazen hot sun, an' aa thowt he lukt 
th' varry sowl o' gudeness. He wanted nee Bishop's 
hat tc mak 'im Ink gud wi' that gud, onnest, uprcet, 
an' smilen fyes. Aa mebbis canna discribe things as 
aa owt te dee, but there's nee mistak aboot et th' 
Bishop's a gloryus ould man. Aa's setisfised this 
koonty '11 loss a bonny gud man wen Bishop Wcst- 
cott's gyen." 

The following similar testimony refers primarily to 
the speech he delivered at the opening of the Shire 
Hall : 

The speech of Bishop Westcott was an intellectual treat, 
and it made a noticeable impression upon the assembly. 
There is always a special charm about the orations of Bishop 
Westcott. They are delivered with a quiet, easy flow of 
language that is almost rhythmic, and the words strike home 
immediately. Reporters admire him greatly as a man and as 
a thinker, but they have no reason to wax enthusiastic over 
his deliverances. Like the late Bishop of Beterborough, he 
is something of a terror to the shorthand writers, not because 
he speaks rapidly, but because his thoughts are expressed in 
uncommon and often unfamiliar phrases. To report verbatim 
Dr. Westcott when he is, if I may use an athletic term, in 
form, is an experience. 

The summer holiday was spent at Goathland, and 
was devoted, as in recent years, to work on the Epistle 
VOL. II S 



258 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

to the Ephesians, which so prospered that on 1st 
September he made a note to the effect that the draft 
notes on the text were finished, and expressed his 
thankfulness in his usual manner. 

On 1 6th October the Bishop preached a sermon in 
the Cathedral on behalf of the Church of England 
Temperance Society. In the course of this sermon he 
said : 

Force legislation cannot work a moral revolution. Legis- 
lation depends for its efficacy upon strong public opinion, 
and there lies the difficulty. There is a large class tolerant 
of intemperance, and it is not regarded by them in its anti- 
social character. The excuse often pleaded, " He is no 
one's enemy but his own," reveals the popular misconcep- 
tion of the vice. He who is his own enemy is the enemy of 
every one to whom he is a debtor: he robs his friends and 
fellow-men of himself. The remedy, therefore, must be more 
prevailing than legislation than force. The desire for 
excitement is a natural instinct answered wrongly. We all 
feel depressed by the monotonous dulness of common life. 
"Wine maketh glad the heart of man," and we look upon it 
as one of God's gifts. We long for the quickened pulse, the 
livelier utterance, the keener animation, the fuller, intenser 
life we love the generous freedom of good fellowship. The 
desire is not wrong, and must be rightly satisfied. I once 
asked a Labour leader what would cure intemperance and 
gambling, and the reply was, "Nothing but religion." I 
believe that to be absolutely true. 

The autumn found him once more engaged in the 
service of the Christian Social Union. On 25th 
October he addressed a very large and appreciative 
audience at Macclesfield on u The Organisation of 
Industry," the Bishop of Chester being in the chair. 
This address, which was published in the Economic 
Review, attracted considerable attention. In the open- 
ing of the speech be said : 



XII 



DURHAM 259 



The organisation of industry, if v/e reflect upon the mean- 
ing of the words, is seen to be the organisation of national 
life. As citizens we are all bound to be workers ; and it has 
been one of my chief joys to watch the gradual acceptance of 
the master-thoughts of corporate obligations and corporate 
interdependence, till now it is (may I not say?) universally 
acknowledged among Englishmen that we all belong to one 
body, in which the least member has his proper function. 
For us, then, the organisation of industry is such a co- 
ordination of the forces of the nation as will issue in the 
noblest national life, to which each worker in due measure 
brings his individual service, while he shares in its fulness 
according to his capacity. It will be directed not only to 
the production of material wealth, but also to the develop- 
ment of personal character. It will take account of those 
to whom, in the stress of our present circumstances, no 
appropriate employment is open. In other words, a perfect 
industrial organisation will lead to the harmonious use of all 
the resources of the nation, its treasures of physical strength 
and skill, of capital, of intelligence, of enthusiasm for the 
common good ; it will be ordered with a view to the healthy 
discipline and satisfaction of the whole of each individual 
life ; it will deal with the masses of the unemployed and of 
the partially employed ; and, though I cannot accept the 
measures which the minority of the Labour Commission 
recommended, I am ready to accept their statement that it is 
" high time that the whole strength and influence . . . of 
the community should be deliberately, patiently, and persist- 
ently used to raise the standard of life of its weaker . . . 
members." l 

Writing subsequently to Mr. J. C. Medd, the 
President of the Macclcsfield branch of the C.S.U., he 
said : " It (sc. the meeting at Macclcsficld) has been 
my most encouraging experience, and your whole pro- 
gramme ought to serve as an example. I hope that 
you will give your experience to Birmingham." 

1 Report of the Labour Commission^ p. 146. 



260 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The following letter to the Dean of Westminster 
also makes mention of this meeting : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 31^ October 1898. 

My dear Dean Yes, indeed, "Westcott" not "now and 
then," but always, if you love me (dare I say?) as I love 
Westminster. It is most kind of you to take notice of my 
wanderings. The visit to Macclesfield was a great effort, but 
full of interest. The question was one which, as you know, 
I feel intensely. It is the little message which I have for 
the North. The meeting, I should say, was one of the 
Christian Social Union, of which I happen to be President. 
The platform was therefore confined to members of the 
Society, which, from no narrow motive, is confined to Church- 
men. My desire was simply to supply some suggestions for 
thought. Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

In a letter to his daughter, Mrs. Prior, he throws 
further light upon the Union's platform : 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2-^th January 1898. 

The title "Christian Social Union" is capable of mis- 
construction, but I do not know that it could be easily im- 
proved. The corresponding American Society is " The Church 
Social Union," which is not better. Membership of the 
Union is limited to Churchmen and Churchwomen bona fide. 
I said a few 'words on this limitation in a letter to Dr. 
Stanton read at the meeting at Cambridge in November 

1892. It is printed in the Economic Review for January 

1893. I have endeavoured to show (what I feel) that the 
condition does not really narrow the Union, but only gives it 
the necessary foundation of faith. Any branch can obtain, 
if it seems well, the co-operation of others. The use of the 
word "Christian" is positive and not negative. It says that 
the work of the Union is founded on the Christian Creed. 
It says nothing of others. "Social" again is necessary. It 
indicates that the aim of the Union is to influence our social 
life, as distinguished from our individual life. It is perhaps 



xii DURHAM 261 

unfortunate that the two first epithets suggest the title 
"Christian Socialist," but the members of the Union are by 
no means pledged to what is called Christian Socialism a 
most vague phrase. I tried to set out the duties of members 
in a paper contained in Cliristian Aspects of Life. The central 
one is quiet study. It is worse than vain to attempt to 
" do " anything before you are master of the subject. Yet so 
much every one can do personally, quietly reflect whether 
this act or this habit is for the glory of God. I think that 
Canon Gore would speak wisely and usefully on the three 
objects of the Society, and I think that he would insist on 
thought and study. . . . 

This meeting at Macclesfielcl was not the regular 
annual meeting of the Union, which the Bishop always 
made a point of attending, but a special gathering 
promoted by the zeal of the President of the local 
branch of the Union. The regular meeting was held 
in Birmingham in the following month. Here, accord- 

o o 

ingly, on the platform of the Town Hall, the Bishop 
appeared on 29th November, to address the members 
on " Social Service." It was natural that such a place 
should stir up in him the memories of his boyhood. 

It is impossible (he said) to describe the feelings with 
which I stand here this evening in the hall of my native city 
and look back upon all that I owed to Birmingham in my 
school years. Those were stirring years. We who passed 
through them felt that the old order was changing, and that 
a revolution was going on about us the issue of which could 
not be foreseen. The first event of which I have a clear 
recollection was the meeting of the Political Union on New- 
hall Hill in 1831. I can see still the crown and Royal 
standard in front of the platform, which reassured my childish 
heart, startled by wild words of violence and rebellion. The 
Chartist movement followed soon after. I listened to Feargus 
O'Connor, and I saw the blackened ruins in the Bull Ring 
guarded by soldiers. Then came the Corn Law agitation 



262 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

and the Factory Acts. The Young England party strove to 
mitigate the antagonisms of classes, and Disraeli described in 
memorable trilogy, Coningsby, Sybil, and Tancred^ the con- 
flicts of opinion, the life and aspiration by which they were 
surrounded. Meanwhile the Oxford movement was raising 
in new forms the fundamental questions of authority and 
faith, and Strauss assailed with unmatched power the founda- 
tions of the Gospel. They were stirring times : political, 
economic, social, religious changes came in quick succession, 
and, looking forward already to the work of a priest and a 
teacher, I watched them with the keenest interest. 

Between these two excursions in the interest of 
the Social Union, the Bishop had performed various 
Diocesan duties, including a second Visitation of the 
Cathedral ; but there was another extra-diocesan ser- 
vice which he rendered which should not be lightly 
passed over his sermon at the Dedication of the 
Memorial to Miss Rossetti in Christ Church, Woburn 
Square. " This address, delivered with the deepest feel- 
ing, characterised by great delicacy of treatment, and 
clothed in language of poetic beauty, held an audi- 
ence, comprising many prominent literary and clerical 
figures, in enthralled interest." The address was pub- 
lished as An Appreciation of the late Christina Georgina 
Rossetti. 

The Bishop had a profound respect for the genius 
of this gifted poetess, and in writing to Mr. Mackenzie 
Bell, the biographer of Christina Rossetti, who had asked 
permission to use a letter which ultimately appeared in 
his work, he said : 

It will be a very great pleasure to me it" you think the 
letter of any use. I wrote it by the encouragement of a 
friend [Miss Heaton of Leeds], who thought I might without 
presumption express my sympathy with Mr. Rossetti on the 
death of his sister, for whom I felt a reverent admiration. 



XII 



DURHAM 263 



The letter cannot adequately express what I felt, but at least 
it indicated a little. 

From Auckland Castle he wrote again to the same 
correspondent on iith January 1898 :- 

Let me offer you my most hearty thanks for the beautiful 
volume \Christina Rossetti : a Biographical and Critical Study\ 
which has just reached me. I look forward to reading it with 
the greatest pleasure and profit. I am glad to think how 
widely Miss Rossetti's influence is now reaching through her 
"Verses." I see the book everywhere, and find that it speaks 
to the heart whenever a reader listens reverently to the words 
and waits, as a poet must be read. You will, I cannot doubt, 
make many your debtor. 

On 1 4th September of the same year the Bishop, 
in acknowledging a copy of Mr. Bell's Pictures of Travel 
and other Poems, said to him : 

I naturally turned to the lines on Miss Rossetti. They 
are, I think, admirable in thought and form, worthy of marble. 
The last piece [" Miracles "] I had read before. It seems to 
me to express a marked truth. We see fragments of life, and 
dare to pass judgment on them severally. To God all life 
that is truly life is one. 

Again I am constrained to make mention of the 
Bishop's love of hospitality, in recording another happy 
gathering at the Castle which occurred in July 1898, 
when the Bishop received the members of the Seaham 
Harbour Bottle-workers' Institute, whom he had invited 
to visit him. 1 On the arrival of his guests, about thirty 

1 The Bishop had first become acquainted with the Seaham Harbour 
bottle-workers some years previously, when he produced a deep impression 
upon them in an address which he delivered at some function in connexion 
with their Institute. He had on that occasion referred to an interesting 
episode connected with the history of their works. On finding that there 
was no record of this episode, the Bishop presented to the Institute a record 
of the incident, illuminated and framed, which was hung on the walls of 
the Institute for a memorial. 



264 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 
in number, the Bishop, as was his wont on such occa- 




" Hff ffff rf|f ! I ;j 



: ~"-1{^;ijiV^ 

> i ^ 1( ' ; i /? \ i 
.. ' \t( ' f 

I ' v t *"" " ~TM I - ' 

SCRIiKN IN AfCKI.AND CAS'I'I.K CHAI'HI,. 
Kroin :i Skctcli b}- Bishoj) \\\-strott. 

sions, himself conducted them round the Castle and 



XII 



DURHAM 265 



garden, pointing out the various objects of interest. 
After tea the Bishop was photographed in a group 
picture in the midst of the party. This was at their 
special request. They also asked the Bishop to let 
them have a hymn and prayer with him, and to give 
them his blessing. A brief service was accordingly 
held in the Chapel, and the Bishop spoke a few words, 
which were received with rapt attention. The bottle- 
workers subsequently sent the Bishop an enlarged and 
framed copy of the photograph taken that day, which 
remained to the last in the Bishop's study amidst the 
dearest memorials of his life. 

In the latter part of 1898, and in January 1899, my 
mother was very seriously ill, and the Bishop felt most 
anxious. Towards the end of the month Dr. Flume of 
Newcastle was called into consultation, and on 1st 
February my father wrote in his text-book, " A little 
better hope." Very little hope had been entertained 
of my mother's recovery, and it was her own firm 
conviction that she had been prayed back to life by my 
father. The following letter, written from Durham on 
the day of the Advent Ordination in 1898, shows in a 
measure how my father bore this trial : 



To ins WIFE 

DURHAM, ^lh Sunday in Advent, 1898. 

The Service is happily over. The sun (as usual) came out 
for a little time just at the close and gave brightness to it. 
Mr. Strong preached an excellent sermon on St. John xxi. 
1 8. Dr. Farrar said it was too short. The semicircle of 
priests was an impressive and hopeful sight. All the men 
seemed to be serious and fully in earnest, and there was 
nothing to cause misgiving for the future. . . . This has 



266 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

been a very wonderful week. It has brought some wholly 
new experiences, and I am very thankful for its lessons as 
well as for its blessings. Perhaps the lessons themselves are 
the greatest. I can wait for more news to-morrow without 
anxiety. 

My father himself was very poorly in April, and 
with difficulty got through his necessary work. In 
March, to the great disappointment of a very large 
audience, he had been unable to preside at a Centenary 
Meeting of the Church Missionary Society in Exeter 
Hall. But on 28th February 1899 he had addressed 
the Durham Junior Clergy Society in the Chapter- 
house on " The Study of the Bible." In this address 
he indicated some characteristics of the study of 
Scripture which he had found to be of primary im- 
portance. He mentioned seven : " The study must be 
systematic, thorough, wide, historical, patient, reverent, 
vital." On these characteristics he enlarged, and 
afterwards in his concluding words said : 

I charge you, then, to prize and to use your peculiar 
spiritual heritage which was most solemnly committed to you 
at your ordination. Our English Church represents in its 
origin and in its growth the study of the Bible. In the 
study of the Bible lies the hope of its future. For the study 
of the Bible in the sense in which I have indicated is of 
momentous importance at the present time, and it is rare ; 
there is much discussion about the Bible, but, as I fear, 
little knowledge of it. We are curious to inquire and 
it is a reasonable curiosity when this book and that was 
written ; but we are contented to be ignorant of what this 
book or that contains. \Ve remain blind to the magnificent 
course of the Divine education of the world ; and still less 
do we dwell upon the separate phrases of "friends of God 
and prophets," and question them and refuse to let 
them go till they have given us some message of warn- 
ing or comfort or instruction. Such failures, such neglect 



xir DURHAM 267 

seal the very springs of life. They deprive us of the 
remedies for our urgent distresses. Who does not know 
them? We are troubled on all sides by wars and rumours 
of wars, by the restlessness and anxiety of nations and 
classes ; we ask impatiently if this wild confusion is the 
adequate result of eighteen centuries of the Gospel of Peace ? 
We ask impatiently, and the Bible offers us an interpreta- 
tion of a history and life not unlike our own, and 
helps us to see how the counsel of God goes forward 
through all the vicissitudes of human fortunes and human 
wilfulness. Our hearts again constantly fail us for fear of 
the things ivhich are coming on tlie world. The Bible in- 
spires us with an unfailing hope. We are yet further per- 
plexed by conflicts of reasoning, by novelties of doctrines, 
by strange conclusions of bold controversialists. The Bible 
provides us with a sure touchstone of truth, while 

The intellectual power, through words and things, 
Goes sounding on, a dim and perilous way, 

and brings us back to a living fellowship with Him who is the 
Truth. 

On 1 6th May the Bishop preached a sermon in St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, on " International Concord." 
He had on more than one occasion recently expressed 
his pleasure at the Czar's invitation to the Hague 
Conference. He now said : 

The invitation of the Czar, which has found universal 
acceptance, has opened new fields for a beneficent discussion 
of the problems of national life. Whatever may be the 
results of the Conference, the Conference itself marks an 
epoch in the history of nations. Much has been already 
done when the duty of considering whether anything can be 
done has been acknowledged. Questions which till lately 
were supposed to belong only to dreamers have claimed the 
attention of statesmen. The practical belief that a noble end 
can be approached is in itself a blessing ; and if public 



268 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

opinion once demands an Arbitration Court for nations, we 
need have no fear that its verdicts will fail to be enforced. 
Public opinion will be strong enough to uphold the judgment 
of the body which is its own organ. After all, the voice, 
when it finds clearer expression, is stronger than the sword. 

The closing words of his sermon were : 

But you may ask, Acknowledging all this, what can we do ? 
Summarily, then, we can cherish the noblest ideal we have 
formed of the destiny of mankind the gift of our faith and 
refuse to surrender one ray of its glory under the uttermost 
stress of disappointment. We can keep hope fresh "hope, 
the paramount duty which heaven lays, for its own honour, 
on man's suffering heart." We can bring an access of fervour, 
especially at this time, to the prayer that it may please God to 
give to all nations "unity, peace, and concord," which, unique 
in its completeness, as far as I know, has been over three 
centuries and a half the voice of our English Church. We 
can approach every question of foreign policy from the point 
of sight of the Christian creed, by which our noblest thoughts 
are purified and strengthened. We can check in ourselves 
and in others every temper which makes for war, or ungenerous 
judgment, or presumptuous claims, or promptings of self- 
assertion, the noxious growth of isolation and arrogance and 
passion ; we can endeavour to understand the needs, to feel 
the endowments, the traditional aspirations of other countries; 
we can do gladly, unweariedly, patiently what lies in us to 
remove the suspicions and misunderstandings which serve, 
perhaps, more to stir animosities among nations than 
ambition or pride. We can honour all men ; we can, to say 
all in one sentence, assure ourselves by quiet thought that the 
glory of a nation does not lie in claiming unlimited domina- 
tion, but in fulfilling its office for the great commonwealth of 
men, and so preparing within its own sphere the advent of 
international concord. 13y such efforts we shall hasten the 
Lord's coining. If we cannot hope to see the full splendour of 
that day, at least it has been the joy of my own life to watch 
the brightening promise of its dawn. 



xii DURHAM 269 

Writing to his wife the next day he said : 

CHURCH HOUSE, 17 th May 1899. 

. . . Mrs. Davidson went with me to St. Margaret's. I 
said what I had to say and the congregation listened. I had 
a very kind note this morning from Canon Scott Holland. 
He wants the sermon for The Commonwealth. After the 
sermon I went to a gathering in the Little Cloisters. A great 
part of the congregation adjourned there. Lord and Lady 
Monteagle and their daughter were there. I was very glad 
to see them. They were very full of kind inquiries, and had 
heard of our visit to Dublin. . . . 

We are now at the Board of Missions. A paper is being 
read which I cannot hear, and but for the sake of appearances, 
I should run away. . . . 

From Westminster my father proceeded to Cam- 
bridge, where he had the privilege, in opening the new 
premises of the Clergy Training School, of seeing some 
of the fruit of his earlier labours. The opening 
ceremony was witnessed by a large gathering representa- 
tive of various interests in the University, the Bishop 
being met at the entrance by the Bishop of Ely and 
the Council and Principal of the School. Several 
speeches followed the religious portion of the ceremony. 
The first speaker was Dr. Swete, the Regius Professor 
of Divinity. After him my father spoke, and then the 
Bishop of Ely and Professor Jebb, M.P. Bishop Wcst- 
cott in the course of his speech said : 

To-day I am privileged to take part in the opening of 
the Clergy Training School, in which the English Church 
claims a place in the University for the fullest, completest 
training of the candidates for its ministry. What were only 
aspirations in my own time have become established facts 
now. The Clergy Training School especially represents the 
idea which was the master-thought in the whole of my work 



2;o LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

at Cambridge, and I think I may venture to say of those with 
whom I was allowed to work. That idea was that the 
training of the clergy and laity should be as far as possible 
conducted under the same conditions. Both alike should be 
filled with the inspiration of their faith, and guided by the 
power of whole-hearted devotion to their several works. I 
recognise, of course, that there are many cases in which such 
a training is impossible. I still believe heartily in the great 
work which our cathedrals can do. No one can feel more 
keenly than I do the necessity which candidates for the 
ministry have for times of quiet thought, for special discipline, 
and for devotional preparation, but I do not see why that need 
be separated from the University. At the same time, I 
venture to say that it is a matter of deep importance to the 
whole nation and never of greater importance than at the 
present time that the clergy should be under the most 
favourable conditions familiarly acquainted with the feelings 
and thoughts of the laity, and that the laity on their part 
should become familiar with the thoughts of the clergy, and 
that from this real knowledge should spring mutual confidence 
between both. It would be, I believe, disastrous if the 
education of the clergy were to be separated by some chasm 
from the education of the laity. 

Writing to his wife that same evening he said : 

CAMBRIDGE, iSth May 1899. 

Our meeting is over. The day was beautifully fine, and 
there was a very good gathering. I was very tired, and did 
not feel as much at home with my audience as I usually do. 
However, I said several things that I wished to say. To my 
great surprise when I sat down after speaking I found Lord 
Ashcombe sitting behind me. The function will undoubtedly 
have done good, and the Bishop strongly approves the idea 
of the School. ... I saw Sir (i. Stokes. He was full of 
vigour. 

St. Peter's Day was always signalised at Auckland 
Castle by a reunion of " The Sons of the House." In 



XII 



DURHAM 271 



1899, in view of the Consecration of one of their 
number, the Rev. G. L. King, to the Bishopric in 
Madagascar, the Bishop invited the Brotherhood to 
meet in London. The following letter to his wife 
describes the day : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, AV. Peters Day, 1899. 

Alas ! my dearest Mary, it is now nearly 8 P.M., and I 
have not had a moment in which to write any note ; but all 
has passed off very happily, and the weather has been perfect 
sunny and fresh. There was a goodly gathering, as you will 
probably see in The Tunes. As the Bishop of London was 
not there, I read the Gospel, and the Bishop of Winchester 
read the Epistle. There was a large congregation, and the 
mass of our " brethren " placed just in front of the pulpit 
had a very striking effect. Llscwhere ladies were dominant. 
We were able to sit down to lunch a little before two. The 
room was very nicely arranged with plenty of blue cornflowers 
and poppies. It just held us: we were ninety-one. At 
about half-past three we went, most of us by river, to West- 
minster. Abbey Garden was looking its best. Our old 
house is well draped now with Virginia creeper. The Dean 
came in to look at us. The tables were under the trees, and 
Mr. Taylor was on the spot with his camera. When tea was 
over I had only ten minutes to look at my papers. The 
service was at six. The favourite hymn, " The day Thou 
gavest," was sung with great vigour. Every one seemed to 
be in excellent spirits. 

On 8th July the Bishop went to Canterbury to be 
present at the unveiling of the monument of Arch- 
bishop Benson by H.R.I I. the Duchess of Albany. On 
his return to his rooms in the Lollards' Tower he wrote 
an account of the day to his wife : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, S/// fitly 1899. 

It has been a most interesting day. I was fortunate in 
my company in going to Canterbury the Bishop of Win- 



272 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Chester and Mrs. Davidson, Arthur Benson, and Sir J. 
Kennaway. I had a good talk with Arthur. There was a 
great array at the station to meet the Duchess. Carriages 
were waiting to take us to the Deanery. Mrs. Farrar re- 
ceived me very warmly, and inquired after you most kindly. 
There was a large luncheon party. Just before the service 
a thunderstorm came, but there was a covered way into the 
Cathedral so that this caused no inconvenience. The 
Cathedral was crowded. . . . The peals of thunder made 
a most solemn accompaniment to the music. . . . The 
monument is, I think, very fine. The figure lies under a 
very rich twelfth century canopy in a recess of the south 
wall. . . . 

I did not see Mrs. Benson anywhere, but after I had 
returned to the Deanery I saw Arthur, and he asked me if 
I could see his mother ; so I was delighted to go at once 
to Dr. Mason's, and there I found Mrs. Benson, Margaret, 
Fred, and Hugh. Mrs. Benson looks quite her old self. It 
was a very great pleasure to see her again, and I only wished 
that you could have been with me. I almost lost my train, 
for I could not but stay there talking. Mr. Ridge found me 
a seat with the two Archbishops and Mrs. Temple ; and Mrs. 
Temple most kindly brought me home. It has been a most 
memorable time, and I am most thankful that I was able 
to go. 

On 1 5th July, at the invitation of the Bishop, a 
large number of representatives from Co-operative 
Societies in the county of Durham met for a Conference 
at Auckland Castle. In the course of his opening 
address the Bishop said : 

We are not condemning cheapness as cheapness, but the 
cheapness which springs from bad workmanship and unsatis- 
factory conditions of labour. Many of the cheapest articles, 
happily, are produced under the best conditions. Personal 
profit can never rightly be the ruling motive, either of pro- 
ducer or consumer. The ruling motive must be due fulfil- 
ment of a citizen's duty. Whatever be the superficial con- 



xii DURHAM 273 

flicts between the producer and consumer, in the end the 
interests are identical that they may contribute to their 
utmost to the ennobling of life. There can be no permanent 
rest until each worker is proud of his work, finds pleasure in 
doing it, and feels that through his work lie can gain a noble 
character. Let us all try to educate ourselves to desire good 
things well made, to look beyond every article to the work- 
shop in which it was produced. This duty is laid upon this 
generation by the change which has so far come over the 
conditions of industry. No doubt the work is difficult ; but 
is there anything worth doing that is not difficult ? 

On iith October the Bishop attended an Industrial 
Conference at Newcastle, on which occasion he moved 
the following resolution : - 

That in the opinion of this meeting labour co-partnership 
is in full consonance with the highest principles of ethics and 
religion, and is not less favourable to the material interests of 
the State. 1 

My father was very much troubled about this time 
by the Ritual Controversy. Writing to his son in 
Canada he said : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
25/// Sunday after Trinity, 1899. 

I feel very anxious as to the result of our Church differ- 
ences. Self-will is a very hard enemy to fight. When it 
comes into action all sense of proportion, and even of truth, is 
lost. Happily these troubles do not affect you, nor indeed 
are they seen in Durham ; but yet the English Church is or 
ought to be one in all its parts. For the rest of the time 
I was in town I was very busy, and did not even visit the 
Abbey or the National Gallery, but I did what I had to do. 

He was himself at this time quoted in a Hearing 
before the two Archbishops as having authorised 

1 This speech is published in Words of Faith and Hope. 
VOL. II T 



274 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Reservation. This, however, he denied in a letter to 
Chancellor Dibdin, which the latter read in the subse- 
quent cour.se of the Hearing. He wrote : 



AUCKLAND CASTLE, i8f/i Jnly 1899. 

My dear Chancellor I have just seen, with great surprise, 
that Mr. Hansell stated in his address at Lambeth that I 
have authorised Reservation in certain cases. I have not 
done anything of the kind. What I have done is that I have 
endeavoured to show how the cases in which Reservation is 
declared to be necessary may be met without Reservation. 
In two cases I have allowed incumbents, who have applied 
to me, to adopt the following usage, which I believe to be 
legal, as it is certainly primitive. Immediately after the con- 
secration, one of the assistant clergy may take the elements 
to the sick person, so that administration to the sick may be 
coincident with the administration to the congregation. The 
sick person, in fact, is to be treated as a member of the 
congregation. This, I hold, is what Justin Martyr describes. 
I further directed that the sick person should be enabled, by 
the assistance of some friend, to follow the service so as to 
be prepared to receive in due course. The usage was to 
be adopted only in exceptional cases. I stated my view at 
York Convocation in May, but the report has not yet been 
published. Whether the usage is legal or not, it certainly 
excludes Reservation and does not authorise it. There is, 
indeed, no question on which I feel more strongly, and I 
cannot understand how my action lias been misinterpreted. 
I insisted strongly, in both cases, on the fact that there should 
be no Reservation. It is clear to me Justin Martyr describes 
coincident and not subsequent administration to the absent. 
Yours most truly, 15. F. DUNKLM. 

It is hardly necessary to state that the Bishop, 
though personally disposed to be content \vith the very 
simplest ritual, was scrupulously anxious to be fair in 
his dealings with those who differed from him in this 



XII 



DURHAM 275 



respect. This will, I trust, be abundantly clear from 
letters written by him to clergy in his Diocese. 

Returning to the subject of my father's social labours 
during the year 1899, mention should be made of two 
matters in which he took the deepest interest, one being 
that which found expression in the Durham Aged 
Miners' Homes, the other the Merchant Seamen 
difficulty. 

Early in the year the Bishop had invited a number 
of representatives of Miners' Lodges to a Conference at 
Auckland Castle on the question of Aged Miners' 
Homes. In welcoming the delegates assembled in the 
Castle drawing-room, he said : 

We are in a house which has been closely connected with 
the Bishopric of Durham for more than 700 years, and 
which possesses features of considerable interest. You find 
hung on the walls the portraits of people who have lived in 
the house for 350 years. I should like to call your attention 
to the portrait of Bishop Barrington, who was Bishop of 
Durham at the end of the last century and the beginning of 
this. There has scarcely been any social reform which has 
been accomplished during the century which Bishop Barrington 
did not start. He started the idea of co-operation. He was 
the first who seriously took in hand the education of the 
poor. He fought a law-suit and won it and ^1600, which 
he spent upon education. Bishop Barrington was really the 
first inventor of the familiar phrase of " Three acres and a 
cow." He was anxious that every one should possess some 
small holding. His object was that every one in the county 
should feel a real interest in the life of his parish, and have a 
stake in it. The first man to discover Bishop Barrington's 
merits, strangely enough, was Mr. G. J. Holyoake, the real 
father of present-day co-operation. I think you will be glad 
to find that the portrait of such a Bishop is looking down upon 
our meeting. 

The Conference was eminently practical, and so it 



2;6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

came to pass that later in the year the Bishop was 
invited to be present at the opening of the Homes by 
Mr. J. Wilson, M.P. The day was really a great day 
in the history of the Durham miners, for it marked the 
successful attainment of an epoch-making enterprise. 
That the miners turned up in considerable force may be 
concluded from the fact that six or seven colliery bands 
put in an appearance. Before the commencement of 
the proceedings the Bishop, accompanied by Mr. Wilson, 
visited some of the Homes, which were already tenanted, 
and conversed with their inmates. Feeling a desire to 
eat a sandwich, with which, in his usual anxiety not to 
be burdensome to any one, he had provided himself, 
the Bishop, at Mr. Wilson's suggestion, entered one of 
the cottages in which tea had been prepared. The 
good woman of the house summoned her neighbours to 
her assistance, and one of them, as she came in, to the 
great delight of the Bishop, seized his hand and said, 
li Good day, hinny ; I's glad to see tha." 

Subsequently the Bishop made a speech, in the 
course of which he said : 

I have spoken of the general improvement in the conditions 
and character of English industry. I cannot forbear saying a 
few words about the changes which have come over the 
industry of Durham in this last half- century. Durham has 
played a conspicuous part in industrial questions, and I am 
proud of what you have been enabled to do. Some at least 
on the platform will know what were the conditions in Durham 
fifty years ago. Just after I had taken my degree in 1848 I 
read a little pamphlet on the conditions of life in Durham 
given by a Government inspector, and I was horrified by the 
picture he drew. You will know the facts. Well, what have 
been the results of self-help and co-operation ? Think what 
you have been enabled to accomplish of the Conciliation 
Board, of the Permanent Relief Fund, and of this last venture 



xii DURHAM 277 

of faith, your Homes for Aged Miners. These movements 
are all continuous ; they all express the same thought, the 
same conviction, and witness to the power of faith. 

In the matter of merchant seamen the Bishop was 
much distressed in view of the continuous decrease in the 
number of English sailors. In the latter part of 1899 
he made two speeches concerning seamen, the first at 
the opening of the extension of the Seamen's Church 
and Institute at South Shields, and the second at the 
opening of a new wing of the Seamen's Mission Institute 
at Sunderland. In the course of his speech at the 
latter place the Bishop said : 

At the present time and this fact we need to take to 
heart from thirty to forty per cent of the men in our merchant 
navy are foreigners. The President of the Board of Trade, 
Mr. Ritchie, has stated that if the whole of the Naval Reserve 
was called up, our ships, instead of being partially manned by 
foreigners, would be altogether manned by foreigners. Surely 
a startling result ! Mr. Holt, the well-known Liverpool ship- 
owner, in his memorandum to the report of the committee on 
the subject, says that unless some provision is at once made 
for the training of boys, the employment of foreign sailors 
must of necessity considerably increase, and ten years hence, 
in those circumstances, a British crew will be almost unobtain- 
able. The matter requires to be dealt with immediately, and 
on a large scale. It is, in the domestic affairs of our country, 
the most vital question of the day. I think that these words, 
strong as they are, are not exaggerated. We are, at the 
present time, face to face with a great evil and a great 
danger. 

The Bishop's feeling on this matter is further 
evidenced by what he says in the following letter 
addressed to his son in Canada : 



278 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
^rd Sunday in Advent : , 1899. 

On Monday I spoke at Sunderland about the continued 
and rapid decrease in the number of English sailors, which is 
a most grave and unregarded danger, and I hope that the 
subject will be taken up. Probably we shall have a con- 
ference l of shipowners to consider it preliminarily, and then 
he matter can be started seriously. So far I have had 
favourable answers to my suggestion. It seems to me to be 
a Bishop's work if no one else deals with it. 

In an address delivered at his Diocesan Conference, 
held at West Hartlepool on 23rd October, the Bishop 
treated of the evils of overcrowding. He then said : 

The conditions of our chief industry are unfavourable to 
family life. These, to a certain extent, can be overcome ; 
but the evils of overcrowding, when it exists, are practically 
insuperable. And w r e may well be moved to sad reflection 
when we know that, with the single exception of Northumber- 
land, Durham contains more overcrowding than any county 
in England, and that the percentage of overcrowding in 
Gateshead is the highest in all the large towns of England 
more than twice as large as that of London while the per- 
centage in Sunderland is little below it. Examples taken 
respectively from a town and a village will show the nature of 
the evil. 

The facts as to overcrowding, and the consequences of the 
facts, are not always in evidence, and we have dull imagina- 
tions. In no other way can I account for the complete failure 
of two schemes for the erection of workmen's dwellings in the 
diocese from want of support, I plead then in the name of 
our Faith, I plead on behalf of those who by God's will are 
"joint-heirs with us of the grace of life," that in every urban 
and rural district some from amongst us should learn the 

1 The Conference met at Auckland Castle in the following January, and 
was described by my father as " most encouraging/' 



x,i DURHAM 279 

facts as to overcrowding and make them known. The evils 
will then be met. The awakened Christian conscience will 
find no rest till the remediable causes of moral infection are 
removed. To corrupt the development of life is not less 
criminal than to maim the body. We are guilty of conniving 
at the defilement of temples of God till we face the problem 
according to our opportunities, and strive to solve it. 

It is small wonder that the North of England came 
to view my father " as an earnest social reformer," 
though in the South he was best known as " a scholar 
and author." The writer who records this impression 
describes how the Bishop " descended a pit shaft and 
inspected the principal workings of the mine," and how 
he made a visit of inspection to dilapidated miners' 
cottages. " He went into a large number of the houses, 
and even ascended the ladders to the garrets of many. 
The familiar, slightly bent figure and the refined, 
thought -furrowed features of his Lordship formed a 
quaint and striking picture in the low-roofed garret of 
a pitman's home." 

My father was deeply grieved by the death of his 
son-in-law, the Rev. Charles Herman Prior, Fellow and 
Tutor of Pembroke College, Cambridge, which occurred 
on 3 ist October, after a period of anxious waiting for 
the inevitable end. The following letters were written 
to his daughter at that time of trial : 

You will know how constantly our thoughts are with you, 
and how hard it is to put thoughts into words ; still perhaps 
they can make themselves felt without them. I hope that 
you had the bright midday sunshine which came to us unex- 
pectedly after a cold dull morning. Even such things help 
us. I find it still impossible to realise your anxiety. The 
change has come so suddenly. Yet I think that you feel some 
corresponding strength. The times when I have been most 
anxious have been just those when I have felt most the 



280 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

unseen greatness of life. Power has seemed to flow in not 
thought of before. We have come already, though for the 
most part our eyes are holden, to innumerable hosts of minis- 
tering spirits and to God Himself. There can be no loss of 
that which is most precious. All this you and Charlie will 
be feeling. It is very hard to put the feeling into definite 
shape, but it is a revelation of peace. 

May God abundantly strengthen and comfort you both! 

22nd Sunday after Trinity, 1899. 

There can be but one answer to your letter. It is a joy to 
all of us to be able to do anything which can give Charlie 
pleasure. The spot in Harrow Churchyard is a home-like 
spot, and we shall be glad for it to be yours. All seems like 
a dream yet. Such events reveal the nature of life. They 
force us to feel that what we see is only a sign of that which 
is. I had, like all others, looked forward with such confident 
hope to the continuance of C.'s work in the College, already 
most rich in blessing, that I cannot think of it as ended, but 
only as transfigured. Life is more than the present forms of 
life, and must be effective according to its nature when it 
passes out of sight. We tremble when we say it, yet earthly 
loss, even the most overwhelming, is not, if we hold our faith, 
loss in the eternal light. We may perhaps see how when the 
Lord said, "It is expedient for you that I go away," He 
interpreted our separations. He went away not to leave, but 
to be nearer to His people. 

We have a service here this morning at the same time as 
yours. God be with you both ! 

All Saints' Day, 1899. 

I had just been thinking over one of my day's texts, 
" There is left therefore a Sabbath rest for the people of 
Clod," when your letter came to me, and then I went to 
Chapel to take the day's Communion Service. The text and 
the service say better than words all that I would say. Your 
letter was a great comfort : you have found strength and 
hope. May God deepen them as the days go on ! " He 
which began will perfect." 



xii DURHAM 281 

It will be best for me to go to Harrow. . . . Forgive this 
very hasty note, for just now I am a little pressed. God bless 
you all ! 

The following letter on the same subject is written 
to his son in Canada : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2$ni Sunday after Trinity, 1899. 

You will not be surprised to hear after my last letter that 
Charlie passed to rest on the Eve of All Saints'. . . . The 
expressions of sympathy from all sides are most touching. I 
cannot tell what will happen to the College or to the College 
Mission: he has been the very life of both. But we see only a 
little way. I went down to Harrow on Friday, and was able to 
take the part of the service by the grave. The only available 
place was our old grave, which you will remember. The 
yews and cypresses planted near have grown wonderfully, and 
it is a quiet, beautiful spot. There was a service at Pembroke 
on Friday. Sir G. Stokes read the lesson, and the Master of 
Trinity took the prayers. . . . Harrow Church was decorated 
with wreaths of white flowers as if it had been Easter, and the 
spirit of the service was Easter-like. We have thought of little 
else, as you may imagine, this last week. All still seems to me 
to be a dream. In the summer I had no suspicion of danger, 
and I had looked forward to his work at Pembroke with un- 
bounded hope. 

No year in my father's later life would have been 
complete without some work done for the Christian 
Social Union. The year 1899 was no exception, and 
my father addressed a crowded meeting of the Union 
at Liverpool in November. Of this gathering the 
Liverpool Daily Post said : " There has not been so 
fine a meeting or such admirable speaking in Liverpool 
for many years as at Hope Hall yesterday evening. 
The Bishop of Durham's opening address on the 
Christian Rule of Expenditure was, even as a composi- 



282 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

tion, quite masterly." In the course of this speech he 
said : 

A well-ordered budget is, I cannot but think, as necessary 
for a citizen as for a nation. I will go further, and suggest that 
it is worthy of consideration whether such budgets should not 
in their main features be public or accessible. In any case 
our own should be such that we should not shrink from 
publishing it. 

A complete scheme of expenditure will naturally fall into 
four divisions: (i) Contributions to public works ; (2) gifts 
of private munificence and charity; (3) provision for those 
dependent upon us ; (4) personal expenditure food, clothing, 
shelter, books, works of art, recreation. In due measure, and 
with necessary limitations, all these objects must be con- 
sidered by every one ; and I must think that the second and 
first form a first claim on our resources. If they are left out 
of account till every family and personal requirement is satis- 
fied as it presents itself, there is little hope that any residuum 
will remain to meet them. 1 

During the course of this year the Bishop found 
time to contribute one or two short articles on religious 
topics to the press. He wrote a brief paper, entitled 
" The Rest Day of the Heart," for the first special 
issue of Guard your Sundays ;~ another, entitled " The 

1 I may mention, as the time has not yet come for the publication of 
private budgets, that my father's expenditure under the first and second 
heads was considerably in excess of a fourth of his whole income, while his 
expenditure on "books, works of art, recreation " was quite a negligible 
quantity. His expenditure during the years of his episcopate, I may add, 
was in excess of his episcopal income, and lie was most scrupulous in 
refraining from using any of his " official income" for private purposes. 

- Karly in the year he had written the following letter to the editor of 
The NCTVS on the subject of " (iuard your Sundays" : 



work. 

the 



. ('ASTI.K, \^th April 101,,. 

My dear Sir 1 send you a word of most hearty good wishes for your 
,1. 



TK. 

In every Confirmation address [ endeavour to pros on all wh^ hear me 

: simple counae " (aiard your Sundays. I believe that England 



XII 



DURHAM 283 



Glory of a Nation," for The News ; another, entitled 
" Biblical Criticism," for The Churchman. From each 
of these articles I select one brief extract. 
From " The Rest Day of the Heart" : 

The Christian Sabbath is, in a word, the day of spiritual 
communion with God in men, with men in God. On our 
Sunday we too must strive "to be in the Spirit." Such an 
effort is required by all of us. If we reflect on our nature 
and our position we shall at once feel our want of this "rest 
of the heart." Mere repose, amusement, physical pleasure 
bring no real restoration to the toiler wearied by a week of 
heavy labour. They all belong to the same order as our 
daily work. They cannot convey the invigorating force of 
new influences they open no fresh springs in the parched 
soul. I would not underrate the effects of literature, of art, 
of culture, of science ; but they demand a heavy price for 
their ennobling lessons. Many of us cannot pay it ; and 
God shows to us a loftier and better way. He offers Himself 
to us, the source of all goodness and truth and beauty, to be 
reached by the affections. That way we all know, we have 
all followed. In our most pressing needs, in our seasons of 
desolation and distress, we turn to the sympathy of a friend 
for the support and refreshment which w r e require. 

From " The Glory of a Nation " : 

It is, I know, commonly said that Christianity has done 
nothing towards the establishment of peace in nineteen 
centuries. No statement can be more false. Christianity 
has disclosed the principle on which alone peace can be 
firmly based. It has affirmed beyond denial the dignity 

owes her stability and greatness to the general observance of the Day of 
Rest and the study of Holy Scripture. The two are bound together, and 
exactly in proportion as we neglect one or the other we prepare our 
national ruin. 

In these times of restless excitement and engrossing business I do not 
see when we can reflect calmly on the greatest things the things unseen 
and eternal if the quiet of Sunday is taken from us, ' ; the Day of the 
Rest of the heart.'' Yours most truly, B. I 1 '. DUNEI.M. 



284 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

and the responsibility of man as man ; it has made clear the 
reality and the obligations of corporate life ; it has set before 
us the final unity of human society ; and out of these three 
truths rises the ideal of the international concord, the 
membership of nations. The ideal is not of our own 
making ; it is, as Mazzini said, beyond us and supreme over 
us. It is not the creation, but the gradual discovery of the 
human intellect. It has been discovered now, and it rests 
with us to embody the discovery in the strength of the faith 
through which it has been made known. 



From " Biblical Criticism " : 

My personal experience, however partial and imperfect it 
has been, justifies the confidence which I have expressed in 
the results of the unreserved acceptance of the responsibilities 
of our position. The first Greek book which I possessed 
was a copy of the manual edition of Griesbach's revision of 
the New Testament. When I began to examine the char- 
acteristics of the different apostolic writings, I turned to the 
brilliant writings of F. C. Baur. When at a later time I 
desired to form some idea of the relation of the Church to 
the world, I prepared myself for the task by making a care- 
ful analysis of the Politique Positive of Comte. Griesbach, 
Baur, Comte were in keenest opposition to current opinions. 
Griesbach has laid, as I believe, the immovable foundations 
of textual criticism. How profoundly I differ from Baur and 
Comte in fundamental beliefs I need not say. But I owe to 
all a lasting debt. In various and unexpected ways all 
illuminated for me the apostolic Gospel. 

My work has been centred in the New Testament. I 
cannot speak of the Old Testament with adequate knowledge. 
Yet it is not possible for me to doubt that when the Bible of 
the old Church has been investigated with the thoroughness 
and devotion which have brought the apostolic writings into 
the fulness of life, it will gain in a corresponding degree both 
in significance and in power. It is when the books of the 
Bible are studied as other books and compared with other 
books that their unique character is proved beyond con- 



XII 



DURHAM 285 



trovcrsy. And two facts must never be forgotten. The Old 
Testament substantially as we have it was the Bible of the 
Lord and the Apostles ; and the nation of the Jews, of whom 
is the Christ according to the flesh, implies a history ade- 
quate to account for its character. 

In an Advent letter of this year the Bishop asked 
for consideration of " that which is the very soul of the 
Christian life Prayer, and especially Intercession." In 
this letter the following weighty words occur : 

At the present season, and under the stress of our present 
anxieties, it is natural that we should reflect on the duty and 
blessings of systematic and corporate intercession. Our 
ordinary services, and particularly our Litany, offer an out- 
line which can be filled up and quickened with a new life as 
our special needs are brought into clear light by quiet medita- 
tion. And this exercise tends to meet some obvious defects 
in our spiritual life. We have, in a great degree, lost the 
power of sustained private devotion. We are, to a great 
degree, unable to "wait still upon Cod"; we habitually take 
refuge in manuals when we might, I think, listen with more 
profit for the voice of the Spirit ; and in special emergencies 
w r e ask that some set form of words should be provided for 
us when we are called to give a personal utterance to the 
deep thoughts of our own hearts. Now particular attention 
will be directed to one part of our Prayer Book and now to 
another; now one petition, now another, will be emphasised 
by a solemn pause for silent prayer. Thus words which are 
unimpressive in their general form will be kindled by a direct 
and individual application. And even more than this, spaces 
of silence in worship will bring, I dare to hope, something 
more than we commonly enjoy of that sense of the Divine 
Presence which has been at all times the support of saints. 

The above passage leads one to remark that the 
one book of devotion which the Bishop continually 
studied was Thomas a Kempis' De Imitatione Ckristi 



286 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The Bishop took the deepest interest in the pro- 
gress of the war in South Africa during the early 
months of 1900, and both in private letters and in his 
text-book thankfully acknowledges the successes which 
at;, this time were given to our arms. At the begin- 
ning of January, when the magnitude of the crisis was 
being more fully recognised, he was asked to preach a 
sermon on the subject of the war. The request came 
from the Rev. E. Price, Vicar of Bishop Auckland, to 
whom he replied : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yd January 1900. 

Though I do not see clearly how I can write a sermon, I 
fully recognise the duty which lies upon me to speak on such 
an occasion if you invite. I will then try to say something 
on Sunday morning, and before the Litany. This will not 
be irregular, I think. Only I must ask that you do not 
make this known. It can make no difference who preaches 
at such a time. 

The Bishop's wish that the sermon should not be 
notified was clearly respected, for a local paper 
remarks that, " owing to comparative absence of an- 
nouncement, there was only a somewhat small con- 
gregation present." The sermon made frequent refer- 
ence to petitions in the Litany, pointing out their 
applicability to present circumstances. The Bishop's 
opening words were : 

To-day we stand in the presence of God face to face with 
a great crisis and a great opportunity. We have at length 
realised the nature of the struggle in which we are engaged. 
For a long time the question at issue was obscured by sub- 
sidiary disputes. The Boer ultimatum disclosed the real 
nature of the controversy. Till this was published I cherished 
the hope that a peaceful solution of the problem was possible, 
but now it is clear to me that the steady endeavour of the 



xii DURHAM 287 

Boers to secure supremacy in South Africa made war sooner 
or later inevitable. 

Nor do I think that their ambition was unnatural. Their 
character and past history, the traditions and achievements 
of their countrymen, inspired them with reasonable hopes of 
dominion. The vacillations of our own policy made it un- 
certain whether we were resolved to maintain our position. 
But when once the situation was realised we awoke to the 
sense of our duty. Our unpreparedness showed the sincerity 
of our desire for peace. Yet we could not decline the 
challenge to "the cold, cruel arbitrament of war." It was 
impossible for us to submit to arbitration the fulfilment of 
our imperial obligations. 

In the following month the Bishop preached a 
sermon on the same subject in his Cathedral, at a 
service of intercession for those suffering from the war. 
This sermon has been published under the title The 
Obligations of Empire ', and in the preface thereto the 
Bishop says : 

For many years it has been my privilege to plead the cause of 
international peace and arbitration. I do not recall one word 
which I have spoken or abandon one hope which I have 
cherished. The duty of fulfilling a trust is not a matter for 
arbitration, and, if need be, must be preferred to the main- 
tenance of peace. 

In March the Bishop addressed the following letter 
to the active service company of the Durham Artillery 
Militia, which was read on parade : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, 2Qtk March 1900. 

My dear Friends Though we have never met face to face, 
I venture to call you "friends," for your voluntary offer of 
yourselves to our Queen binds us together by the tie of 
service to our common country. Your vicar has asked me to 



288 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

write to you a few words of good-speed before you leave 
Sunderland. I do so most gladly and thankfully. 

The hearts of those whose work is at home must go out 
with truest sympathy and gratitude to those who fight our 
battles abroad. A great crisis has revealed the Empire to 
itself. We feel from one end of the world to the other, as we 
have never felt before, that we are one people, charged with 
a great mission, and united by a history which is our inspira- 
tion to noble deeds. All minor differences of class and 
opinion are lost in universal desire to fill Imperial obligations 
according to our opportunities, and to preserve unimpaired 
for the next generation the inheritance which we have our- 
selves received. 

In this eager rising of the nation to the call of duty you 
have taken a foremost place. You will go from among us, 
supported by a generous tradition, to show not only what is 
the courage of Englishmen, but also what is their devotion 
to freedom and righteousness. You will crush down every 
prompting of pride and vain-glory and self-seeking, and strive 
as you can to make it clear to Boer and Kaffir alike that you 
seek the highest good of all who come within the sphere of 
English influence. You will reconcile unflinching resolution 
with tenderness, and temper daring with self-control. You 
will remember that it is your part not only to win battles, but 
to lay the sure foundations of a greater Britain in liberty and 
justice. 

Your great commander has given you the watchword of 
victory. " By the help of God," Lord Roberts wrote a week 
ago, "and by the bravery of Her Majesty's soldiers, the 
troops under my command have taken possession of Bloem- 
fontein." That is the true order of the forces by which you 
will gain success. You will seek the blessing of (iod first, and 
then you will use to the uttermost with resolute courage the 
powers with which He has endowed you. 

In this spirit may you be enabled to meet hardships, 
privations, dangers, sufferings, the shadow of death, and feel 
the presence of God about you in every trial. May He keep 
you and bless you abundantly ; and may you each, looking to 
Him, know in your own souls, as has been said by one of old 



xii DURHAM 289 

time, that "The vision of God is the life of man." Your 
most faithful fellow-servant, B. F. DUNKLM. 

To Colonel Ditmas and the officers and men of the 
Durham Artillery ordered to the front. 

Later in the year the Bishop delivered at the 
Newcastle Church Congress an address entitled " Our 
Attitude towards the War." 

To return to other matters. The Bishop was in 
London in January, and was carried off by his eldest 
son in a hansom (reckless extravagance !) in the morning 
(wild dissipation !) to sec the Vandyck Exhibition. 
Concerning this adventure he wrote to his wife : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, ityh January 1900. 

Brooke carried me, my dearest Alary, to see the Vandycks 
this morning a piece of unparalleled dissipation and brought 
a hansom to the door for the purpose. The collection of 
pictures as a whole disappointed me. There were perhaps a 
dozen of the greatest excellence not more. The mass were 
without meaning or nobility : finely dressed men and women 
in satin and gold lace, without any visible souls. But on 
reflection it was a revelation of the Civil War. Such men 
and women obviously could not rule England. One portrait 
of Charles I. there are about half-a-dozen showed the 
pathos of the situation, and a picture of Strafford and his 
Secretary, the tragedy of it in fulfilment. Otherwise the men 
and women of character were foreigners. If on one side the 
collection pleased me less than I had expected, it taught me 
more. The most commanding work was a Doge of Genoa, 
Spinola. So I had my lesson in history rather than in art. 

On 1 8th March the Bishop opened the new stores of 

the Consett Co-operative Society. He was presented 

with a gold key for the purpose ; but though grateful 

for this attention, he would assuredly have been better 

VOL. II U 



2 9 o LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

pleased with a key of less costly material. Of all the 
trowels, keys, knockers, etc., presented to him he 
cherished most a steel key made from the shoe of a 
pony which was brought up from the pit at the time of 
the great strike and died during that trying time. In 
the evening, at a public meeting, my father made a 
speech on " Co-operative Ideals." 

He makes mention of his day at Consett in a letter 
to his Canadian son : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
2nd Sunday in Lent, 1900. 

Yesterday I had a very interesting day, one of my out- 
side functions. I opened the new building of the Consett 
Co-operative Society, which I have visited before. They had 
a lunch, and a great meeting in the evening. I spoke at 
both. On such occasions you meet people whom you do not 
meet in Church, and I think it is useful for them to feel that 
a bishop enters into their thoughts. They always listen very 
attentively, and are warmly sympathetic. Co-operation has 
been for a long time a favourite subject of mine, so that I had 
something to say. 

The year 1 900 was celebrated as the Bi-centenary 
year of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 
In these celebrations my father took an active part. 
He was present at the reception of Colonial and 
Missionary Workers by the Archbishops at the Church 
House, and thus describes his experiences there in a 
letter to his wife : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 31^ May 1900. 

. . . After lunch yesterday we went to a meeting of the 
Board of Missions : then to a meeting of Joint Committees of 
Convocation : then I went to the Missionary Reception. 
The room was already full, and an official offered to 
"introduce me to their Graces." I was amused, and when I 



xii DURHAM 291 

told the Archbishop of Canterbury he was delighted, and 
shook hands with enthusiasm, to the amusement, 1 think, of 
the bystanders. As soon as possible T lost myself in the 
crowd. ... 1 was asked to say a few words, but I said that I 
was too tired. As I was going out, however, I was carried on 
to the platform to " support the Archbishops " and after they 
had spoken, and the Bishop of Newcastle, who said that he 
was made to speak because I wouldn't, I looked on the great 
crowd and felt as if I must say what we owe to missionaries, 
and thank the workers as well as welcome them. So I asked 
for five minutes, and said something of what I felt, and the 
words seemed to be well received. When I apologised to the 
Archbishop on my inconsistency, he said "he admired such 
inconsistency." It was right, I think : I could not help it. 

The following are some of the few words that he 
spoke : 

My friends, I owe you a great apology for daring to speak 
now. The Bishop of Newcastle said most truly that when I 
was invited to do so, I said I felt wholly incapable ; but to 
look upon this audience is to feel a necessary impulse not 
only to welcome our v/orkers in the Mission field, but to 
thank them most heartily for what they are doing for us at 
home. It is that on which I wish to lay the greatest stress. 
Working out in the Mission Held they are able, unconsciously 
it may be, to make us feel something more of the real propor- 
tion of that which unites us and that which separates us. At 
home within our narrow limits, tendencies and powers com- 
pressed assume something of an explosive character, but in 
the wider fields of Mission work they find natural opportunities 
for expansion, and vindicate themselves in characteristic forms 
of work. And, my friends, it is not only in this way that you 
help us, but still more by enabling us to feel that new con- 
viction the victorious universality of our own faith. 

My father always delighted to honour a missionary. 
That he should have forgotten his tiredness in the 
impulse to thank the workers in the Mission field is 



292 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



but one illustration of his habitual attitude towards 
missionaries. I will mention one other incident which 
is more striking. He was, in the most charitable spirit, 
an enemy of what some people call " the tobacco habit," 
believing that it created a purely artificial need ; but on 
one occasion he actually invited a guest to smoke a cigar 
in his own study. The guest was a Missionary Bishop, 
who was, I believe, quite unaware of the extravagant 
honour done to him. The smell of tobacco smoke was 
offensive to the Bishop. He would as a rule bear it in 
silence ; but I remember once when I was seated with 
him on the top of a tram-car he turned to me and said, 
" Surely that man is smoking some very bad tobacco." 
At Cambridge he would actually proctorise under- 
graduates if he met them smoking in academical dress. 
While on this subject I will venture to quote a 
fragment from a letter to one of his missionary sons, 
which is very characteristic of my father. But the 
main point is that it gives some expression of his fixed 
opinion that, at a Missionary gathering or meeting, a 
missionary is a more important consideration than an 
Archdeacon or even a Bishop who has not engaged in 
missionary work : 

CHURCH HOUSE, 29/7} May 1900. 

. . . Apparently you will be on Deputation work when I 
hope to conic up to town for the Bicentenary. This surprises 
and disappoints me, for I fully expected ihat you would be 
there. Indeed, I thought that you came home chiefly for 
this purpose. As it is, I cannot tell why I am coming at all, 
except to swell the numbers. . . . 

On 22nd June my father went to Newcastle to be 
present at the laying of the foundation-stone of the 
new Infirmary by I I.K.I I. the Prince of Wales. He 



xii DURHAM 293 

was not required to do anything on this occasion, so 
we must reckon the day as a holiday granted to him- 
self in honour of royalty. On the 2C)th of the same 
month, St. Peter's Day, he was persuaded by the " Sons 
of the House " to plant a tree in the park at Auckland. 
On 28th July the Bishop again addressed the 
Durham miners at their service in the Cathedral. In 
opening his address the Bishop said : 

A great modern writer has said, " If I looked into a 
mirror, and did not see my face, I should have the sort of 
feeling which actually comes upon me when I look into this 
living busy world and see no reflexion of its Creator." It is 
a startling and terrible image. I know no more impressive 
one in literature, and have we not all felt something of the 
same kind ? We look upon the life of men whom God has 
made in His own image, and expect to find everywhere 
tenderness, self-control, self-sacrifice, love in its thousand 
shapes ; instead of this we are met on all sides by selfish- 
ness, self-indulgence, passion, carelessness of all things except 
the desire of the moment. As Cardinal Newman says, it is 
as if we looked into a mirror and did not see our face. If, 
indeed, what we see upon the surface were all, I do not think 
that life could be lived. But, thank God, it is not all. When 
a sudden crisis comes, commonplace men, men hitherto in 
no way distinguished from their fellows, prove themselves 
heroes. They hear in their own souls the voice of God, 
and without one thought lay down their lives to save their 
comrades. Your own work, your own experience, is fertile 
in acts of unlooked-for and unprepared self-devotion. Such 
deeds correct our first impressions. They show us the true 
man ; and we rejoice. God has not left the world which 
He called into being, though He hide Himself, and if the 
eyes of our hearts are open we can see Him. We rejoice 
in the signs of a divine nature. We look away from the 
troubled, turbid surface of things to the springs of life, and 
find there a call to undoubting faith and unwearied labour. 
It is true that what we find around us, and what we feel 



294 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 

within ourselves, may fill us with dismay ; but none the less 
we believe that our Father made the world, and He sent 
His Son to be its Saviour, and that the Holy Spirit is ever 
waiting to cleanse and strengthen all who turn to Him. 

Concerning this Service he wrote to a son : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
>]th Sunday after Trinity, 1900. 

Yesterday was the Miners' Service in the Cathedral. In 
the morning I felt very poorly, and feared that I should not 
be able to go. However, I got better, and drove over with 
H. There was a very large gathering, and the bands seemed 
to me to do their part very much better than when I was 
there two years ago. In the congregation were Mr. J. Burns 
and Mr. T. Mann, who had been speaking at the Demonstra- 
tion. I hope that I made myself fairly heard. 

In his Lessons from Work will be found most of the 
important sermons and speeches delivered by my father 
during the three years chronicled in this chapter. 



The following are selected letters belonging to this 
period (1897-1900): 

To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yh May 1897. 

. . . To my consternation I have just remembered that I 
promised long ago to consecrate St. Columba's, (Jatcshead, on 
his day, (jth June, the day of the meeting of the (l.F.S. The 
Consecration is in the afternoon, and 1 hope that the time 
may be so arranged as to allow me to fulfil my engagement 
in Durham. Otherwise, what penance must I suffer? 1 will 
do what I can as soon as Canon Moore Kde returns, and 



xii DURHAM 295 

perhaps I might come late to Durham, or the service might 
be deferred till 6.30. However, nothing need be done at 
present except the making of my confession. 



To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \yk Afity 1897. 

... I do not object to women sharing men's studies and 
men's amusements (I think that I draw a line at football), 
but to women adopting men's standard. I hardly think that 
you would wish them to adopt men's standard in eating, 
drinking, or cycling. Surely the whole question at issue lies 
in this. Forgive me. I feel as if I could suffer martyrdom 
for this principle. I remember discussing it with your sister 
just when Girton was started, and nothing since has caused 
me to feel even a passing doubt. There are few things of 
which one could say as much. Again, forgive me. 

To HIS WIFE 

G.N.R., 31 j/ May 1897. 

... At Darlington one of the representatives at the Strike 
meeting, just five years ago, came and sat by me and talked 
pleasantly and hopefully of things. He thought that the 
men were coming gradually to wish for a Conciliation Board. 
Perhaps I may still see it re-established. He spoke very 
warmly of the proposed service in the Cathedral. "There 
would be such a congregation as there never had been." 
There is power in a historic Church after all. 

To A CLERGYMAN 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, zydjune 1897. 

The Form issued for the 2oth was authorised by an 
unanimous vote of the Upper and Lower Houses of the 
Northern Convocation, and by the Upper House of Canter- 
bury. It had therefore full authority. 

As I said at Sunderland, I shall be glad to see any addi- 



296 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 

tions or variations in Church Services, and to authorise them 
as far as I may have power, after due consideration. 

I hope that a Collect for the Conference may be put out 
by the two Archbishops. Failing this, I think that it will be 
best to ask the prayers of the Congregation, and perhaps to 
adapt the Collect for Whitsunday. I am always anxious to 
speak through our regular services. 



To THE BISHOP OF MINNESOTA 

Romx IIooivs BAY, z$th August 1897. 

My dear Bishop One word only of farewell and thanks. 
The sermon I had read before, but I was very glad to have 
a copy from yourself. The All Saints' address was new. I 
have read it with deep interest. How utterly unable we are 
to give form to the unseen, and how silent Scripture is when 
we consider the curiosity of man. I often think that the 
revelation which will meet our opened eyes is the reality of 
the ineffable fellowship "in Christ/' a new type of life, in 
which the members consciously enjoy the life of the whole 
body through its Head. What visions open out from Eph. 
iii. 21, with the true reading R.V. ? Though it is a great 
disappointment to us not to have the pleasure of seeing you 
here, I cannot wonder that you have found it impossible to 
fit in the visit. I am glad that I was fortunate enough to 

O D 

meet you at St. Paul's. Still I had hoped yet once more 
to hear something of your work, which seemed to bring me 
nearer to the unseen world than anything else that I have 
ever known. 

May the manifold blessings which you have experienced 
still follow you. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUXELM. 

To A MEMHER OF Y.M.C.A. AT COXSETT 

(On the subject, " Has lliealre-guing a moral or an immoral tendency?") 

[ l\ilc uuL-inr^'ii.] 

Dear Sir The constant pressure of work has delayed my 
answer to you, and now I can only write in brief. The 



xii DURHAM 297 

question of the theatre has caused me great perplexity from 
my early days, and I cannot say that I have ever been able 
to give more than a personal solution of it. We must dis- 
tinguish the stage itself from the circumstances with which it 
is often attended. The universal instinct towards dramatic 
representations appears to me to show that, like music and 
art, they answer to a natural and a right desire. I can easily 
imagine them to be so constituted as to produce, not only 
innocent recreation, but positive good ; but, at the same time, 
the conditions under which they are given, for the most part 
in England, are certainly unfavourable to a healthy effect. 
Yet this need not be so ; and I think that in England the 
theatre could be made as helpful as the concert -room. I 
have not been to the theatre since my early boyhood, and I 
don't think that a play could give me either profit or pleasure. 
The best acting, as far as I can judge, falls far below my 
ideal, and for me the excitement would not be good. But I 
dare not judge others by myself. The only rule I can offer, 
and seek to follow, is to consider whether I find that a 
particular amusement helps me to do my work better. Then 
I can regard it as a gift of God to be used with a view to 
His service. The rule applies generally, and when we are in 
doubt, it is wise to resist it, and we shall soon gain a habit 
of right judgment. The most harmless pastime may become 
bad for a particular person. Yet I don't think any one who 
honestly applies the rule which I have given will go wrong. 
Yet I must add, that we must consider others and often deny 
ourselves, lest we should lead a friend to follow our example 
which would be hurtful to him. Yours most truly, 

B. F. DUNELM. 

To THE REV. DR. MOULTON 

'Bisnor AUCKLAND, \^th January 1898. 

My dear Dr. Moulton It is most kind of you in any 
other case it would have been unexpected kindness to think 
of my birthday, i2th January, a day quite without note in 
calendars. You know that one of my central tenets is the 
provisional nature of time, so that the thought is supreme 



298 LIFE OF BISHOP WFSTCOTT CHAP. 

over chronology. I am most thankful that I am again able 
to do my work fairly, yet how much less well than I could 
wish. I should be very glad to hear something of your work, 
especially of the References. Will you kindly tell me I am 
ashamed to ask the question whether I sent you a copy of 
my last little book ? When the book appeared I was much 
distracted, and the fear has come to me that the intention 
was not fulfilled. If this is so I will repair my neglect at 
once. The Notes on the R.V. I feel tolerably sure I did 
send. But forgetfulness is one of the penalties of years. 
With every good wish for the coming year, yours always 
affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

CHURCH HOUSE, \%th January 1898. 

We are meeting to-day, you see, not at Lambeth, but at 
the Church House. It has hardly the same effect, but there 
is a good meeting. My own very innocent proposal has not 
found favour. There is, I fear, very little hope of anything 
being done towards effective Church reform, yet the " little 
hope " lives still. 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, ityh January 1898. 

My first meeting is over, my dearest Mary, that of the 
Joint Committee of the P.E. It was a small meeting, but very 
pleasant Dr. Ince and Canon Bernard and myself. These 
meetings carry me back twenty-four years, and have many 
memories .... I had a good night in two acts only, though 
I was haunted by Dreyfus ! and I fully expect to get through 
my day's work. 

To HIS SECOND SON 

2Oth fan nary 1898. 

... I am very strongly inclined to think that more should 
be done to develop the sense of independent responsibility in 
the native pastorate. I know the difficulties, at least in some 
degree, but they cannot be greater than met the early teachers 
in Africa. . . . Definite authority calls out new forms of self- 
control. The task will be slow, but if the end is clearly 



xii DURHAM 299 

proposed, it can be surely reached step by step. We have 
an equally difficult work before us at home, to give a clear 
form to the responsibility of the laity. ... At the Bishops' 
meeting on Tuesday I tried to get one step forward in this 
movement, but in vain. However, I shall try again and yet 
again in the next few weeks, and strive to keep hope fresh. 

I am better on the whole than I was at Spennithorne, but 
I soon grow tired, and the thought of what I want to do and 
leave undone often saddens me. I am a bad correspondent, 
but you know that you and your house and your work are 
continually in my thoughts. The weekly letters are our 
weekly joy. 

To HIS FIFTH SON 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 2Qlk January 1898. 

. . . The first photograph of the assembly of men and 
women in the temple court was a revelation to me. It would 
be quite worth while to write an account of the practice, the 
occasions, the audiences, the books used, and the like. . . . 
Your work seems to be shaping itself very completely, and I 
think that all the institutions promise to be permanent. 
There will not, I trust, be another tabula rasa at Cawnpore. 
It is a very happy thing that your relations both with the 
Government and the S.P.G. are harmonious. I am proud of 
our English administration as a whole. I hope that you saw 
Mark Twain's summary description of it, to the effect that if 
a monument were set up on the scene of every noble deed 
the Indian landscape would grow monotonous. . . . Will you 
give my kindest remembrances to our Durham ladies, and 
say with what pleasure I hear from time to time of their work, 
which is followed by the sisters with deep interest. They 
have, I trust, taken the much needed holiday. . . . You are 
constantly in our thoughts and thanksgivings. . . . 

To ins SON-IN-LAW (THE RKV. E. G. Kim;, D.I).) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ^th January 1898. 

My dear Edward Let me congratulate you on the 
completion of the first part of your book, and heartily wish it 



;oo LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



success. The last paragraph of the introduction to Psalm 
xli. is really the moral of the whole. 

To HIS SIXTH SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
Septuagesinia (6th February] 1898. 

This morning I was greatly troubled by a telegram which 
told me of the sudden death of Dr. Moulton. Only yesterday 
we were reading an account of a meeting in London on 
behalf of the Leys School, at which he spoke. As yet I know 
no details, but I am afraid that the anxiety about the School 
must have hastened the end. He was, I think, the most 
self-sacrificing man I ever knew, and I have been very happy 
in my friends. Now no one is left of those with whom I 
worked specially. I remain the youngest of all. 

TO HIS ELDEST SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, Ascension Day, 1898. 

Only one word in reply to your kind offer. Mep must be 
unique. Poor fellow, he was to me a touching parable, and 
taught me very much. I had no wish for a dog before, and 
he is the beginning and end of my pels. 

The Festival is a significant day for Mr. Gladstone's 
passing. He always ' : aspired to heaven" in all he did, and 
it will be for this, I think, that he will be remembered rather 
than for anything which he did. 

To HIS WIFE 

LOLLARDS' T<>WKU, 2^1/1 /////< 1898. 

Yesterday was a busy day, but not altogether unfruitful, I 
trust. There was a somewhat perplexing Conference on 
Missionary Organisation in the afternoon. Our two Arch- 
deacons manfully helped me, and we did what may lead to 
some good. . . . We had a little meeting here yesterday-- 
London, Winchester, Sarum, with myself at which a really 



xii DURHAM 301 

important and solid agreement on principles was reached. 
Later 1 thought I would give myself a holiday, and went to 
House of Commons to hear a little of the debate on the 
Benefices Bill. I found Mr. Humphreys Owen speaking. 
Afterwards I sent a card to him, and he came, and we had a 
little very pleasant talk. 

CHURCH HOUSE, (jlh July 1898. 

After breakfast I was forced to go and look for some 
spectacles. This involved a long, very hot walk ; but in due 
time I reached the Church House. There was a long and 
discursive discussion on Prayers for the Dead. Just before 
lunch the question of Reservation came on. I delivered my 
soul. The discussion was continued after lunch. There was 
wavering, as I expected. I spoke again, and I think that 
what I said had some effect. The general result was hopeful. 
It is now past 4.30, and my ears the Bishop of Winchester 
has gone long since, so that I am hopelessly ignorant of 
what is being said. We shall be dismissed soon, I trust. 



To A CLERGYMAN 

T3isnm> AUCKLAND, is/ August 1898. 

... I could not suppose that the violent outbreak would 
in any way prejudice your work. I have expressed my con- 
viction that you loyally obey the Prayer Book, and I shall 
gladly bear this testimony at any time. What causes me 
anxiety is the fact to which - - refers. I believe that 
the clergy generally do not appreciate rightly the general 
dislike of Englishmen to ornate services, but I had supposed 
that the shocking violence of - - would have moved the 
indignation of all Churchmen. Unhappily it has not done so 
any more than Mr. Kensit's. We must take account of the 
fact. . . . 

GOATIILAND, \1tll August iSoS. 

I have made a fixed rule never to take any public part in 
a Bazaar. . . . You will easily understand how full of anxiety 
and even fear this time is. I do not see my way at all 



302 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

clearly. I trust absolutely, as I have said, the loyalty of all 
the Durham clergy. I should be faithless and ungrateful if I 
did not ; but at the same time I feel that many elsewhere 
forget their ordination promises, and that not a few are 
Roman in heart and policy. The grievous thing is that there 
is no mode of effective action. As the law stands at present 
vestments have been declared illegal. I believe that since 
that judgment was given the question has been placed in a 
clearer light, and that vestments are legal. But most un- 
happily there is no court in which the question can be 
argued afresh. This places a Bishop in a most serious 
position. . . . 

GOATHLAND, 2nd September 1898. 

I see no reason why there should not be a " special com- 
memoration of the Holy Eucharist" and of those departed in 
the faith, but I should certainly think that every instinct of 
truth and reverence would lead Englishmen to avoid holding 
them on days specially connected with the worst corruptions 
of the Church of Rome. ... I need scarcely say that no 
calendar has any authority except that in the Prayer 
Book. . . . 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \2th November 1898. 

... At the present time everything seems to me to fall 
into insignificance compared with the maintenance of our 
inheritance in a National Church. We must all sink ourselves 
utterly to maintain the notes of the Kingdom righteousness, 
peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. As I told Lord Halifax 
when he sent me his Bradford speech, his utterances fill 
me almost with despair. Yet I cling to hope ; may God 
fulfil it. 

TO HIS ELDEST SON 

Misnor AUCKLAND, i$t// December 1898. 

. . . The doctor has just been. He gives an excellent 
report. "The heart quite changed/' IJenedicto benedicatur. 



DURHAM 303 



XII 



(I.N.K., ibth January 1899. 

So far, I have had an easy journey, and have already had 
my tea at Doncastcr, but all my other provisions remain in 
reserve. I have been as idle as you could have wished me 
to be. I have finished my story, In His Steps, which asks 
questions that I have been asking all my life, and answers 
them in one way, and essentially, I believe, in the right way, 
but the answer is made effective by an unusual combination 
of circumstances. Canon Moore Ede was impressed by the 
book, and asked me to read it. He fancies that it will make 
people think. That it should have such a wide popularity is 
a proof that the mass of men are not satisfied. How can 
they be ? 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, igth January 1899. 

. . . You will have seen one result of our meeting in The 
Times. I hear that it was well spoken of. It was, I think, 
the best course possible. No one can deny that the Arch- 
bishop is a spiritual person, and refuse to plead before him. 
The difficulty has been to give the extreme men an oppor- 
tunity for setting out their case. . . . 

I am inclined to think that I shall go to the Tate Gallery 
after lunch. See how gay I am ! 

To A CLERGYMAN 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ytfh January 1899. 

I believe that the statements about reservation and incense 
are absolutely untrue. But the Bishops have now given an 
opportunity for pleading the case before a court of which the 
spiritual competency is unquestionable. I do not know how 
a man can belong to the Catholic Church unless he is a loyal 
member of some branch of it. 

The question of the age of candidates for Confirmation is 
one of pastoral experience. I have had unusual opportunities 
of forming a judgment, and I have not the least doubt that a 
late age is best for the religious life. 



304 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 
To HIS WIFE 

BlSHOPTHORPE, S/// February 1899. 

. . . The afternoon was spent in rather dull committee 
meetings, but like all things they come to an end, and the 
Archbishop brought me up here. Mrs. Maclagan was most 
kind in her inquiries, and said that she had been hearing all 
kinds of stories of my "youthful indiscretions" from Canon 
Tristram. But I refuted all stories by pleading that I did 
not skate. 

You will be amused by the note which I enclose. How 
long would it take me to write my letters in his hand. He 
described himself as a very humble fellow-servant with me : 
"You are head of this great diocese, and I am the organ- 
blower at Holy Trinity Church." I was delighted. 

To HIS YOUNGEST SON 

(On Marriage with Deceased Wife's Sister anJ Private Confession.) 
BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2i.r/ February 1899. 

On every ground, both religious and social, I think that 
marriage with a deceased wife's sister is to be most gravely 
condemned. As far as our own Church is concerned, no one 
who has contracted such a marriage coulcl be legally received 
to Holy Communion. This rule would, 1 cannot doubt, be 
enforced at Delhi. Your friend must face this consequence. 
Possibly some Nonconformist body might receive him, but as 
far as I can judge, his connexion with your Mission must 
cease if he so marries. It is not a question whether our 
Church is narrow or not : the Church must enforce its laws 
on its members ; and its members must submit their opinions 
to its clear judgment. For us the question is settled, and, 
as I hold, most rightly settled. 

There can again be no question as to the mind of our 
Church about private confession. At the last meeting of 
Convocation I presented a report upon it ; and I pointed 
out the significant changes in the Exhortation before Holy 



xii DURHAM 305 

Communion in the Prayer Book of 1552, which arc well 
worthy of study. As Bishop Wilbcrforce said truly, " It is 
medicine and not food." As far as I have observed, the 
habitual practice of confession tends to produce a character 
in many ways attractive, but not strong. Nothing can in- 
crease the effect which the study of the Passion leaves upon 
us. But the teaching of St. Paul and St. John leads us to 
think more of God than of ourselves. The wonderful words 
in Phil. iii. 12-14 describe our true temper. Fellowship 
with the living Christ is protection and strength and inspira- 
tion. Nothing can take its place. I know too well how 
feebly we hold it. You have Dr. Dale's Ephcsians^ I think : 
there is much in it which sets out clearly w r hat I have wished 
to suggest. Let the Holy Spirit speak to you through the 
New Testament. He will help us to find there what we 
need. 

To HIS SECOND SON 

Bisnor AUCKLAND, 2nd March 1899. 

I feel that to-day I must write a line, for by the time the 
note reaches you, you will have been left alone, and will be 
feeling the first trials of loneliness. Such separations are the 
condition of Indian work, and I always rejoice to believe 
that some corresponding power is given. . . . 

We are still in a very troubled state, and I do not think 
that we have reached the end by any means. 
I have a letter of his with me is singularly dangerous 
from his personal goodness and amazing narrowness. Yet I 
have not given up hope. In Durham there is nothing to 
cause any uneasiness. . . . 

To HIS SON-IN-LAW (THE REV. E. G. KING, D.D.) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2g'h March 1899. 

I am sorry to have kept the sheet so long, but I have 
been greatly pressed lately, and now that the pressure is 
taken off I am good for nothing. I have read the notes 
with great interest. I have always been inclined to think 

VOL. TT X 



306 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

that Ps. xliii. was an addition by another writer to Ps. xlii. 
Is it not extremely difficult to account for the separation ? 
Combination is more intelligible. But in this case the two 
Psalms were intended to form a whole, so that your argu- 
ment is not disturbed. The quotation from Browning 1 is 
not continuous, and the break should, I think, be marked. 
Is not the "a" significant? It is curious that in the 
collected edition of the poems " He " in the last line is 
printed "he." 

G.N.R., igthjune 1899. 

... I have been reading as far as I could Ruskin's Fors. 
It is a terribly true indictment of society and clergy. But 
what can we do ? Will light come ? 

To HIS WIFE 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, zothjitne 1899. 

We have had our morning addresses. They have been 
very good and true. Alas ! the difficulty is to transform the 
true into act. The world is very strong, and for us omni- 
present. . . . We are inclined to think that there can be 
peace on the earth from without while it continues what it 
is. Death must precede life ; conflict, peace. Absolute 
surrender to One is the condition of the harmonies which are 
faintly and imperfectly indicated by human relations. The 
fragment seems to be so precious that we fail to see that it 
hides the whole. . . . 

To THE REV J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2.6th June 1899. 

... I cannot find any basis for the High Church theory 
in the New Testament. It is based, as far as I can see, on 
assumed knowledge of what the Divine plan must be. I 

1 On the earth the broken arcs : in the heaven a perfect round. 

Knoui^h that He heard it once : \ve shall hear it by and-by. 

Aht Verier. 



xii DURHAM 307 

had occasion to look through the N.T. not long ago with 
special reference to the question, and I was greatly impressed 
by a fact which seems to have been overlooked. All the 
apostolic writers are possessed (as I think rightly in essence) 
by the thought of the Lord's return. They show no sign of 
any purpose to create a permanent ecclesiastical organisation. 
Whatever is done is to meet a present need, as, e.g., the 
mission of Titus to Crete. The very condition laid down for 
the Apostolate excludes the idea of the perpetuation of their 
office. Is not this true ? \Vhat followed when the Lord (as 
I think) did come is a wonderful revelation of the Providence 
of God. . . . 

To HIS SECOND SON 

N.E.R., yhjuly 1899. 

. . . Foss was a very great pleasure to me ; but I saw 
most here of the other two children. He was singularly 
bright and frank and observant, and he seemed to be very 
happy. . . . 

The above fragment concerning his grandchildren 
reminds one of the pleasure that my father took in 
their society. He would nearly always find time 
while having his tea to draw railway engines and the 
like for their delectation, and was much delighted if 
they detected any error in his delineation. I re- 
member his lifting up his hands in amazement as he 
reviewed all the animals of the Noah's ark arranged in 
procession round the dining-room table, and how he 
delighted the children by pretending to imagine that 
the camel was an elephant, and otherwise laying him- 
self open to correction, so as to leave behind an agree- 
able impression that he was a well-meaning but sadly 
ill-informed old man. He would even descend to the 
floor to assist in building operations. On the occasion 
of his last picnic, to Bolton Castle in Wensleydale, 



308 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

whither he went with several grandchildren in 1900, 
he saw the little Foss peering down into a dungeon, 
and stooped down to look through the same hole, and 
then remarked, " Do you think that is where we are to 
have tea ? " and when the youngster laughingly replied, 
in a voice that he could not fail to hear, " No ; not in 
that dark hole," he professed to be much relieved. 



To CANON D. CREMER 

MlDDLEIIAM, 26th August 1899. 

My dear Sir I do not know Wendt's book, and it is 
impossible for me now to read it. It is not likely that I 
could reopen questions, which I have once studied as care- 
fully as I could, with any profit. As far as I can remember, 
I said very shortly what I hold to be the " Lord's coming " 
in my little book on the Historic Faith. I hold very 
strongly that the Fall of Jerusalem was the coming which 
first fulfilled the Lord's words ; and, as there have been other 
comings, I cannot doubt that He is " coming " to us now. 

I tried vainly to read - 's book. I cannot grasp his 
meaning, and I cannot find any trace of Greek theology in 
his views. He seems to me to deny the Virgin birth. In 
other words, he makes the Lord a man, one man in the race, 
and not the new man the Son of man in whom the race 
is gathered up. To put the thought in another and a 
technical form, he makes the Lord's personality human, 
which is, I think, a fatal error ; fatal, I mean, theoretically. 
In practice we can happily live on inconsistent beliefs. 

To A CLERGYMAN 

BISHOP ArcKi.ANP, 27/7* October 1899. 

... I have always found you, like the other clergy of our 
diocese, ready to follow as you promised, " with a glad 
mind/' counsels which I have given. At the same time, I 
must add, I trust that I shall never attempt to abridge on 



x ,i DURHAM 309 

this side or that the large liberty which is allowed by our 
Church to her children. 



To HIS WIFE 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, i$l/i November 1899. 

. . . Being very busy, I was hardly disturbed by an open- 
ing of the door, and looking up I saw Mr. Hensley and then 
Mrs. Hensley. They stayed some little time, and were most 
kind in their inquiries, and seemed to be well. I dined with 
the rest of our party, and then the Bishops of Winchester and 
Salisbury eame into my room, and we had a long talk of all 
things and more. Certainly there is very much to cause 
alarm. I feel sure that (as in South Africa) a war is inevit- 
able. The causes alleged may be trivial, but behind there is 
the conflict of Roman and Anglican principles which are 
absolutely irreconcilable, and I cannot fight. Alas ! lighters 
are needed. 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, $th December 1899. 

... I don't think that I have ever used the word 
' mystics " : it is so hopelessly vague, and it suggests an 
esoteric teaching which is wholly foreign to the Christian. 
But from Cambridge days I have read the writings of many 
who are called mystics with much profit. Every one who 
believes that phenomena are " signs " of the spiritual and 
eternal receives the name, and to believe in the Incarnation 
involves this belief, does it not ? After all, the first chapter 
of Genesis is the Protevangelium. 

We had an interesting meeting of the Christian Social 
Union at Liverpool. I said a few words on expenditure, in 
which I dared to express what I have felt all my life, and 
practised, I fear, too little. You will, I am afraid, find fault 
with me. The paper is to appear in the Economic Review. 
My own desire is to express all the details of life in terms of 
life. 



3io LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

To SIR C. DALRYMPLE, BART., M.P. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2&k December 1899. 

My dear Dalrymple It is most kind of you to remember 
old days and send us the affectionate greetings in which the 
past lives. Though we have no friends at the front, it was 
impossible not to feel the nation's sorrow yesterday ; but 
we read Tennyson's Epilogue to the Idylls, and felt thankful 
that the nation has answered to its mission. As a whole, 
our countrymen seem to me to be untouched by the spirit 
of vengeance or covetousness or pride which Mr. Stead 
attributes to them. They have acknowledged Imperial 
obligations, and resolved at all cost, God helping them, to 
endeavour to fulfil them. I am very glad to hear what you 
say of the Harrow reredos. ... I think that the work was 
Sir A. Blomfield's, who was always sober and dignified. Mrs. 
Westcott is really better, but obliged to acquiesce in the life 
of an invalid. Our Indian letters are a weekly spring of 
joy and thankfulness. All our sons are well and full of 
work and hope. 

You remember, I trust, that Auckland is on your way to 
the south. With every good wish for the Festivals, ever yours 
affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 



To HIS SON-IN-LAW (THE REV. E. G. KING) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 2nd January 1900. 

You cannot imagine how helpless 1 am become, and 
occupied in details when great things call for continuous 
thought. . . . 

The notes on Ps. xlviii. are specially interesting. I confess 
that I am wholly unable to believe that Ps. li. was a national 
Psalm. Its personal character seems to be ingrained. That 
it should be applied to the nation seems intelligible. 



xn DURHAM 3 n 

To HIS WIFE 

LOLLARDS' Tow KK, yk January 1900. 

. . . The Archbishop of C. is very amusing. He said 
that he could not profess to have an open mind; he had 
come to a definite opinion, and nothing would alter it. But 
yet he would serve on a committee to consider the matter. I 
suppose that he meant to convert others. His vigour is 
delightful. 

To J. C. MEDD, ESQ. 

(On the Boer War) 

^Ih January 1900. 

My dear Mr. Medd Let me thank you for your interest- 
ing letter. I agree with nearly all of it except the conclusion at 
which you arrive, but I know nothing of the intrigues of which 
you speak. You cannot condemn the Jameson Raid more 
sternly than I do. I do not think that I ever felt more anxious 
till it became clear that the English people would not be led 
away (like the Poet Laureate) by the false romance of the 
attack. And again, you cannot shrink more than I do from 
a man like Mr. Rhodes. 

But the causes of the war lie deeper. I had hoped that 
our generosity after Majuba might have altered the Boer 
feeling, and I have often expressed my joy at that peace ; but 
it is very doubtful now whether it was not dictated by fear 
rather than by generosity, and it was certainly misunderstood. 
I do not say that the Boer antagonism and ambition were 
criminal, but we were bound to resist them. The form of 
their ultimatum expressed their real feeling. What we may 
have to suffer I do not know, but I feel no doubt that our 
duty is clear. May God fulfil His will; that is what we 
desire to serve. Ever yours most truly, B. F. DUNELM. 

To A CLERGYMAN 

(Concerning a Fresco) 

y^th January 1900. 

You will notice that does not answer the most serious 
question which I asked. Is there any authority for repre- 



312 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



sen ting the Lord in glory with both hands raised and open? 
Surely the ordinary attitude of blessing is most natural. To 
represent St. John as beardless and aged is to depart alike 
from early and late usage. Personally I dislike equally the 
Hand and the Tetragrammaton, but if the latter is used it 
should be correct. The treatment of the angel hosts in the 
fresco to which - refers is wholly different from that which 
he has adopted. I suppose that of the Evangelists St. Mark 
and St. Luke would be the youngest. 

I have not the least wish to act as critic ; but I am 
anxious about the attitude of the Lord. For the rest the 
sketch is quite sufficient for the Faculty, but I shall be glad 
to be answered on this one point. 



To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

BlSHOPTHORPE, 2Q//1 February IQOO. 

I was not sure how you would feel about the war. It is 
an encouragement that you and Vaughan are at one with me 
in this grave question. The nation seems to be learning a 
lesson which it had to learn, and I think that the idea of 
Empire will grow clearer. The aspect of Ruskin's character 
on which you dwell is of very great interest. The sentence 
which seems to me to sum up his later teaching, " There is 
no wealth but life, ; ' is another side of it. All my reading of 
him is less than ten years old, but he has been one of my 
best teachers since I came to the North. Won't you replace 
your goose-headed snakes by something better in his honour ? 
We have the same monsters on our local railway, and I always 
recall his sketch. 

To HIS WIFE 

BISHOPTHORPK, 2.1st February 1900. 

We may, I think, this morning let our hearts rise in 
thanksgiving. Intercession and prayer have their fruit, which 
will not, as far as we can see, be in vain. I rejoice specially 
for the Queen's sake. The last months must have been a 
sore trial, and she has borne all bravely. Now she will leave, 



xii DURHAM 313 

by God's blessing, her Empire (inner and with truer views of 
its calling than ever. We are just going to Convocation, but 
I felt that I must write one word first. 



TO HIS YOUNGEST SON 

IJisnor AUCKLAND, 
2nd Sunday in Lent [i \lli Marc/i], 1900. 

It was a great joy to me to learn from your letter to K. 
that you propose to offer yourself as a candidate for Priests' 
Orders at Advent. You will find the priesthood a great help 
in your work, and still I am not at all sorry that you have 
waited some time for the office. The quiet unhurried pre- 
paration and the gathered experience will be most valuable. 

It always gives me great pleasure to hear that you use all 
your opportunities for intercourse with the natives. The 
power of sympathy w r ith them seems to me to be your great 
gift, and it may become of priceless importance. It always 
seems to me that the great defect of our Indian missions has 
been the unwillingness to take pains to understand native 
feeling and to meet it. 

To CANON D. CREMER 

201 h April 1900. 

I have a vague feeling that Dr. Vaughan has given in a 
sermon a sense to KpuTth', in St. John xx. 23, similar to that 
which you give. I did not feel able to follow him, though I 
do not feel satisfied with that which I have so far been able 
to see. . . . 

TO HIS ELDEST SON 

24/7* April 1900. 

I must have the pleasure of addressing you by your new 
title as soon as possible, but not, I hope, prematurely. I was 
instituted in a dingy lawyer's office without any service. 
Things have improved in form at least, and forms speak. 
You will, I have no doubt, have opportunities of speaking on 



14 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



Education from time to time. At length, to my great joy, 
elementary education is set free from the slavery of earning 
grants, and I was glad to see that the Teachers' Union was 
enthusiastic on the change, whatever some School Boards 
may think. The Old Foundations have a great advantage 
over the new in their Greater Chapter. It is impossible to 
inspire Honorary Canons, a creation of yesterday, with any 
sense of corporate life, or to gain for them cordial recognition 
from the Residentiaries : yet patience ! May you have joy 
and blessing in your office. I expect a full account of 
Yetminster parva. 

TO HIS ELDEST DAUGHTER (MRS. E. G. KiNG) 

24/7} April 1900. 

My dear Mary We shall be celebrating your wedding-day 
by a great service to-morrow. The Bishop of Oxford and the 
Bishop of Exeter, who will present the new Bishop of Liver- 
pool, were both consecrated on St. Mark's Day, and there are 
the memories of Archbishop Benson and Bishop Lightfoot. 
You will, we trust, have a happy day, and many days, at 
Ventnor. . . . Brooke will be keeping the Festival too. I 
was very grateful to the Bishop for recognising his work. We 
shall be very glad when you are able to send direct news from 
the Cape. 1 The youngest son of the Dean, who has just 
taken his degree at Oxford, has joined the Yeomanry, and is 
now, I fancy, at the front. Love to all. Ever your most 
affectionate father, B. F. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

BlSHOPTllORl'K, Si. Mark's Day, 1900. 

It has been a long day, but the great service passed over 
very well, and thoughts of Salisbury mixed happily with it. So 
large a party were expected from Liverpool that it was 
necessary to have the Consecration in the nave, a temporary 

J His daughters eldest son, Edward \Vestcolt King, enlisted in the 
Dorset Yeomanry fur service in South Africa. 



xii DURHAM 315 

Holy Table being plaeed at the east end. All the Bishops of 
the Northern Province were present, and the Bishops of 
Oxford and Exeter. ... I had a few words with the new 
Bishop, and I find that I sat next to Mrs. Chavasse at lunch. 
Dr. Moule looked remarkably well. Of course I heard 
nothing of the sermon. I was far behind. . . . 



To THE REV. E. PRICE 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
St. Philip and St. failles^ 1900. 

My dear Mr. Price Your most kind remembrance is a 
great encouragement. The associations of Westminster are 
very dear, and it has been a great joy to me to have you near 
who share them. The blessings which have been given me 
have been beyond hope. I have endeavoured, however feebly 
and imperfectly, to use almost unparalleled opportunities. In 
all failures comes the assurance that God fulfils His work. 
Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To HIS WIFE 

G.N.R., i^t/ijunc 1900. 



I read Lord Roberts' despatch last night before leaving. 
It put me in good heart again. How quiet and reassuring 
and far-seeing. Nothing is overlooked by him. 



LOLLARDS' TOWER, i^l/ijunc 1900. 

I have, you see, reached "home." After posting my letter 
I had my breakfast, and then went on to Baker Street. In a 
short time I started for Harrow. It took me a long time to 
walk up the hill. An overwhelming storm came on just as 
I had reached Mr. RendalPs old house, and I was forced to 
shelter for some little time. There was a large meeting of 
Governors, and I am glad I went. . . . We afterwards went 
into the Chapel. The inlaid panels round the apse and the 
reredos are very remarkable. The very rapid increase in the 
memorial tablets is most touching. The last in the arcade, 



3 i6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

where are the memorials of Masters, is to I. D. Walker, with 
a striking inscription. . . . Afterwards H. 1 walked with me 
to the station. We went by the churchyard. Now I have 
had tea, and may perhaps go to sleep. I am proud to have 
got on so well. Lord Roberts helped me. 

HOUSE OF LORDS, ^thjiuie 1900. 

You will see that I have been carried off to support the 
Archbishop. Having listened to the Duke of Devonshire for 
about half-an-hour, I feel that I want a change. ... I had 
a reward for coming, for the Bishop of Salisbury introduced 
me to Lord Pembroke, a new Governor of Sherborne. . . . 
We have had a good " quiet day," and choosing my place 
well I heard three addresses more than I have heard for a 
year. I am called to the House. 



TO HIS ELDEST DAUGHTER (MRS. E. G. KlNC-) 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 27^ June 1900. 

I send on the Indian letters to you. They are ever more 
than usually interesting. We were very glad to hear that you 
managed your journey so well. Six changes ! I growl at two. 
We have had hard work these two days, and the next days 
will be exciting. We both hope for a fine St. Peter's Day, 
and to-day looks far more promising. As soon as I have had 
my tea, which is waiting, I am going to imitate " the woolly- 
headed blackamoor," but my umbrella is brown. . . . 

To HIS WIFE 

G.N.K., ^thjitly 1900. 

I enclose my certificate, 2 my dearest Mary, this time 
expressed in symbols of nature and not of society. . . . You 
remembered, no doubt, that this is Daisy's wedding-day. 
How strange Peterborough will seem. . . . 

1 His grandson, Herman Brooke I'rior, a scholar of Harrow. 
~ It was my father's custom to send to my mother his paper napkin to 
certify that he had succeeded in L^ettin^ some tea on his journey. 



xii DURHAM 

The crops look very fine in the misty sunlight ; and I have 
done a little thinking and reading. Sometimes I feel as if I 
had something to say, atid then all seems to be vain. Yet if 
words are given they must Lie spoken, but it is almost 
impossible to forget self. . . . 



To 



(On Usury) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, i&th July 1900. 

My dear Sir May I ask you to believe that I have care- 
fully studied the question of " interest " with frankness and 
care at various times during the last thirty years. ... I am 
not aware that " the Church " has ever expressed a judgment 
upon the question, 1 nor can I admit that there are any 
ecclesiastical opinions upon it which require the adhesion 
of any English Churchman. . . . The loan contemplated in 
mediaeval times, and, speaking generally, in ancient times, as 
in India now, was to meet an urgent personal need, and not 
for profitable commercial use. It is obviously immoral to 
make the distress of another an occasion for personal advan- 
tage, but I am wholly unable to see that it is immoral for me 
to place money which I hold as God's steward in the hands 
of another for productive employment, while I receive from 
him something less than he reasonably calculates to obtain 
himself from the use of it. ... 

Mr. HoL)son's criticism on Mr. Ruskin's arguments (John 
Ruskin, pp. 144 ff.) is, I believe, substantially just. Money, 
like all other forces, material and spiritual, may be misused. 
It must be administered as a trust with a view to securing 
the highest good, but it must be administered fruitfully both 
for him who dispenses it and for him who receives it. 

I can assure you that, however much you may condemn 
my judgment, I am not less anxious than you are to bring 

1 The writer of the letter to which the above is a reply fowarded the state- 
ment that " The Church has declared on authority that usury is mortal sin, 
but Churchmen, including the Bishops and officers who are under obligation 
to declare this, are culpably silent on the point, if indeed they do not actually 
take usury when they have money to invest, as they call it." 



3i8 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP, xn 

into the ordinary business of life every principle which I hold 
to be true ; but in a long life I have learnt the truth of the 
Lord's promise, that we shall win our souls in patience. 
Yours most faithfully, B. F. DUNELM. 



To CANON D. CREMER 

2$thjuly 1900. 

I find that I have not made a reference to the place in 
which Dr. Vaughan defended the sense of " overcome " for 
Kpa-eiv in St. John xx. It was, unless my memory fails me, 
in a separate sermon, and I do not know how it can be 
recovered except by the help of the British Museum 
Catalogue. 

Dr. LI. Davies' quiet wisdom is most delightful. One of 
my puzzles is how it has not received the public recognition 
which it deserves. Perhaps it is well for serene happiness 
and work. 



CHAPTER XIII 

DURHAM (continued) 
1900-1901 

THE last year of my father's life was marked by two 
severe domestic sorrows the deaths of his youngest 
son, Basil, and of his wife. When he saw his youngest 
son start four years before to join the Cambridge 
Mission at Delhi, he remarked that, if all went well, he 
could not hope to see him again, as his ordinary fur- 
lough would not be due till 1903. The Bishop was 
staying at Aysgarth, in Wcnsleydale, for his customary 
summer holiday when he received by cable the news of 
his son's sudden death from cholera. The news was a 
very painful shock both to the Bishop and to Mrs. 
Westcott, who had hardly borne the parting from her 
youngest child, and they waited with much anxiety 
for details of the seizure. 1 The two weekly letters re- 
ceived from their son after the news of the end had 
reached them were cheerful, and spoke of his coming 
holiday and approaching ordination to the priesthood ; 
the third mail brought the anxiously-awaited tidings. 

1 In his text-hook, under the date 2nd August, the Bishop noted, 
" Basil f. It is well with the child " ; and it should be added that Basil, 
the Benjamin of the family, was commonly spoken of as "the child." 

319 



320 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



CHAP. 



From the various letters received my father prepared a 
full account of the sad event, which he forwarded to his 
son in Canada : 

AYSGAKTH, 8/// Sunday in Trinity, 1900 
[27/7^ August}. 

We have now had full details from Dehli. The loss was 
most sudden and unexpected. On Sunday Basil was well but 
tired, and looking forward to his coming holiday. For some 
weeks he had taken the Chaplain's work, as the place was 
vacant, and so he preached in the evening on the character- 
istic text, Matt. v. 8, he had been taking the Beatitudes 
for a series of sermons, and afterwards, as usual, spent the 
evening with Professor Rudra, who has sent us a vivid and 
most interesting account of the time. Basil was most 
cheerful, full of hope, and happy in his work. On Monday 
he took his College work, and in the evening attended a 
soldiers' Sing-song, at which he is said to have been most 
helpful and in good spirits. On Tuesday he took his class 
early in the morning, but on returning he felt poorly, and sent 
to say that he could not come to breakfast at about 10.30. 
Mr. Kelley, who has some knowledge of medicine, came to see 
him, and was alarmed by the symptoms. He went for the 
civil surgeon, who saw at once the nature of the attack, but 
yet, as it was not severe, hoped that B. might be able to resist 
it. Two nurses came, and everything was done that could 
be done. When the doctor came in the evening Basil said, 
"Ah, doctor, it is no good. I cannot fight against it." 
Otherwise he said nothing. About 1.45 on the next morning 
he passed quietly away. A telegram was sent to Cawnpore 
as soon as the seriousness of the attack was realised. G. and 
F. were able to catch a train about half an hour after they 
received the message, but they did not reach Dehli till about 
5. They had a service of Holy Communion in the temporary 
Chapel which Basil had fitted up, with the familiar Sistine 
Madonna over the Holy Table : and he was laid to rest in the 
morning. The Commander of the Artillery sent a gun- 
carriage with four volunteers to carry him to the Cemetery, 
but they preferred to use the usual wheeled bier. The 



xiii DURHAM 321 

soldiers, however, laid him in the grave. We all feel that a 
pure and beautiful life was offered freely, and that the offering 
has been received and will surely be blessed. As (1. says in 
his letter this morning, "the thought of victory is upper- 
most "; but the brothers must feel it very deeply. K. says, " How 
strange that I should have gone into the heart of the cholera- 
stricken district and be quite well, and that K should have 
been called away." We cannot understand, but we can trust 
B. will help us more now, with nearer and more present help, 
than when he was with us. 

The Bishop received a large number of messages of 
sympathy, to all of which he wrote replies with his own 
hand. The following are some of those which I have 
seen : 

To A CLERGYMAN 

AYSOARTII, S/// August 1900. 

Let me thank you for expressing so completely the 
thoughts which we desire to welcome. . . . We looked for- 
ward to some future fruitfulness of his singular power of 
sympathy, and the Lord has been pleased to crown the pro- 
mise as fulfilment. 

To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

AYSCARTII, loth Attgitsf 1900. 

Let me thank you most heartily for your letter. Old times 
came back very vividly when on the same day I had letters 
from yourself, Vaughan, and Scott-Moncrieff. This has been 
a heavy and most unexpected blow. Basil had a singular gift; 
of sympathy, and, what is rare in these later days, "almost 
oriental courtesy," as a friend said. These endowments stood 
him in good stead in his work, and 1 looked forward confi- 
dently to the time when he would be a Hindoo to Hindoos. 
It must be enough for us to know that the Master accepted 
early the offering which he gladly made. The unseen must 
be the larger part of our life. 

VOL. II v 



322 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 



To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER (DR. BRADLEY) 

AYSGARTII, 22nd August 1900. 

My dear Dean Words were not needed to assure us of 
your sympathy in our sudden and unexpected loss. We had 
thought that the Indian climate suited Basil. He had not 
had a day's illness since he went there. But his strength 
was really exhausted, and when the attack of cholera came he 
had no power to resist it. He passed away in a few hours, 
and before his brothers could reach him from Cawnpore. He 
had singular spiritual gifts, and even now I feel sure that they 
will bear abundant fruit. 

I was very glad to see in the papers that you are quite 
strong again. Church troubles do not vex you in the 
sanctuary of Westminster. Sometimes I almost lose heart, 
but we have survived even greater perils. Ever yours affec- 
tionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To the brothers at Cawnpore he wrote : 

AYSGARTII, ibtk August 1900. 

My dear George and Foss You will know how our hearts 
are with you. To you the loss must be a sharper, nearer 
sorrow than to us. But you have seen Basil in his work, and 
must feel even more clearly than we can what happy work it 
was, and how fruitful in its promise. Nothing has ever made 
me understand so surely how little time and measurable re- 
sults, as we speak, have to do with completeness of service. 
We speak of promise and fondly dwell upon it, and then God 
sees fulfilment and crowns it. ... 

I feared at first very greatly how the news would affect 
mother and K. For one day mother was very unwell, and for 
a little time K. could not sleep ; but now both are as well as 
before, and bright weather has come, which will do good. 
We kept A.'s birthday here yesterday, and shall keep D.'s to- 
day, livery one is most kind. We wait anxiously for details. 
Two letters have come from Dehli since we had the message, 



XIII 



DURHAM 323 



full of hope and plans for the holidays. So there cannot have 
been much time of suspense. 

B., A., and II. 1 are very well, and in good spirits. 

May God guard and keep you ! You will not, I know, for 
your work's sake, neglect any possible care. Affectionate 
remembrance to all. Ever your most loving father, 

B. F. DUNELM. 



AYSGARTH, 2yd August- 1900. 

My dear George We were most thankful to have your 
and F.'s letters. I only wish that Basil could have seen you 
in the solitary hours of weakness. He heard, I trust, that 
you were on your way. That little touch of home would 
have cheered him. We had most kind letters from the 
Bishop, Lady Young, Mr. Sanders, Miss Byam, Miss Stanley, 
Mr. Allnutt, Mr. Wright, Mr. French, and, above all perhaps, 
from Mr. Rudra, giving a wonderfully vivid and bright account 
of the last Sunday evening. This you must see. Every one 
on every side has been most kind, and I can see that Basil 
was making himself known. My confident hope is that his 
sudden call away will make his life of sympathy and self- 
sacrifice immeasurably more fruitful than it has seemed to be 
to our eyes. The Master has crowned it. 

. . . We should like his grave to be marked, as that at 
Harrow, by an enclosure and a plain cross laid upon it. You 
probably have a photograph ; if not, I will send one. The 
inscription on the sloping edge may be "Rev. R. Basil 
Wcstcott, M.A., of the S.P.G. and Cambridge Mission. Born 
1871; fell asleep 1900. Blessed are the pure in heart: for 
they shall see God." I should think that white marble would 
be the best material. 

The Cemetery is, I gather, not well kept. I should be 
glad to know whether some arrangement cannot be made to 
secure that it shall be properly tended. I shall be glad to 
contribute to the expense ; and perhaps others might wish to 
help. I am sure that Basil would have valued this care. 
Perhaps a little planting is possible. Your gardening experi- 

1 The Bishop's three eldest sons, who were with him at the time. 



3 2 4 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

ence will be valuable. Whatever you do or think ought to 
be done, I shall gladly approve and provide for. The rever- 
ence for God's acre ought to be an object lesson, a true 
Christian sermon. Many things may occur to you or to us 
later, but feel that you have full power in all respects. 

Our thoughts, as you know, are full of you. Mamma felt 
the strain yesterday very much. It could not be otherwise, 
but she is much better to-day. Now we know all that we can 
know. 

Foss, of course, is part of you, and he will give his counsel. 
Will you thank Blair for his most kind letter ? Mamma cannot 
write. 

May God guard and bless you all ! Ever your most 
affectionate father, B. F. DUNELM. 

The Bishop placed a brass Memorial Tablet to his 
son in the Chapel at Auckland, where he had ordained 
him Deacon. The Bishop's singular gift in the com- 
position of Latin inscriptions was never, I think, more 
happily exemplified than in these touching words : 

IN MEMORIAM 

ROBERTI EASIL1I WESTCOTT 

BROOKE FOSS EPI DUNELM EXSIS 

FILII NATU MINIMI 

QUI QUUM EVANGELIUM 

SINGULARI MORUM SUAVITATE 

VITAE INNOCENTIA FIDEI CONSTANTIA 

PER QUADRENNIUM INDIS COMMENDASSET 

INTER MINISTRANDUM 
SUBITO MORBO CORREPTUS 

IN fJNO OBDORMIYIT 

NATUS MDCCCLXXI OBI IT MCM 

BEATI MUNDO COKDE 

The following is the translation of the above, which 
the Bishop gave to one of his daughters : 

To the memory of Robert Basil Wcstrott, youngest son of 



xin DURHAM 325 

Brooke Foss, Bishop of Durham, who, after he had com- 
mended the Gospel to the Hindus for four years, by remark- 
able sweetness of character, purity of life, constancy of faith, 
in the midst of his service, seized by a sudden illness, fell 
asleep in the Lord. Born 1871; died 1900. Blest are the 
pure in heart. 

On 26th September the Bishop presided at a 
meeting of the Newcastle Church Congress on the 
subject of " War," and, as has been already mentioned, 
himself spoke. In October he was very active, speaking 
at several meetings, including missionary meetings 
connected with the Bicentenary Celebration of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Spenny- 
moor, Sunderland, and Cambridge, and a meeting 
of the Church of England Temperance Society at 
Stockton ; but his most important utterance during 
the month was the Charge delivered by him at his 
third Episcopal Visitation of the Diocese. This Charge, 
entitled " The Position and Call of the English Church," 
was delivered in two portions, the first two sections 
being preached in the Cathedral on i5th October, and 
the concluding three sections at St. Cuthbert's, Dar- 
lington, on the 25th. The opening words of this 
Charge will serve to indicate its character and suggest 
its importance. They are these : 

At the close of life, when we look back over our experi- 
ence, the conflicts and controversies which we have watched 
assume new proportions. A .Ye can discern more clearly than 
before the essential questions which they involved, and set 
aside the disturbing exaggerations caused by secondary issues. 
We become conscious of the illusoriness of partial views. 
We learn to distrust speedy results. And if we are tempted 
to hope for less in the near future, our confident expectation 
of "the times of restoration of all things" is strengthened by 
the vision of a continuous movement in the affairs of men 



326 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 

and a clearer sense of its direction. At the same time truths 
on which we have long dwelt, which we have often laboured 
to express, which we have tested in the stress of life, press 
upon us with irresistible force. And now, when I am once 
more allowed to address you in this most solemn time of 
visitation, I am constrained to endeavour to set out, however 
imperfectly, what seem to me at the end to be some of the 
chief conclusions which I have reached in the course of my 
own working time as to the present position and call of our 
Church. 

In November the Bishop was still as active as ever. 
On the 6th he spoke for the last time on his favourite 
subject of Education. The occasion was the opening 
of the new Science Buildings of the North-Eastern 
Counties' School at Barnard Castle, by Lord Barnard. 
In the course of his speech the Bishop spoke of the 
growing tendency to estimate the worth of education 
by its commercial value, to treat it as a means whereby a 
certain number of scholars, well trained, might outstrip 
their rivals in the race for wealth. He continued : 

I will say at once that, if I thought that was the principal 
idea of education, if that was the purpose of this great school, 
I should not be here this afternoon. I have come with an 
entirely different view of what education is. No examination 
can test the highest qualities. The true results of education 
are not to be gauged after six months or a year. They show 
themselves in manhood. Education, as I understand it, is 
not a preparation for commerce or the professions, but the 
moulding of a noble character, a training for life for life seen 
and unseen a training of citizens of a heavenly as well as 
of an earthly kingdom, for generous service in Church and 
State. 

On the 26th the Bishop was at Leeds in the service 
of the Christian Social Union. lie took for the sub- 
ject of this, his last address to the Union, a matter which 



XIII 



DURHAM 327 



was continually troubling his mind, namely, Progress. 
In spite of indignant protests from sundry would-be 
purists, he insisted on pronouncing this perplexing 
word with an 0. But its pronunciation was to him 
the least part of its difficulty. He thus states his 
case : 

We are assured that this is an age of progress. Parties 
commend their claims to us on the ground that they are pro- 
gressive. It is assumed we are agreed on the meaning of the 
terms, and yet a very little reflection will show that this is 
not the case. There are serious differences of opinion as to 
the sphere, scope, and standard of progress. Change, even 
when popular, is not necessarily progress, nor movement, 
however rapid. Before we can determine whether a move- 
ment is really progress w r e must determine the end it is 
desired to reach. Progress is an advance towards an ideal. 
If we wish to estimate human progress we must fix the human 
ideal. 

In December my father paid his last visit to Cam- 
bridge, to preach for the second time at the Trinity 
College Commemoration. Amongst other guests as- 
sembled on this occasion were the Lord Chief Justice, 
Viscount Goschcn, and Sir W. MacCormac. The 
service in Chapel was followed, in accordance with 
ancient custom, 1 by a banquet and speeches. In the 
Bishop's sermon the following passage occurs : 

In this Chapel and in these Courts fifty-six years ago I saw 
visions, as it is promised that young men shall see them in the 
last days visions which in their outward circumstances have 
been immeasurably more than fulfilled. I have had an 
unusually long working time, and I think unequalled oppor- 
tunities of service. Where I have failed, as I have tailed 
often and grievously, it has not been because I once saw an 

1 Sec vol. i. p. 45. 



328 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

ideal, but because I have not looked to it constantly, steadily, 
faithfully ; because I have distrusted myself and distrusted 
others ; because again and again 1 have lost the help of 
sympathy, since I was unwilling to claim from those "who 
called me friend" the sacrilice which I was myself ready to 
make. So now an old man I dream dreams of great hope, 
when I plead with those who will carry forward what my own 
generation has left unattempteu or unaccomplished, to welcome 
the ideal which breaks in light upon them, the only possible 
ideal for man, even the fullest realisation of self, the com- 
pletest service of others, the devoulest fellowship with God : 
to strive towards it untiringly even if it seems " to fade for 
ever and for ever as we move.''' 

In this sermon my father also mentioned " the Cam- 
bridge motto : ' I act, therefore I am.' " This reference 
to " the Cambridge motto " attracted notice and seemed 
to demand an explanation, which request forthcoming, 
my father replied : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, I'jth January 1901. 

My dear Mr. Sedley Taylor I thought that every one was 
familiar with Whichcote's saying, perhaps because I have 
dwelt on it and quoted it so long. 1 He was to my mind a 
truly representative Cambridge man, and the way in which he 
repeats the words leads me to think that it was a watchword 
in his time an answer, and, as I think, a complete answer, 
to CogitO) ergo sum. Do you not think that the saying does 
give truly the Cambridge view of tilings : we must take 
account not of one part of our nature only, but of all. My 
few hours' visit deepened my faith in the mission of the 
University. The roots of life lie there.- Ever yours most 
sincere]}-, V>. Y. DUNELM. 

The Bishop's eldest son, a former Fellow of the 
College, also attended the Commemoration, concerning 
which my father wrote to his wife : 

1 ('.; r . I\\ Unions Thought in the //V.7, ji. 307. 



DURHAM 



TRINITY Lonc.ic, OAMI;RII>CK, 
I itli December 1900. 

The sermon is preached, my dearest Mary a strangely 
touching experience, after thirty-two years once again ; and I 
could repeat my old convictions. Deo gratias. Brooke met 
me at the railway station. After we had put our luggage on 
a cab, we found that the Master had sent a carriage to meet 
us, and so we actually drove to the very door. The Master 
kindly met us en the staircase, and Mrs. Butler gave us some 
tea. I am in the Royal room which was fitted up for the 
Queen and Prince Albert when he was installed as Chancellor. 1 

Early in January 1901 the Bishop preached at a 
" Sunday afternoon service for men " in St. Thomas', 
Sunderland, on the subject of " Social Responsibilities." 
This address was so frequently interrupted by applause 
that a local paper was moved to comment at length 
upon the circumstance, and to regret the introduction 
of the manners of the City Temple into Church. In the 
course of this sermon the Bishop saicl : 

A great many years ago I read a book in which it was 
stated that we are free to do as we like in all matters that 
concern ourselves alone. I confess that my own soul at once 
rebelled against the double assumption in that statement. 
Freedom is not to do as we like, it is the capacity of doing 
what we ought. There is nothing in which a man's actions 
concern himself alone : they must affect others, however 
slightly. There is a phrase often used in the North with com- 
placent pride "We keep to ourselves." We cannot avoid 
responsibility by keeping to ourselves. We have no right to 
keep to ourselves. We are not our own. We receive from 
others our birth, our growth and education, and as it is an 
unquestionable fact that we live by others, surely it is an 
unquestionable duty that we should live for others. It is 
worth while noticing that we wrong our neighbour just as 

1 See vol. i. p. 48. 



330 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

much by what we leave undone as by what we do. In the 
Confession the sins of omission come first. Then it follows 
that it is not for ourselves alone that we are bound to cultivate 
our powers and use our opportunities. 

About the same time, on the invitation of Canon 
Savage, he lent his countenance to a parish At Home 
at South Shields. It was no uncommon circumstance 
for him to be present at a parochial tea after some 
ecclesiastical or other function, but this entertainment 
stood, so to speak, on its own merits, and greatly pleased 
him, for he wrote to a son : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
1st Sunday after Epiphany, I go I. 

One evening last week I went to a parish " At Home " at 
South Shields. It was a very interesting gathering. It was 
held in a very fine hall, and members of the congregation had 
provided all the materials for the entertainment. People of 
" all sorts and conditions " mixed quite freely together. I 
wish that such ways of showing fellowship were more common. 
There is too little of the feeling in our Church. 

The Bishop, who had always been intensely loyal, 
was much moved by the death of the Queen. He 
mentions it in the following letter to Dr. Llewelyn 
Davies : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ^\st January 1901. 

My dear Davies The Queen's death has been indeed 
OTTO)? (\v a.Troi<a\v<f)Oo)a-iv e/c TroA/Xwi/ /ca^oton' (Ha/Yoyar/W. 1 Mon- 
archy has been shown in a new light, and we must all pray 
that the King will take the lesson to heart. His first words 
were most encouraging. May he find some wise friend ! I 
greatly trust Mr. Balfour. 

No ; I was not thinking of any special time, but of the 
walks after our Saturday evening essay, when we touched on 

1 That thoughts out of many hearts may he revealed (St. Luke ii. 35). 



xiii DURHAM 33' 

all things (J. B. S., D. J. V., and \vc two. 1 was looking at 
a little of Latham's book yesterday ; (our or five sheets I read 
in their original form many years ago. The living directness 
of his writing is delightful. He is always in the presence of 
facts, and looks through the records to that which is beyond 
as no German ever seems to do. 

Just now I have been confined to the house for more than 
a fortnight, and shall be a prisoner for some time still. It is 
hard to recover strength after an acute attack of bronchitis. 
I can, however, attend to my correspondence. Ever your:, 
affectionately, B. F. DUNKI.M. 

He also referred to the Queen's death at some length 
in his Diocesan Conference in the following month. 

He was far from well at this time, and on account 
of ill-health had been absent from an important Diocesan 
meeting in Durham in support of the S.P.G. Bicen- 
tenary Fund. But he wrote a letter which was read at 
the meeting. 

The Bishop had been invited by Archbishop Mac- 
lagan to preach a sermon at the opening of the new 
Convocation of York in the following month. lie 
promised to do so in the following terms : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
22nd January 1901. 

My dear Archbishop I feel very deeply the kindness of 
your invitation, and if no other engagement is made I will 
endeavour to say a few words. But on such an occasion 
would it not be well for your Grace to speak to us? A pas- 
toral charge of authority would be very helpful. We all need 
the counsels of those who are set over us, given because they 
are set over us. 

We arc face to face with unparalleled dangers, 1 think, 
and with not less hope if only we can remember on c- av-ou 
KUI Si avrov KOL ei's avrov ra avra. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 



332 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

But as the day drew near it became very doubtful 
whether his health would permit of his attending 
Convocation. On the i8th February he wrote to Arch- 
deacon Watkins, saying : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, iS/7* February 1901. 

. . . The doctor has given his consent to my going to 
Convocation ; but he still strongly objects to my preaching. 
I hope, at any rate, to bring my sermon with me. 

In the event he was happily able not only to attend 
Convocation, but also to preach the sermon which he 
had prepared, and reported to his wife : 

YORK MINSTER, 2.2nd February 1901. 

The trial is over, and I was able to bear it quite well. 
There was the Bidding Prayer before the sermon, and I did 
not feel quite sure when I read it that I should get through 
easily, but when I once started I got on quite well, and my 
voice appeared to be clear. There was not one cough during 
the preaching, or after it. I had asked the Dean if I might 
go to the Deanery if I felt tired ; but I was not even so tired 
as usual, and contrived during the morning session to do my 
work, and went (as usual) to the Deanery to lunch. Lady 
Emma was most kind in her inquiries after you and K. 

The Bishop took for the text of his sermon, " Lo, 
I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world," 
and in opening his subject said : 

This promise is the crown of the world-wide commission 
to the Church. It is introduced so as to claim special atten- 
tion in view of expected difficulties. It points to the Divine- 
power through which alone the evangelisation of the nations 
can be accomplished a work beyond all the natural resources 
of men. It takes account of the varying circumstances which 
the messengers of the Gospel will have to encounter seasons 



xiii DURHAM 333 

of tranquillity and of storm, of sunshine and of darkness. It 
places in sharp contrast the immutability of (iod and the sin- 
cession of earthly changes. It marks an immediate, personal 
presence of the Lord, not in Ilis working only hut of Himself, 
Son of God and Son of man. Lo ! I am with yon all the davs 
unto the end of the world. 

The promise is unrcvoked and unexhausted. It is still 
available for us, a present source of hope and strength in our 
times of anxiety. And yet, like other universal truths, it is 
often unremembered. Our attention is arrested by that which 
is partial, unexpected, exceptional, and not by that which 
underlies all phenomena and is beyond them. 

We that arc not all, 
As parts, can see but parts, now this, now that. 

And yet at the present time, restless, distracted, perplexed as 
we are, we seem to have been made capable of the greatest 
thoughts. We have been stirred as never before by the re- 
velation of the power of a noble life, the embodiment of the 
elementary duties of labour, truthfulness, and sympathy ; we 
have been ennobled by the consciousness of unique oppor- 
tunities to be used for the common good. . . . We have been 
sobered by the discipline of sharp trials. We have, in a word, 
heard in our souls voices of God declaring to us the glory, 
the responsibility, the perils of life. Happy shall we be if, 
inwardly touched by these living voices, we take courage to 
draw near to Him that speaketh. To see Him, look to Him, 
to obey His gracious drawing, to trust in Him, will bring back 
to us blessings, personally, socially, spiritually. 

During March and the earlier part of April the 
Bishop was fully occupied with his ordinary diocesan 
work, and being in very indifferent health, stood in great- 
need of a little rest and change. In these circum- 
stances he consented to accompany his eldest son on 
a brief visit to Richmond in Yorkshire. This was his 
last little holiday, and proved a very happy time both 
to himself and his son. He wrote thence to his wife : 



334 L'FE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

RICHMOND, i6fh April 1901. 

We have had a typical April day. In the morning we 
had a sunny walk round the Castle terrace, just escaping a 
shower ; and this afternoon we walked to Easby Abbey, and 
marvelled at a parable of sunlight on the trunks of the beech 
trees rising out of a carpet of celandine and anemones. Now 
I am bidden to sketch the Grey Friars' tower, which is in 
front of our window. Brooke has brought me a pencil for 
the purpose, so I must try to obey. It has been a really 
helpful day. 

The 3<Dth April was the last day of the eleventh 
year of his episcopate, and on this day, the eve of his 
twelfth birthday, he received the congratulations of his 
wife, to whom he replied : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 30/7^ April 1901. 

Very many thanks for your congratulations. It has been 
a wonderful eleven years, and, on the whole, a happy and, I 
hope, a useful time. But I feel that the work has been practi- 
cally done, and I don't want to spoil it. May God bless you ! 

On the following day he wrote to a daughter : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, SS. Philip and James. 

Very many thanks for your loving congratulations. " In 
the twelfth year of our consecration." It is most wonderful. 
The years have been, on the whole, I trust, useful, as they have 
been happy. Yesterday I had an encouraging Confirmation, 
and I look for another to-day. 

On the same day his wife came home from a brief 
stay at the Archdeaconry in Durham, her last visit 
from home. My father wrote at once to Archdeacon 
Watkins : 

My dear Archdeacon It is impossible for me to thank 
Mrs. Watkins and yourself adequately for your great kindness 



xin DURHAM 335 

to Mrs. Wcstcott. The change will, I feel sure, have done 
lasting good, though the singularly depressing weather yester- 
day made the journey home tiring. However, a good night 
has brought refreshment, and there is a promise of sunshine, 
which will tell, I hope, on your cold. Ever yours affection- 
ately, B. F. DUNELM. 

Unhappily the benefits of this little change were 
not lasting, and when the Bishop later in the month 
returned from his meetings in London, he found his 
wife already lying on her last bed of sickness. The 
two last letters of the very many that he had written 
to her were dated from his rooms in the Lollards' 
Tower : 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 21 sf May 1901. 

. . . We had the Bishops of Salisbury and Winchester at 
breakfast, and Mrs. Wordsworth as President. 

The Bishops' Meeting in the morning was good. The 
Archbishop has become a convert to sound views on the 
Education question, and there is really hope that something 
may be done. . . . This afternoon I went to the Harrow 
Meeting. It was quite a large gathering. You will see from 
the enclosed what a splendid bequest Mr. Bowen has made to 
the School . . . and he forbids any monument or sum of 
money to be raised in his memory. 

22nd May 1901. 

My dearest Mary The enclosed will bring joy to you. 
You will observe that it is marked "private," so, before speak- 
ing to strangers, we must wait for the public announcement. 
The letter is singularly considerate. 1 

I have sent a line to Brooke, adding that you will send the 

1 Mr. Balfour said : "I thought it best to say nothing to you until 
everything was settled, lest any ignorant person should conceivably suggest 
that you had moved in the matter ; and I only write now to say how glad I 
am to have secured a son of yours for a Crown incumbency. . . . The 
patronage, curiously enough, was originally vested in the Bishop of Durham, 
as the parish formed part of the County Palatinate/' 



336 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

letter to him. K., of course, can keep a secret. Your letter 
has just come. It is short, yet on the whole satisfactory. 
" Let us give thanks." Ever your most affectionate 

B. F. DUNELM. 

The enclosure in his last letter was a letter from Mr. 
A. J. Balfour informing him that his second son, at that 
time in Madras, had telegraphed his acceptance of a 
nomination to a Crown living in Yorkshire. The Bishop 
had immediately telegraphed the news to his wife, who, 
on receipt of it, before she left her sitting-room for the 
last time, wrote her congratulations to her son, and 
joined with her daughter in thanksgiving. 

My father had not kept a diary since his early days 
at Cambridge, but, as has been before remarked, he 
noted a few items of special interest in his interleaved 
daily text-book. About the time of his wife's death 
these entries are unusually full, and very touching. I 
now venture to reproduce what he wrote in those days 
of sore trial, without alteration, save in the writing in 
full of words which he had abbreviated : 

24/7* May. 3> very poorly. 

28/7* May. To Lamesley. Consecration of Burial-ground. 
Lord Ravensworth, "God bless you." On return the mes- 
sage, "The home-call came about six." "Perfect peace." 
What shall I give unto the Lord? The fragments that are 
left. Last copy of little book to press. 

2<)th May. Messages from all sides. Resting-place 
chosen. Can do little, think little, except of necessary things. 

^\st May. f l> laid to rest in Chapel. All most reverent, 
and full of encouragement. Deo gratias. May God guide and 
strengthen me now to work more truly. 

yd June. To Auckland. Lonely home, yet full of God's 
love. 

The home-call came to his wife at about six o'clock 



xni DURHAM 

in the evening of 28th May. The Bishop was away 
at the time, as he felt in duty bound to fulfil his pro- 
mise to consecrate that day an addition to the Church- 
yard at Lameslcy. His devotion to duty on this occa- 
sion was most gratefully appreciated by the people of 
Lamcsley, many of whom, including Lord Ravensworth, 
came to the station to meet him. He was, moreover, 
escorted from the station to the church by the Kibbles- 
worth Miners' Brass Band. 1 The Bishop spoke at the 
service of consecration on the subject of Immortality. 
His words were simple, and, amongst other things, he 
said : 

If we consider how the ancient Greeks and Romans looked 
upon the subject of death, we shall find that their faith and 
hope were shadowy. The Jews had no absolute confidence 
in the future, but they had a bold hope. Their religion and 
their experience had taught them that God would not desert 
them at the last, and they hoped for what they dared not 
name. From the resurrection of Christ dates the Christian 
hope of the future. From this time the hope of eternal life 
has slowly but surely found its home in the Christian heart. 
From about the third century "cemetery," meaning a sleeping- 
place, has been the name given to a burial-ground. Sleeping, 
as understood by us, means rest ; hence the using of the term 
"cemetery" : and "God's acre" implies a faith in the future 
after the sleep is over. 

It was a striking coincidence that such words as 
these were on the Bishop's lips and in his heart as his 
wife was falling asleep in the sure hope of a happy 
waking. On his return home the Bishop was met at 
the station and received the message which he has 
recorded. 

1 The Bishop invited the Kibblesworth Band, who had come on tin's 
occasion to do him honour, to pay him a visit at Auckland on some future 
occasion, and one of his last requests was that this invitation should not be 
forgotten. It was not. 

VOL. TI Z 



338 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

On the morning of that clay he had written to his 
eldest son : - 

Jjisiioi 1 AUCKLAND, 2S//i May 1901. 

It was a very great comfort to me to have your letters this 
morning. They expressed just what I hoped you would feel. 
Mary and Daisy both came yesterday, and they will be a great 
help with Indian letters and the like. Mamma is conscious 
from time to time. She recognised them both. But for the 
most part she lies in a comatose state, and is quite unable to 
hold any conversation. This is the worst symptom. Dr. Hume 
came to consult with Dr. M'Cullagh yesterday evening, and 
he seemed to take a rather more hopeful view, but the danger 
is very great. Happily there is no pain, but only frequent 
restlessness. 

We have arranged for the Ordination candidates to go to 
Durham, where all has been happily provided. These open- 
ings into the unseen are revelations of life which we need. 
The past lives with its untold blessings and these are ours for 
ever. 

In the evening he wrote again : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 28/7* May 1901. 

My dear Brooke The end came this afternoon suddenly, 
and without pain. When I went into the room to say a silent 
good-bye before going to consecrate a burial-ground, I seemed 
to feel a change, and that it was a last look at my helper for 
forty-eight years. . . . We are sure that all is in love. 
Mother has, I think, been very happy here, and has won all 
hearts. Circumstances determine that the funeral must be on 
Friday afternoon in the Chapel. 

May we treasure and use all the love which has been 
showered upon us ! I think that it will be more powerful 
than ever. God bless you ! Ever your most affectionate 
father, B. F. DUNKLM. 

Almost the first message of sympathy which the 
Bishop received came from his sons in India. He 
replied at once to his sons in Cawnpore : 



DURHAM 339 



Bisnor AncKi.AN'n, 2()th Afar. 

The telegram was ;i great joy to us. It c;inu: at break fust 
time on Wednesday. For once I was inclined to speak kindly 
of a modern "improvement." It has been a great support to 
have the three sisters. I hardly know when last they were all 
together before: never here, I feel sure. Daisy is staying 
here till the holidays ; and probably she, with her family, will 
make this her home while my work lasts. . . . 

K. is very cheerful. She greatly comforted me by saying 
that it was well that mother was called home first. She could 
hardly have borne the lonely burden. I rejoice to think how 
happy the eleven years have been, and every one recognises 
what she did for the Diocese. 

I have seen Canon Body and Deaconess Annie, and all the 
difficulties with the W.M.A. are happily settled. 

On the same day he wrote to his son in Madras : 

I must add one word. Mamma heard the good news of 
your appointment, and was able to rejoice in it. The charge 
will leave ample time for other work. . . . 

Her children are mother's best memorial, but the letters 
which come in from all sides show how great her influence 
was. I shall have to live on the memory. 



It was quite impossible for my father, greatly as he 
would have desired to do so, to answer with his own 
hand all the letters of sympathy which he received at 
this time. Several of those which he did write have 
come into my hands, and among them the following : 

To A CLERGYMAN 

3O/// May 1901. 

Let me thank you for expressing so truly what is my 
strength, "the love of my sons." Through this and the vision 



340 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

of the beautiful life which remains with me I can still look 
forward to work, if it be God's will. 



To MRS. HORT 

DURHAM, ist June 1901. 

No words are needed to tell me of your affection and help. 
What brings me thankful joy is that our people in the North 
show that they have learnt what Mrs. Westcott was. She had 
won their hearts, and will move them still. The old students 
speak of her as "the Mother of the Brotherhood," and in- 
deed she was. The Service yesterday was all we could have 
wished ; and to-morrow I hope to hold the Ordination. The 
memory is bright to guide if there is more to be done. When 
reading a letter like yours I say in my heart naturally, " I must 
take it and show it to her." Arthur 1 has written a loving 
message. There is, indeed, love on every side ; but it is the 
love for her which is the crown of all. 



To THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

Bisnor AUCKLAND, yhjunc 1901. 

My dear Dean Your affection never fails. The sympathy 
and help of friends have sustained me wonderfully ; and the 
memory of a beautiful life closed in peace will be an un- 
changing light through the days to come. Ever yours affec- 
tionately, B. F. DUNELM. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK 

Bisnor AUCKLAND, 6/// June 1901. 

My dear Archbishop Let me thank you for your most 
kind words of sympathy. A friend tells me that Mrs. West- 
cott said to her many years ago, " There is always joy in deep 
mourning." I think that I can understand the paradox. Un- 
expected fountains of strength are opened, and we understand 
more the words, "I came that they may have life." 

1 Sir Arthur Ilorl, the Bishop's godson. 



xin DURHAM 341 

1 trust that the Bishop of Tasmania may recognise the 
greatness of the rail. liver gratefully and affectionately 
yours, B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE HON. MRS. MACLAGAN 

AUCKLAND CASTI.K, BISHOP AUCK.I AND, 
6//z / it nc 1 90 1 . 

My dear Mrs. Maelagan The kindness of friends is over- 
whelming. What a wonderful revelation ot life sorrow is ! That 
which we do not see with our eyes proves its sovereignty, and 
I pray that I may be enabled to use the gift which others have 
won for me lor the better doing of whatever work may remain 
for me. The recollection of the singular kindness which we 
received at Bishopthorpe has been a continual joy to Mrs. 
Westcott and myself. How can I then but dare to sign my- 
self ever yours gratefully and affectionately, 

B. F. DUNELM. 



To THE REV. J. LL. DAVIES 

2.\st June 1901. 

It is impossible for me to answer as I would;. the friends 
whose words bring strength. The thing which has struck me 
most is the way in which a great sorrow reveals a larger life. 
When we came here I was afraid that the cares of her posi- 
tion \vould oppress Mrs. Westcott, whose whole heart was in 
her home. But it was not so. She told me again and again 
that these eleven years were the happiest of her life. They 
brought countless opportunities for showing little kindnesses, 
and it is a joy to me to see how many speak of her " loving 
motherliness." She was, I think, a perfect Bishop's wife, a 
mother in God to all whom she touched. . Our thoughts 

O 

naturally now go back to old days. I am overwhelmed when 
I reflect on the opportunities which have been given me : and 
what is the account ? Ever yours, with the affection of seven- 
and-fifty years, B. F. DUNELM. 



342 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 
To his son in Canada he wrote : 

1st Sunday in Trinity ', igoi 
[gthjune], 

It is a very great joy to me to find how mother's affection 
and tenderness and self-devotion were recognised on all sides. 
She was a true Bishop's wife, and people feel it. No epithets 
occur more often in the letters which reach us than "gracious" 
and " motherly," and both are most true. The old students 
feel what she added to St. Peter's Day. We must try to keep 
the spirit. . . . She suffered no pain, and she lies in the 
Chapel which she dearly loved. It is well that she was spared 
the loneliness which perhaps I can better bear, and the break- 
ing up of the household and the entering a new home. D. 
will, I expect, take charge of this house and make it her home 
while my work lasts ; but that cannot be very long, though the 
wonderful kindness of the people of all ranks makes me 
anxious to serve them yet a little longer and better. 

yd Sunday in Trinity, 1901 

\?ydfunc\. 

We are growing little by little to understand the altered 
home, though I am always saying to myself, " I must go and 
show this to mother." My heart rather fails me, yet I am really 
anxious to do some better work for mother's sake. Our great 
St. Peter's Day gathering will be to-morrow week, and I trust 
that I may be fairly well. As Mr. Boutflower is leaving, it will 
be an unusually interesting occasion. It will be impossible to 
fill his place, but I daresay he will be able to help us still and 
keep the old spirit alive. 

Mrs. Westcott's body was laid to rest in the Castle 
Chapel on Friday, May 3ist. The Chapel was filled 
with clergy of the Diocese and other friends, and many 
beautiful wreaths which had been sent were placed on 
the steps of the altar. The service was opened with 
the hymn, " O God, our help in ages past " ; and after 
the conclusion of the first part of the service, the coffin, 



xin DURHAM 343 

which had hitherto rested in the centre aisle, was Lome 
to the south-east corner of the building, four " Sons of 
the House " and four gardeners being the bearers. '1 lie 
Bishop stood at the head of the grave, with his sons 
Brooke and Henry on either side. The committal 
portion of the service was read by Canon Westcott, 
the eldest son, and the Rev. T. Middlemore-YVhithard 
cast earth upon his sister's coffin. Before the con- 
cluding prayers were said by the Rev. Henry Westcott, 
the hymn, u Peace, perfect peace " was sung, and a 
third hymn, " For all the saints who from their labours 
rest/' was sung before the blessing. The Bishop him- 
self gave the blessing, and it was noticed that, though 
his voice as he pronounced it showed strong emotion, 
the words were distinctly uttered. This conclusion of 
the service was very moving, and brought tears to 
many eyes. Then followed the Nunc Dimittis, and as 
a concluding voluntary on the organ, " Oh rest in the 
Lord." 

At the same time a Memorial Service was held in 
Durham Cathedral, and was attended by the Mayor 
and members of the Corporation. The Lesson was 
read by the Dean, and in the course of the service 
Spohr's anthem, " Blest are the departed," was sung. 

The loss of her whom he had known and loved 
since his boyhood did not cause the Bishop to cease 
from his work for a moment. It has been already 
mentioned that, after he had said his last silent farewell 
to her on the day of her death, he bravely set forth to 
do his immediate duty, but it has not been mentioned 
that in the midst of his deep anxiety he had on the 
preceding day gone to Middlesbrough and there opened 
an Exhibition of the Co-operative Union of Great 
Britain, the Congress of which was then in session 



344 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

His speech on this occasion was on the subject of 
Industrial Co-partnership. 

On the 3rd June the Bishop was present at a 
service held in the Cathedral to welcome home the 
Durham volunteers from the war. He had come in 
order to give the men his blessing. At a later stage 
of the proceedings Lord Durham said that he was 
sure he spoke for them all when he said that they 
deeply felt the action of their revered Bishop, who, in 
spite of the great bereavement from which he was 
suffering, came to the Cathedral that afternoon to do 
honour to the men who had served their country. 
They had reason to be proud of their Bishop as well 
as of their volunteers. 

On i 2th June a Sale of Work in aid of the S.P.G. 
Bicentenary Fund was held in the Castle grounds. 
The Sale was opened by the Bishop's eldest daughter, 
Mrs. King, who, by her mother's request, took the place 
which she would have filled had her life been spared. 
Concerning this Sale, my father wrote to Archdeacon 

Watkins : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \\thjimc 1901. 

. . . We have had a most interesting gathering of "all 
sorts and conditions of men " and women : most of whom 
had not seen the Chapel before. I rejoice because it was 
Mrs. Westcott's Festival. 

The above note calls to mind again the Bishop's 
joy in sharing the beauties of his Castle and Chapel 
with all comers. One of the latest visiting parties was 
composed of mothers from Monkwearmouth, whose 
visit is thus recalled by the Vicar, the Rev. D. S. 
Boutflowcr, in his Parochial Magazine : 

Our Mothers' Meetings will remember our debates as to 
our summer excursion, and how urgent advice was given to 



DURHAM 345 

go at once to Bishop Auckland, whilst \ve could be sure of 
the warmest of welcomes. We went there, and saw the great 
home of many great men, men who have made English history 
and guided the minds of Englishmen Cardinal Wolsey, and 
men wiser than he because they were less ambitious, Tunstail 
and Cosin and Butler and Lightfoot ; and then we saw the 
kindest and most far-sighted of all the Bishops of Durham, 
going cheerily to his favourite work of teaching, and pausing 
for a few minutes to show us his own special garden of rare 
wild-flowers. None of us thought that within a fortnight one 
of the few surviving great men of England would be taken 
from us. And now we are rather staggered to hear that he 
is gone, the man with heart and mind so grandly balanced, 
who was never known to have favourites, but loved all the 
world, and each man alike ; the man of genius, who in any 
sort of company made himself least of all; the man of 
strength, who was gentle to the humblest. We are thankful 
for our recollections of him. His books will remain behind 
him, but they give no adequate idea of his wonderful 
personality. That which we read is not quite the same as 
that which we have seen and known and our hands have 
handled. But the best of these treasured memories will be 
that they will have for us no alloy of sorrow. Bishop 
Westcott was an instance of the fulfilment of our Lord's 
purposes to men : " I came that they might have life, and 
have it more abundantly." "These things have I spoken 
unto you, that your joy may be full." 

When my father wrote in his text-book on the day 
on which his wife died, " Last copy of little book to 
press," he noted the virtual completion of his Lessons 
front Work. The book was published at Whitsuntide, 
appearing in the brief interval of time which elapsed 
between the death of his wife and his own death. On 
the Dedication page he has placed the following words : 
" I had purposed to dedicate this book to my wife, for 
forty-eight years rny unfailing counsellor and stay : I 
now dedicate it to her memory." 



346 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The volume contains most of the important 
utterances, including his last Charge, delivered by 
him during the last four years of his life. He has 
described it as a little book, yet it is comparatively 
bulky, and even so does not contain all that he had 
collected for it. In the preface he says : 

The papers are bound together by one underlying thought. 
In each case I approached my subject in the light of the 
Incarnation ; and I have endeavoured to show from first to 
last how this central fact of history the life of all life 
illuminates the problems which meet us alike in our daily 
work and in our boldest speculations. The more frankly we 
interrogate our own experience, and the more patiently we 
study the "world of wonder and opportunity" in which we 
are placed, the more confidently we shall apply to the 
announcement the Word became flesh, the sentence in which 
Tertullian sums up the evidence for the being of God: " Habet 
testimonia totum hoc quod sumus et in quo sumus." 

The reunion of the "Sons of the House" took place as 
usual on St. Peter's Day, and on the same date the 
Bishop wrote to the Archbishop of York seeking advice 
as to his duties and privileges at the Coronation. The 
following is the complete letter : 

AUCKLAND CASTLE, BISHOP AUCKLAND, 
St. Peter's Day, 1901. 

My dear Archbishop I was greatly distressed by the 
summons to the York meeting of the two Convocations, for 
which I was wholly unprepared, and which I cannot attend. 
It would surely be well if such meetings could find a place in 
the list of Fixed Days, so that they could be provided for 
early. When Diocesan engagements are made I find it 
practically impossible to alter them. At the same time, 
nothing is more important than this joint meeting, and I wish 
to express my very deep regret that I cannot be present. 

I find that my predecessors made an application in writing 



xiii DURHAM 347 

for the recognition of their place at the Coronation of the 
King. I suppose I may follow their precedent, but I do not 
see to whom the application should be addressed in this case. 
Would it be possible for me to leave it in your Grace's 
hands ? 

I should have been glad if it had been possible to have 
had a few words with you about the action of the Committee 
on Professorial Certificates at Cambridge. I hope that it may 
be possible for us to address before the long vacation a 
request to Dr. Swete for some scheme which, in the opinion 
of the Professors, would be reasonable and satisfactory. I 
was amazed at the picture drawn of the occupations of the 
Oxford undergraduates : it answered to nothing in my ex- 
perience. Ever yours affectionately, 13. F. DTNELM. 

Several members of the family noticed how my 
father endeavoured after the loss of his wife to fulfil to 
them as far as he could the place of both parents. Not- 
withstanding the fact that he was, as he has expressed 
it in his text -book, "tired" or "very tired" almost 
every clay, he added to his many other burdens the task 
of writing weekly letters to his children in the place of 
their mother. The \vonderfully touching thought in 
the first paragraph of the following letter to his fourth 
son shows how anxious he was to do what he could in 
her place : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, ibthjuly 1901. 

My dear George I find that mother used to send you 
and Foss at certain intervals 7 : IDS. each. I do not know 
when the payments were made, and I think it better to send 
the sum. 

. . . What we want to bring home to the Hindus is that 
Christianity is not a power of thought but of life. That is 
one reason why I feel the importance of community missions. 

We have been having very hot weather (for us), 8o-84 in 
the shade. This morning I thought that I was going to be 
ill from it, but I am better now. I hope to speak at the 



348 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Miners' Service at Durham on Saturday. This is a very 
moving occasion, and I hope that I may be enabled to say 
what I have to say. 

This will be the last serious work before the holiday. You 
would be pleased to see (little) Foss's l success at Eton. 

The holiday here mentioned, for which he had made 
arrangements, did not come. Did he really expect it ? 
The following little incident related by the Rev. F. C. 
Macdonald, Vicar of St. Hilda's, Sunder.land, shows 
how unwilling he was to look forward. " On 3rd July," 
says Mr. Macdonald, " the last time I saw him, he 
promised, if possible, to come next September to preach 
in St. Hilda's. ' But,' he said, ' I am very tired.' I 
said, ' It will be after your holiday, my lord.' He 
smiled, that beautiful smile that seemed like a glimpse 
of heaven, and said, ' Good-bye.' " 



The following are a few more letters, including 
several dealing with the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, 
which were written during this last year : 

To A CLERGYMAN 

AYSGAKTII, 6th August 1900. 

My attention has been called to two notices in the Parish 
Magazine for August, p. ii : (i) that the Holy Eucharist will 
be specially offered on behalf [of the Christians massacred in 
China] ; and again, (2) that the Holy Eucharist will be offered 
on behalf (of the Rev. ). 

You know, I am sure, that I am most anxious not to 
abridge in the least degree the liberty which our Church 

J His grandson l-'oss Prior, recently elected to a Scholarship at Eton. 



xin DURHAM 349 

allows to her children ; hut I cannot doubt that the thought 
conveyed, naturally, by the words which I have underlined is 
alien from her teaching. It is possible to put a meaning upon 
them which can be reconciled with Anglican doctrine, but 
they cannot fail, in my opinion, both to mislead and to cause 
serious trouble to very many. 

When present controversies threatened to become serious, 
I considered very carefully, in conference with some other 
bishops of large knowledge and experience, the attitude of 
our Church with regard to prayers for the Dead. We agreed 
unanimously that we are, as things are now, forbidden to pray 
for the Dead apart from the whole Church in our public 
Services. No restriction is placed upon private devotions. 
The language is "with them we," "we and all Thy Church," 
"we with all those that are . . ." It is therefore, as far as 
I can judge, allowable to make a pause in the Prayer for the 
Church Militant, when the congregation can remember those 
who are "in Christ." The subject is indeed one of the 
greatest obscurity, and where Scripture is silent it is perilous 
to theorise. In fact, all that we know is summed up in the 
words "in Christ." In that unity there is an effective fellow- 
ship of life. 

I shall, of course, be ready to consider anything you may 
wish to say upon the subject, but I do not think that I have 
overlooked any point affecting the position of our own Church 
now. Have you used the phrase for any time ? I have 
never noticed it before. 

May God in His infinite love bring us all to unity ei/ ^o5. 

AYSOARTII, gtk August 1900. 

My main object in writing to you was to call your attention 
to the very grave ambiguity, to say no more, in the phrase 
"the Holy Eucharist will be offered for ..." I felt sure 
that you intended to express what you now say, but no 
ordinary reader, bearing in mind the language of Art. xxxi., 
could so understand the words, and I venture to hope that 
you will see the need of modifying them. I do not think 
that any serious objection could be urged against some such 
form as this : " At the Service of the Holy Eucharist A. 13. 



350 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

will be remembered." Since there is much misunderstanding 
as to the different way in which our Church regards public 
and private prayers for the dead, I thought it well to point 
out the limitation which is placed on public prayers in our 
present formularies, and, as I think, for sufficient reasons. 
Surely the mode of existence of the departed is a question 
of overwhelming difficulty. The silence of Scripture, when 
compared with men's fancies, is most instructive. The single 
clause "in Christ" contains practically all that we know, and 
it is enough. . . . 

To HIS SECOND SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \yh September 1900. 

The memorandum on Superintendents is just what I 
wanted, and I hope that something may be done to give 
denniteness to the office. 

On the general principle involved in the inquiry which 
you send I feel strongly. As far as possible we must en- 
deavour in a translation of the Bible to reproduce the original, 
leaving undefined what is undefined, or in rare cases giving 
the possible alternatives clearly. The translation of Trver/m 
was found in revision work to be of singular difficulty. In 
some cases alternative translations, such as I have mentioned, 
were given, e.g. Eph. v. 18. I do not know what the resources 
of Telugu are, and it is worth while to notice that in the 
passage which I have emoted late Latin MSS. add sancto 
wrongly. I should therefore deprecate the following the 
practice which is described, unless there is the possibility of 
using some device answering to italic type to show that holy 
is an interpretation only. As a general rule the exact form of 
expression used in the original should be kept. I hope that 
I have made myself clear. 

TO THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK 

AUCKLAND, yh October 1900. 

My dear Archbishop Can you kindly tell me when you 
propose to issue your mandate for the election of Proctors ? 



XIII 



DURHAM 351 



T have had not a few inquiries on the subject. May T also 
thank you for the copy of your Congress sermon ? I should 
like some time to have an opportunity of speaking on one 
prave point I am utterly unable to understand how "the 
Body broken" and "the Blood shed" can be identified with 
the Person of the Lord. I find no warrant in our Prayer 
Book or ancient authorities for such an identification. But 
this is too great a subject for cursory writing ; yet the more I 
see of modern statements the more I am amazed. Ever 
yours most sincerely, B. F. DUNKLM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, S//i October 1900. 

My dear Archbishop Let me thank you for your kindness 
in- writing to me. I read your marginal note on p. y 1 with 
great thankfulness. 

As far as I venture to form an opinion on the Lord's 
presence in Holy Communion, I certainly agree with the view 
which you express on p. 8. The circumstances of the Institu- 
tion are, we may say, spiritually reproduced. The Lord 
Himself offers His Body given and His Blood shed. But 
these gifts are not either separately (as the Council of Trent) 
or in combination Himself. The remarks of Archdeacon 
Freeman on this point are, I think, substantially true ; and 
it is to be regretted that we habitually use part only of the 
words of Institution. 

If I understand rightly the reference on p. 5, I do not feel 
sure that the words in St. John vi. can be pressed though 
the use made of them is most true; are they not of much 
wider application ? Then, too, the Lord does not speak of 
His "Body." 

I shrink with my whole nature from speaking of such a 
mystery, but it seems to me to be vital to guard against the 
thought of the Presence of the Lord " in or under the forms 
of bread and wine." From this the greatest practical errors 
follow. 

Perhaps I may add that I try to give the thought at the 

1 Sermon preached by the Archbishop at the Newcastle Church 
Congress. 



352 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

end of the first paragraph on p. 7 by saying " represent His 
human nature as He lived and died for us under the conditions 
of earthly life." 

How soon we are lost. "In Christ " sums up all : "we in 
Him; He in us." Ever yours, B. F. DUNELM. 



To A CLERGYMAN 

AUCKLAND, i$th October 1900. 

... I cannot admit the parallel which you draw between 
Incense and Evening Communion. The question of Incense 
has been decided after an exhaustive inquiry by the authority 
designated in the Prayer Book to settle ambiguities of direc- 
tion. The question of Evening Communions has never been 
argued. 

Personal opinion has nothing to do with the question of 
Incense. The voice of final authority in our own Church has 
spoken to us as to our duty now. It is this which extreme men 
will not see. Alas ! 

AUCKLAND, zyd October 1900. 

... As to the great question which you raise in the 
postscript, I have said all I dare to say in a lecture on the 
Historic Faith. This I would not deliver orally. We can 
hardly realise our incapacity for dealing with the future. Two 
things seem to lie at the foundation of being. There cannot 
be a lost good : there cannot be an unrequited evil. This is 
enough. No good is apart from Christ ; and in Him alone 
is life. 

To HIS WIFE 

LOLLARDS' TOWER, 14/7* Ncrccmbcr 1900. 

I have had so far a rather hard, but yet a satisfactory day. 
We had a fairly full breakfast party, though the Bishop of 
Oxford was not well enough to come. But the Bishop of 
Winchester and Mrs. Davidson and the Bishop of Salisbury 
are all vigorous. The morning was taken up by a meeting 
of the Committee of the Boards of Missions. . 



xin DURHAM 353 

On returning here I received a telegram from Miss ( !or- 
deux, regretting that she was kept at home by neuralgia. So 
now, after tea, I am going to set to work to finish my Lecture, 
having prepared myself by reading once again Mnz/ini's fix say 
o)i Car/vie. If you want to know what 1 think about history 
just look at it. There is a copy of the little book in the 
middle shelf in my dressing room. 



To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 31.57' December 1900. 

What can I say of your most kind words? You know, I 
trust, how deeply I feel my incalculable debt to you for 
most generous and unfailing help during the last ten years. 
I could not have done what I have done and I a in sadly 
conscious of innumerable failures without it. Again and 
again you have anticipated my needs, and accepted every 
burden gladly. 

May God abundantly bless all your labours, and crown 
them even now with joy ! 

To A WORKING MAN 

(who had asked him the meaning of " Do this " ] ) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \st January 1901. 

Dear Sir The questions which you ask have been, as 
you well know, most keenly debated. I can only give you 
the conclusions which I have reached after long and careful 
consideration of (I may say) all the evidence which has been 
brought forward. 

i. In the context in which the words occur I have not 
the least doubt that TOU-O oterre, do this, can mean only do 
this act (including the whole action of hands and lips), and not 
sacrifice t/iis ; and that the Latin also can have only the same 
meaning. This is the sense given in the passage as quoted 

1 I once heard Archbishop Benson ask my father's opinion on this same 
matter, that is to say, he introduced in a spirit of inquiry a conversation on 
the " sacrificial use " of Troieiv. 

VOL. II 2 A 



354 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

in every ancient Liturgy where there is an unambiguous inter- 
pretation of the words. I may add that this is also the sense 
given in the Catechism of the Council of Trent. 

2. The TOVTO eo-Ti, this is, must be taken in the same sense 
in "this is my Body," and in "this cup is the New Testa- 
ment." It cannot be used of material identity. The best 
illustration appears to me to be in St. John xv. i. The Lord 
is most really (and yet not materially) "the True Vine." In 
this case I feel that impressions of sense are apt to lead 
us astray. Perhaps you will be helped in reflection by con- 
sidering that the Lord says, "This is my Body," and not 
"This is my Flesh." But I must not attempt to enter into 
details. I will only add that in giving the interpretation of 
TOVTO TroietTe, I have taken full account of the interesting 
passages quoted from Justin Martyr. 

May we all turn from strife about words to the Living 
Lord Himself, who is with us all the days ! Yours most 
truly, B. F. DUNELM. 

To ARCHDEACON W ATKINS 

2gth January 1901. 

The brown envelope alarmed me for a moment as it always 
does, but all is well. Mrs. Watkins most kindly took charge 
of a note for Lord Northbourne from me. I felt that I could 
be more sure of its reaching its destination through such kind- 
ness than through the post. Faith in persons is stronger 
than faith in systems. 

To THE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK 

AUCKLAND CASTLK, I>isnoi> AUCKLAND, 
7th Fehntaiy 1901. 

My dear Archbishop The history of our Registry is, I 
should think, unique. Till recently the registrar was Mr. 
Lowther Harrington, nephew of the Bishop. Mis patent, 
according to tradition, was provisionally made out before lie 
was born. I do not know whether he ever fulfilled the duties 
of the office personally. As far back as my knowledge goes, 
Mr. .Booth was deputy-registrar. Three or four years ago 



xni DURHAM 355 

Mr. Booth's health failed, and he took his nephew, Mr. 
Lazenby, into partnership. I then appointed Mr. La/enby as 
joint-registrar, and gave him succession to the office. Me 
has, in point of fact, done all the work since, for Mr. Booth's 
health completely gave way. The Dean and Chapter, how- 
ever, did not confirm Mr. Lazenby's appointment, so that is 
valid only for my term of office. 

I am very doubtful whether I shall be able to be at the 
meeting on Thursday. I am strangely weak still, but the 
doctor is quite satisfied. I conclude that you did not suffer 
by your sermon to us. Ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUNKLM. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, y/7; May 1901. 

My dear Archbishop I am extremely sorry to be absent 
from Convocation. Yesterday morning I felt quite well, and 
wrote almost boastfully to Mrs. Maclagan, but in the evening 
I collapsed completely. I have had heavy and exhausting 
work for the last fortnight. However, my doctor says that 
with a few days' rest I shall be right again, so I must sub- 
stitute quiet for debates, and hope to be able to do my part 
better later. It is a very special disappointment not to be 
present at the Session with the Lay House. This is a most 
happy beginning. Our laymen, I gather, think that the 
debates are unduly compressed. What we want most is the 
clear expression of the opinions of average men. I do most 
earnestly trust that nothing will hinder me from coming to 
the next Bishops' Meeting, but 1 feel very uncertain from day 
to day. Your change was, I hope, refreshing in every way. 
Ever yours affectionately, B. F. DUNKI.M. 

To A CLERGYMAN 

Bisiioi' AUCKI.ANTI, i'5/// May 1901. 

Let me thank you for your letter. It is just one of those 
letters which bring encouragement. I wish that more would 
think of the heavy burden of those who are charged with 
authority. . . . 



356 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

I am not able to change my judgment about the crucifix 
in connexion with the Holy Table. 

Surely the " reserved sacrament " in a secret Chapel for 
private purposes is as sad as some of the uses of the conse- 
crated elements quoted from early writers. Can it be Chris- 
tian in conception ? 

2. I think that the silent remembrance, undefined in 
character as befits our ignorance, is quite allowable and 
helpful. I generally make a pause in the Prayer for the 
Church Militant. 

The only phrase in the prayers which causes me misgiving 
is that at the top of page 210 : as it reads " the King of kings 
and Lord of lords" is in apposition with "the bread of 
Angels." I shrink from such an identification. It may be 
intended to describe two things distinct, which, as far as I 
dare to define my belief, is, I think, right. But the words 
startle me in reading. Perhaps you will say what you think. 

With this exception, I feel able to sanction the use of the 
form. 

3. I entirely agree with what you say on education. The 
settlement cannot be far distant. The poor Education Board 
gladly does what it can. Perhaps I shall be able to give some 
help, but the claims this year for schools in distress have been 
unusually heavy. 

4. You will make it clear that it is not fervour but self-will 
which is checked. We are all stronger for work if we are con- 
scious that we have at any cost recognised divine authority as 
it comes to us. The spirit of the Colossian false teachers is 
active in our age too. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, \*]tli May 1901. 

I have learnt to distrust every deduction when the premises 
are infinite. You know, I have no doubt, Archdeacon Free- 
man's Principles of Divine Service. His remarks on "Adoration" 
are, as it seems to me, of the greatest value. Modern High 
Churchmen seem to have forgotten him and Mr. Scudamore. 
1 )id you ever consider how we can pass from the separate 
gifts of the Lord's Body broken and Blood poured out to the 
totus ef integer C/iristus in each ? I do not wish any answer. 



xin DURHAM 357 

ov etVii' <5i'o i} rptis cruv/yy/zeyoi ei\ TO e/jf-oi' ovofjui e/\e/ et^ti 



BISHOP AUCKLAND, is/ June 1901. 

Your request causes me perplexity. It appears to me that 
such devotions as "the Litany of the Holy Ghost " are wholly 
without authority from Holy Scripture, and J dare not trust 
human logic in such a matter. 1 do not forget the Litany or 
the Yeni Creator, but the effect of these is to my mind quite 
different. At the same time, I fully recognise that many who 
have a claim to be heard in our Church think otherwise, and 
I do not take upon myself to forbid the use : but I cannot 
sanction the use with personal conviction. This liberty of 
action will, I hope, meet your need. Hymns Ancient and 
Modern, if you compare the first and last editions, show how 
these forms of devotion have spread in recent times. 



To THE REV. J. H. MOULTON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, 6th June 1901. 

My dear Moulton Let me thank you most heartily for 
your kind words. It is impossible for me to say how much I 
know that I ow^e to the help of friends at the present. A 
great sorrow becomes the revelation of the larger life. You 
refer to my last Charge. May I then venture to enclose a 
copy ? It expresses not a few of my greatest hopes. It is 
perhaps enough for us to see them far off and greet them. 
With kindest remembrances, ever yours affectionately, 

B. F. DUN ELM. 



TO HIS ELDKST D.UJGHTKR (MkS. KlNC.) 

G.TS T . R., L>5/// funs IQOI, 

So far we have had a very successful journey, it has been 
very close, but there has not been any glare. I looked vainly 

1 Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in 
the midst of them (St. Matt, xviii. 20). 



358 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

for Crayke, though I thought that I saw the E.R. 1 We 
were very late at York, and I grew alarmed (again) about my 
ticket, as the porters said I should not have time to get it. 
However, at Doncaster the Guard (they call him "Con- 
ductor " now) watched over me, and I got not only my ticket 
but some tea also. This has now been finished, and I am 
even aspiring to do a little work. As yet I have done 
nothing. I always used to send mamma one of my paper 
napkins as a token of my repast, but now they represent trade 
instead of art. 



To HIS SON-IN-LAW (DR. KING) 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, yhjuly 1901. 

. . . Mary did not seem to be tired by our gathering of 
old students, and of course she was keenly interested by it. 
Now we shall try to fall into the old ways as far as possible. 
Yet the blank does not grow less, though I can hardly realise 
what it means. I am always unconsciously looking for some- 
thing which, indeed, is with me. 

TO HIS FOURTH SON 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, nth July 1901. 

. . . The food question appears to me to be dealt with 
finally by St. Paul, e.g. i Cor. viii., Rom. xiv. I could never 
admit that to eat meat or to drink wine is wrong in itself. 
We may wisely make concessions, but it is necessary to protest 
against exaggeration. 

In my last note I do not think that I mentioned a point 
which I think vital perhaps the most vital in presenting 
the Christian Faith. Our Faith is not a philosophy primarily 
which lies within the province of the intellect, but personal 
devotion to a Person, and therefore coextensive with human 
nature, and appealing to all our powers. This can be made 
clear, I think. Just now a critic asks me, "What has the 

1 The Kasin^wold Railway, which is, I l)diev<j, the smallest independent 
railway in the world. 



xni DURHAM 359 

Incarnation to do with war . . . with the organisation of 
industry, with buying and selling . . . with expenditure?" 
That such questions can be asked by a man of average intelli- 
gence is a terrible proof of our failure to make our message 
known. You will have seen that it is hoped that Montgomery 
(an old Harrow man), Bishop of Tasmania, will accept the 
Secretaryship of S.P.G. What a revolution he will accom- 
plish ! It will be new life. 



CHAPTER XIV 

BISHOP WESTCOTT AS DIOCESAN AND " EVERY- 
BODY'S BISHOP" 

BEFORE entering on my narrative of the last week of 
my father's life, I desire to place before his friends two 
separate views of his work set forth by those most 
competent to speak of the matters of which they sever- 
ally treat. Archdeacon Boutflowcr was my father's 
Domestic Chaplain throughout his episcopate, and can 
therefore speak with full knowledge of the Bishop's 
Diocesan work, to which single aspect of the Bishop's 
manifold activities he has, by my request, confined his 
view. 

Mr. Thomas Burt, M.P., has considered my father 
from an entirely different point of view, as a social 
worker rind " everybody's Bishop." Mr. Burt was, I 
believe, the " authoritative counsellor " on whose judg- 
ment he relied in seizing the appropriate moment for 
intervention in the great coal dispute. His noble 
appreciation will, I am confident, be read with singular 
interest and gratitude by all to whom my father's 
memory is dear. 

360 



CHAP, xiv " EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 361 

BISHOP WESTCOTT AS DIOCESAN 
(Contributed by the Venerable C. II. IJOUTFLOWKR) 

The Bishop's greatness was not made, it was only illus- 
trated, in the diocese to which he was called at the age of 
sixty-five ; and this illustration was not for the most part 
found in new organisation or transformation of the old, for 
he succeeded to the work of a life-long friend whose practical 
doings satisfied him, and he always spoke of himself in the 
earlier years of his episcopate as sent to continue for a few 
years longer Bishop Lightfoot's work. Moreover, one of his 
most English characteristics was an inclination to adapt, 
rather than to change or create. This inclination was strength- 
ened by his great personal modesty and his instinctive sense 
of unity with all the past. He cared to make no structural 
alterations at Auckland Castle ; he was even slow to rebuild 
the ruinous. He delighted to see the things of the past 
made to answer to the needs of a new life ; and in what 
was undeniably and inevitably new, from a brick church 
to a co-operative society, he delighted to discover links of 
continuity. 

Two or three characteristic developments, however, did 
embody his ideas in a new and constructive shape notably 
the periodical private conferences between the employers and 
representatives of labour on social questions (referred to else- 
where) ; or again, the Union of Church Workers, which in 
Sunderland he specially strove to foster ; or the Diocesan 
Missionary Union, in which, for practical purposes, but partly 
also as a witness to an idea, he tried to bring into line all the 
work clone for Foreign Missions in the Diocese. Of any such 
new or exceptional actions the Bishop always gave his inter- 
pretation. It was not any instinct for centralisation ur 
machinery which inspired them, but his ruling idea, llu 
address of the collect for All Saints' Day that collect which 
he so often used on occasions when those who did not know 
him wondered why. 

But for the most part it was in the touch applied to what 



362 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

he found and used that Bishop Westcott's principles and 
characteristics were illustrated. 

What were these characteristics ? 

It was as the prophet l of great ideas rather than the 
master of men that the Bishop seemed to lay his hand on 
the Diocese. Not as the strong man, who possesses potent 
convictions, but as one who is strongly possessed by them, he 
brought men face to face with the truth, and not with his 
own will. He took no delight in generalship. The burden 
of responsibility was to him, to the last, a burden. When 
some diocesan living fell vacant, it was with a real sense 
of relief that he would turn to the Calendar and ascertain 
that the patronage was not in the Bishop's hands. There 
was nothing of the Napoleon about him. Both by tempera- 
ment and by conviction he would have shrunk from the ex- 
ercise of conscious personal influence, just as he would never 
remove from even a young man the responsibility of a per- 
sonal decision, however readily he would advise him upon it. 
The Bishop's own abundant charm of manner and person, 
of eye and word, struck any stranger ; but what he used in 
dealing with men was none of these things, but the Truth 
itself as he saw and appealed to it. 

He would not use men even for good ends at any sacrifice 
of their true self: he would only consent to make them act 
when they could see ; and he w r ould not thank men for any 
service performed, as though it were done for himself. " My 
clergy," "I wish you to do this for me "phrases potent 
with inspiration on some good men's lips, and to which people 
would have responded, were not such as he used, or would 
have allowed himself, even to win a crisis, or to raise Diocesan 
funds, for which he often said that he was a bad beggar. 

No diocese in England probably contained such an amount 
of ready-made loyalty to the personal bishop as that which 
Bishop Lightfoot left to his friend's hands, and notably was 

1 Nowadays one can scarcely use the word " prophet " without apology 
to the reader ; but no other word will do. The present writer took a 
literary friend to hear the Bishop preach to Ordination candidates. As 
they came out the friend said, " My good man, that is not preaching, that 
is prophesying." 1 So it was. 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 363 

this the case with the men trained for ordination at Auckland 
Castle, who, on any decision, were disposed to consult the 
bishop's wish and ask no further questions. But to this 
Bishop Westcott never resorted save in the most guarded way. 
Now and again it might be this spring of loyalty which really 
won a point of danger, or preserved the threatened peace of 
the Durham Diocese in matters which would have led to 
ritual troubles elsewhere ; but it was for the official Bishop, 
and not for himself, that on such occasions he claimed loyalty. 
Men will remember not the mesmeric control of a great 
man, but the presence of and above them of a faith and an 
insight into eternal ideas, which did not aim at achieving 
situations but at opening the eyes of men. 

In practical insight into men and things this habit of 
calculating ideas rather than persons, and of expecting that 
others would be moved mainly by the same instinct, made 
the Bishop less acute than many smaller men as a judge of 
character, and of probable cause and effect. Himself leaning 
on none, though interested in all, and dissatisfied with personal 
influence, he was inclined to overlook it, and to expect from 
organisation on true principles that effectiveness which mainly 
depends on the man behind it. Considering his own great 
learning and peculiar appreciation of scholarship in others, 
the trifling weight he attached to these things in his estimate 
of men's usefulness was most striking and beautiful. But the 
aliveness of a man to Certain ideas (as distinct from mere 
learning) which were to him of primary importance, would 
sometimes lead him to miscalculate the man's general effici- 
ency and power. This, however, is probably true of every 
man with any ideas, unless he is also a born judge of men. 

Of one small but important sphere of the Bishop's per- 
sonal influence notice must not here be omitted, though only 
future years can measure its effect, namely, his work with 
the men reading at the Castle for ordination, "the Students," 
as they were often called by the townsmen and servants, 
though perhaps from a sense that this was not the primary 
aspect of their existence it was not a name commonly 
affected by themselves. Of the origin under Bishop Light- 



364 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

foot of this prominent feature of the life at Auckland Castle, 
or of the ideas which dominated it, there is no need to 
speak here, since those ideas were not of Bishop Westcott's 
creation, though he heartily accepted them and, in all except 
the personal control and generalship above referred to, used 
them to the full. This element of his Durham life was to 
him the happiest extension of Cambridge work. Once a 
week on the busiest days if not on one evening, then on 
another, if not in the evening, then at some special time he 
would bury himself for a short time in his old lecture-room 
notes, and, carrying an armful of books, cross over for what I 
believe was the most congenial hour of the week. Cambridge 
was with him again : and he addressed us round the table as 
"Mr.," an outrage on Auckland usages. But it was a rare 
privilege for six or eight men, joined sometimes by a clerical 
caller who had stayed to be present. But most of all are the 
men he taught likely to remember those Friday evenings in 
his study, which were a continuation of the Sunday afternoons 
at Cambridge. It was a sort of " Socratic dialectic." Some 
one read a paper, perhaps on architecture, perhaps on a poem 
of Browning's, perhaps on " the three laws of motion as 
applied to human conduct." Then the Bishop would ask 
or answer questions, draw out the leading ideas suggested, 
read aloud some favourite lines from his book -shelves, 
and finally sum up the whole with an interest ever fresher 
and more intense than that of the most interested listener. 

In general intercourse two traits marked the Bishop's 
dealing with others. He was singularly patient and gentle 
both with the froward and the stupid ; but his patience was of 
grace rather than of natural temperament. It was also costly; 
for he would allow an interview to occupy three-quarters of an 
hour rather than appear impatient, when all that was to be 
said had been said in the first ten minutes. Hut what 
most struck men was his persistence in assuming the best of 
them, both mentally and morally. Commonplace men who 
ventured on remarks found themselves, as interpreted by the 
Bishop, the possessors of unsuspected depths of wisdom and 
observation. And morally his optimism was, as regards men, 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S HISIIOP" 365 

extraordinary, and amounted to a practical danger as well as 
a spiritual power. At the close of a long life of accurate 
observation this was wonderful enough. It was the reflection 
of his own intense purity of soul. " Man naturally Christian " 
was his belief to the last. He could easily suspect things, but 
not men. Titian's picture of "The Tribute Money" was one 
that hung in his own room. "It is one of the only two quite 
satisfactory pictures of the Lord's face that I know," he would 
say ; and his delight in it was probably explained by his own 
interpretation of it. "It seems to say, ' You do not really mean 
that ? You are better than your own judgment.' " 

When it fell to Bishop \Vestcott to deal with one of the 
longest and most glaring cases of clerical immorality, nothing 
could be more pathetic than his persistent suspicion, even 
after all was closed, that there might yet be some hallucina- 
tion. It was almost a refusal to believe in deliberate wicked- 
ness in men. " It shakes one's faith in human nature " was 
the painful remark such moments would wring from him. 

From this it will be best understood why the sympathy 
which, as Bishop, he always took pains to show with parochial 
Missions was of a diffident and unfamiliar kind ; and why 
some of his clergy, whose work lay most in dealing with open 
and degraded sin, would say, " The Bishop does not seem to 
believe in the Fall ! " 

The deliberate rejection of personal influence in favour 
of principles, and the great humility to which reference has 
been made, did not exclude a very definite assertion of office, 
which indeed was one of the principles that he maintained. 
The avidity with which, to use his own phrase, he would 
" guard the inheritance " formed a piquant contrast to his 
personal modesty. His satisfaction in the coronet round the 
mitre of the Bishop of Durham's arms as a witness to the 
past, and the vigour with which he would denounce its un- 
authorised adoption by the two Archbishops, contrasted quite 
consistently with his habit of sitting huddled up with his 
back to the horses, as a personal protest against being the 
owner of a carriage ; from the door of which, by the way, he 
preferred to have the said mitre deleted. How jealously 



366 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

he would inspect a legal document, and correct the Crown 
lawyers, who had failed to note that, whatever other 
Bishops might be, a Bishop of Durham was traditionally 
such by " Divine Providence," and not merely by "Divine 
Permission." 

The slightest liberty taken even by his most esteemed 
officials with his episcopal prerogatives would have sensibly 
displeased him. On one such occasion he remarked to his 
Chaplain, " I am exceedingly particular about these things. 
About the personal, you know, I never care. It may be a 
new light to you, but I think I should be seriously annoyed 
if any one went into a room before me who ought officially to 
follow me." 1 And this sense of office stood him in good 
stead as chairman, when his natural gentleness and lack of 
decisive manner might have seemed likely to be a drawback. 
Within six months of his consecration, when at the shortest 
notice he had to take the Archbishop's place as Chairman of 
the Hull Church Congress, he discharged the office to every 
one's admiration ; and there are easier chairs to take than 
that of a Church Congress. 

This same sense of the dignity due to things official made 
him careful in all public ceremony. Fastidiously artistic as 
he was, his private tastes in most outward things were 
avowedly in the direction of Quaker-like simplicity. Yet the 
institution of an incumbent, which for convenience had been 
performed by one Bishop of Durham in a railway station, was 
in its impressiveness, as conducted by Bishop Westcott in his 
private Chapel only, constantly the occasion of remark. 
k; My last institution," remarked one of his clergy, "was done 
by the Bishop of - - while eating a pork pie for his lunch." 
No such ceremony could be slight to him, but the reason 
of this lay deeper than a desire to edify. He reverenced his 
office because he believed in it ; and illustrated his belief 
in his own attitude to all offices that called for reverence. 
When Archbishop Benson came to visit him, the exchange 

1 In illustration of the above, I may be permitted to remark that my 
father was invited on a certain occasion to meet Royalty at a oreat house 
within his Diocese ; but having been informed that a Roman prelate would 
be present and be granted precedence of the IJishop of Durham, he felt 
constrained to respectfully decline the invitation.- A. \V. 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 3 6 7 

of deference, personal and official, was one of the prettiest 
sights to see. The Bishop (punctilious in sending a son or 
Chaplain to meet other guests) must himself go to meet the 
Archbishop, and wait on him in the house with delicate 
attention ; and yet it was obvious that the relations of 
Neville's Court could not in their own sphere be reversed. 
It was plain which was the master and which the disciple, in 
private intercourse. 

His own belief in office was further illustrated when he said 
in conversation, that watching the Archbishop's life had con- 
vinced him of the truth that there is a real grace given with 
office : the mere man, as he had known him, could never 
have done it. "You mean," asked a friend, "that he has 
risen to the office?" "No," said the Bishop, "I mean that 
he has been raised to it." 

Yet to the end Bishop Westcott "bore office." The 
words apply strictly : it was a burden. Seven years after his 
consecration he was discussing titles with his Chaplain, and 
said how greatly he disliked the more than necessary use of 
"My lord." "I experience," he said, "the sensations of 
that man described in some southern clime where elementary 
bleeding is practised, who has to sit on a stone in the river 
while a number of very little arrows are shot into him. Each 
one draws just a little blood. It is said to be wholesome, 
but it is certainly unpleasant." 

Although the Bishop's following was English rather than 
Diocesan, and though he was never deterred by his own great 
dislike of travelling from attending such distant duties as the 
Bishops' meetings at Lambeth, or those of the Governing 
Body at Harrow, yet he very seldom went outside the Diocese 
in response to any of the constant appeals which were made 
to him, except for one or two pet objects such as the Christian 
Social Union, which he considered had a special claim upon 
his time. He felt strongly that many public men dissipate 
in a multitude of interests the strength which properly belongs 
to the special life-work which they have undertaken. He felt 
that he must live one chapter of his life at a time, and that 
Durham required all his best powers. His exact attendance 



368 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

at the diocesan meetings, where he considered that it was his 
duty ex officio to be present, was a positive regret to some who 
knew the value of his time and energy. He seldom would 
weigh even the greatest personal claim or opportunity against 
an official engagement, and he would not allow himself to 
attend Archbishop Benson's funeral because it clashed with 
the annual meeting of the Rural Deans. 

But this concentration on diocesan duty was no reproduc- 
tion on a diocesan scale of that narrow parochial absorption 
into which zealous clergymen so easily fall. For whilst his own 
activities were thus severely concentrated, his sympathies and 
outlook were unceasingly busy for the whole world of men and 
things. " How one will miss that keen interest of his in every- 
thing under the sun and beyond it!" wrote one of his diocesan 
laymen after his death. rrws dv dpurra ol 2/a'0at TroAireiWi' l 
is the instance that Aristotle selects of what no sane man 
could be said to " deliberate on " (flovXeveiv) ; but he could 
hardly have selected a more characteristic instance of the sort 
of thing on which the Bishop loved to deliberate, as many a 
closely-catechised missionary had cause to testify. And in 
practice also it was the same. To a degree that caused con- 
cern to some he was generous in his readiness to make 
the best things of Durham available for the Church at large. 
Bishop Lightfoot's policy had undoubtedly been to collect, 
and for the present keep, in the Durham Diocese, which he 
found weak, all the strongest elements he could command. 
Bishop Westcott's confidence in the Durham he found 
was such that he would lift no finger to retain the men whose 
loss he personally regretted, when wider work was offered to 
them elsewhere ; while for Foreign Missions he, himself the 
father of four missionary sons, enthusiastically gave his best. 
During his episcopate thirty-six men in orders went out from 
Durham, with the Bishop's direct mission or glad approval, 
to foreign or colonial service. Whether this policy of disper- 
sion was carried too far whether he left the Diocese as strong 
in men as he found it, in spite of the constant influx of men 
trained under his own eye will be a matter of opinion ; but 
there can be no question that in devotion to his own diocesan 

1 What would IK; the best polity for the Scythians. 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP ' 369 

work he never forgot that he was a bishop of the whole 
Church, and that the Church was wider than England. The 
real root alike of his own concentration and of his wide sym- 
pathies lay in the same principle, namely, his realisation of 
the one Body of Christ, in which, without confusion, and 
without possible conflict of interests, each member must 
discharge his own office and no other. 



As a bishop of the National Church, his own writings will 
best speak for him. He was a National-Churchman, not by 
circumstance or inheritance merely, but by profound conviction. 
For the nation was to him an entity, and must have a religion 
over and above the religion of its individual members. But 
the reader will look in vain in his Charges for more than veiled 
reference to such things as ''burning questions," and what arc 
called periodically "crises" in the English Church. Of these 
he said (in 1898): "No, I don't think I could speak on 
'present controversies'" (i.e. ritual matters, etc.), "even at a 
Diocesan Conference. It all seems to me so alien to the great 
things of our Faith." 

He did not ignore the possibility of a situation in which 
the inheritance of a National Church might have to be 
sacrificed, if the State should take some action that compro- 
mised vital principles of the Church ; but he did not consider 
this to be seriously threatened for the present, except by the 
self-will of some of the clergy themselves. And his sense of 
proportion made him demand a patience which would not 
lightly throw away " such a priceless heritage " for the sake of 
a paper theory or a transient alarm. 

Not only did the Bishop, after his elevation to the 
episcopate, concentrate himself on the Diocese, but, on 
another principle, he limited the quantity of work he put 
into it. The gain was not in relaxation, for he had lost the 
art of unstringing the bow, and for years holiday had been to 
him, he said, some change of work ; but it was in preparation 
and quality. To most modern bishops it would seem too 
expensive a habit in time to take only one Confirmation in a 

VOL. IT 2 B 



370 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

day, particularly when coupled with an inability to spend the 
night happily away from home an inability which absorbed 
an enormous quantity of the Bishop's time and nerve-power 
in travel, and was only partly compensated by his power of 
working undisturbed in station waiting-rooms. But, on the 
other hand, every Confirmation was to him a fresh and 
exciting occasion. His clergy and people felt it to be so. 
The Bishop sometimes looked tired, but he never proved 
" stale " ; because, indeed, nothing ever became stale to him. 
It is scarcely possible that his public work to the last should 
have borne this stamp of spiritual intensity and perpetual 
freshness if he had attempted to fill his agenda list after the 
manner of more ordinary modern bishops. 

The Bishop's refusal to esteem quantity was really more 
than an accidental necessity of preparation. His refusal to 
have any dealings with shorthand -clerk, typewriter, or tele- 
phone was a semi -serious protest against what he regarded 
as symbols of the impatience of the age. He would even 
cause inconvenience by his reluctance to use the telegraph. 
To allude to any of these things as parts of "modern pro- 
gress" was the surest "draw," and always elicited the inquiry, 
" Progress towards what?" 

This recalls the favourite lay inquiry, " Has your Bishop 
business habits ? " The artificial habits of a modern business 
training the Bishop had not. He had not been accustomed to 
dictate letters, to employ clerks, to use the copying-press and 
so forth, and to some extent his work was hampered by this. 
But in his own more literary ways he was most methodical, and 
most prompt. His letters, written (mostly by return post) with 
his own hand, were vainly deplored by the Diocese, though it 
is true that he had the gift of expressing them very concisely, 
and when he delegated writing it seldom satisfied him. There 
is no doubt that he suffered from the Cambridge instinct of 
perfection. No two words meant the same thing to him. A 
comma was all-important, and two ways of framing a sentence 
could not be equally true. Family, chaplains, and clergy 
deplored the cost of it ; but perhaps the Westcott and Hort 
Greek Testament was worth the price. 



XIV 



EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 37 



Parallel to that freshness of powers and interest which 
the Bishop brought to his last day of work, and still more 
wonderful, was the freshness of hope and sympathy which he 
carried to the end. This, no doubt, was cultivated in con- 
templation, but it was a singular grace of temperament to start 
with. In mind he never grew old. Occasionally he would 
say, "1 am too old for such things now"; but it was not 
really true, and only half-serious. To most men there comes 
a time when they grow r tired of readaptation and of looking 
forward. They speak of the past with a touch of regret, and 
the young feel that they are out of sympathy. There were no 
signs of this about our dear Bishop to the last. He was more 
hopeful than the youngest of us. He welcomed every new 
development, if only he was persuaded it was true develop- 
ment, and he waited for more. The Divine Spirit he believed 
in was a living Spirit, speaking and moving in the Church 
to-day, and he trusted every fresh age to add to the glory of 
God's revelation. And he expected God still to send messages 
through Samuel to Eli. "You must see visions," he said to 
one of his younger clergy "I despair of you if you don't. 
Visions belong to youth ; when you are older you. will only 
dream dreams." (It was a favourite interpretation with him 
of Acts ii. 17.) 

This trait of character may seem to belong rather to the 
man than to the bishop ; but it is mentioned here because it 
explains how the Bishop's inspiration never waxed old, in the 
ears of those who were able to hear him, and why especially 
the younger clergy were drawn to him. And thus it was too 
that, in a diocese where the problems of labour and society 
were yearly taking fresh development, he was pre-eminently 
fitted to win the ear and retain the sympathy of the leaders 
of the new order. 

Some who knew him only through his books will be apt 
to suppose that this sympathy suffered in expression by the 
characteristic abstractness of his thought and diction. As 
a matter of fact, his addresses given in simple surroundings 
were remarkably (and increasingly) simple in utterance for 
the plain and concrete-minded folk who make the industrial 
Diocese of Durham. But, short of this, his fervour and sym- 



372 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

pathy with the whole breadth of their life was enough to 
ensure attention and deep impression among an audience of 
pit-folk, or a company of Confirmation children. 

But in all it was not himself that he offered, but the 
Truth ; and the Truth to him was nothing short of the faith 
of the Incarnation. He was only strong because He saw, 
and took time to see. "Vita hominis, visio Dei," he was 
never tired of quoting. His TroA-iVeiyxa was in heaven, and in 
the presence of the unseen he met all life, and you could not 
surprise him out of it. In this atmosphere he worked and 
breathed. Not only God Himself, but the cloud of witnesses, 
the communion of the unseen Body of Christ, were more real 
to him than the things seen. It was his habit to attend the 
early celebration at the adjoining church on Sunday mornings, 
but during the hours of matins he preferred to sit alone, with 
Prayer Book and always the Greek Testament, in his beautiful 
chapel. There lay Bishop Cosin and Bishop Lightfoot between 
him and the altar ; there from the windows looked down 
Aidan, Cuthbert, Bede, and all the Northern saints. The 
unseen company, realised by the help of the place and its 
associations, seemed to be more to him than the living 
crowd in the modern building. He told more than one 
friend that, when his younger son died in India, it seemed to 
him as though he was given back to them in nearness now 
that the barrier of space was removed by death. 

One kindred illustration of this spirit may be added. Find- 
ing the Bishop struggling late and minutely one night over 
the draft of a service for the Dedication of Gifts in some 
humble church, his Chaplain said, " Well, my Lord, that 
congregation will not be a critical one : they are accustomed 
to anything." With a gentle, surprised smile, such as Elisha's 
might have been in Dothan, the Bishop looked up from his 
desk and said, "You forget: who are 'the congregation'? 
We are only an infinitesimal part of it ! " The words, and the 
way they were spoken, will not be easy to forget. 

Finally, in the clearness of this faith, in this sense of the 
unity of all life and work EN XPIYf 121, he was able to meet 
the supreme bereavement of his life. People who did not 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 373 

understand him enough were " so sorry for the Bishop " 
because he was away on diocesan work, meeting the 
Lamesley miners, on the afternoon when his wife died. 
They did not know that the Bishop said, "I think, even if 
I had known, I should have wished still to go." They did 
not understand the comfort that work was to him, not 
because, as with most of us, it helped him to forget, but 
because it helped him to realise : it belonged to the expres- 
sion of perfect faith, and to the oneness of all life in Christ. 
What all did see was that from his wife's grave-side he went 
up to Durham himself to conduct the ordination and attend 
the usual committees, and that for two months more God 
privileged him to show us that it was no strained and 
momentary triumph over natural feeling, but "the revelation 
of the Risen Lord " which prevailed ; and then, without a 
shadow of anxiety or regret, he passed from the eleven years 
of work thrust upon him just when he was thinking of rest, to 
the rest of that world which he had so long "seen afar off," , 
yet always closer than others. 



BISHOP WESTCOTT AS "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 
(Contributed by Mr. THOMAS HURT, M.P.) 

I gladly respond to a suggestion that I should say a word, 
from the standpoint of the Trade Unionist and social reformer, 
on the late Bishop Westcott. Would that a theme so noble 
could find a more skilful pen ! 

No death in this locality within my recollection produced 
such profound and widespread sorrow, such a deep sense of 
personal loss among men of all classes and of all creeds, as 
did that of the good Bishop. At the Wesleyan Conference 
held in Newcastle about the time, an eloquent tribute was 
paid to his memory, in which he was described as "the 
Bishop not only of the Church of England, but of all the 
Churches." In a community noted for its attachment to 
Nonconformity that was a high testimonial. To overleap 
the sectarian fences which divide men, to win the confidence, 
good-will, yea, the affection, of members of other churches 



374 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

was certainly a notable victory. The Bishop's lofty station, 
his great reputation as a scholar and a theologian, his breadth 
and catholicity of spirit, his fine geniality and gentleness of 
nature, his unaffected piety these qualities no doubt par- 
tially, or wholly, accounted for his conquest over the hearts 
of men of other creeds. That was a great achievement. 
But to have become everybody's Bishop the Bishop of the 
toiler in mine and factory, the Bishop of the creedless, of 
those who attend neither churches nor chapels, who have 
ceased to believe in them, if they ever believed that surely 
was a more marvellous achievement still. Yet that was 
accomplished by Dr. Westcott. Here at length appeared a 
real Bishop and Pastor, intensely believing in his Church, 
with a deep, an abiding, almost an overpowering sense of the 
greatness and sacredness of his functions and his mission. 

Bishop, pastor, church to the multitude the words have 
a cold, distant, technical sound, carrying with them little 
significance. Their roots lie embedded in foreign tongues, 
too seldom enflowering into life to strengthen and beautify 
the souls of men. Yet they have greatly served humanity, 
and, if they were alive and real, they might serve it again. 
Eternal is the need. The Bishop is the spiritual overseer 
the man who sees ; the pastor is the feeder and the guardian 
of men. The Church where is it? and what is it ? Split 
into fragments every fragment crying out that it is the true 
Church, the only true Church. There is a true Church. It 
is to be found, according to a great Churchman, John 
Ruskin : " Wherever one hand meets another helpfully : that 
is the only holy or mother Church which ever was or ever 
shall be." That universal Church, 

Lofty as is the love of God, 
And ample as the wants of man, 

was Dr. Westcott's Church,. And never was there a truer 
Bishop and pastor than he ; never did the life and deeds of a 
good man bring home more directly to the bosoms of masses 
of men the meaning of such watchfulness and helpfulness, or 
show more clearly the zeal and fidelity with which the great 
and holy work could be performed. 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 375 

There was not a movement for the improvement of the 
workers' condition which had not the Bishop's sympathy and 
support. All the great self-help organisations temperance, 
friendly societies, thrift in every form, trade unions, co-opera- 
tionevery one received his benediction and his practical 
assistance. Not only did he help existing institutions, he 
originated new ones. 

Like his distinguished predecessor, Dr. Lightfoot, the late 
Bishop took the warmest interest in the Co-operative move- 
ment. Among the finest tributes to Bishop Westcott's 
memory was one from the pen of that veteran co-operator 
G. J. Holyoake. The words are few, but fitting. They are 
warmly appreciative, and show that singular felicity of phrase 
and that keen insight into character which are as surely Mr. 
Holyoake's at eighty-four as they were his in the prime of his 
manhood. In theological opinion the Bishop and Mr. Holy- 
oake w r ere doubtless widely sundered ; in spirit they were one 
From the Bishop's address at the Middlesbrough Co-operative 
Congress, Mr. Holyoake quotes what is probably the most 
precise and the most perfect definition of true co-operation 
ever given : " The co-operative ideal of production is that all 
who combine in a business should be partners in it : partners 
in the contribution of capital, partners in profit or loss, 
partners in control and development, and partners in responsi- 
bility." That ideal we should strive to realise and to embody 
in our industrial life. 

Of late years Dr. Westcott was sometimes called perhaps 
not without a touch of derision "the pitmen's bishop." 
Beyond doubt he greatly loved the pitmen. He strove to 
lessen their burdens and to improve their material condition, 
to enlighten their minds and to ennoble their character. 
Thus he won the confidence, the admiration, the warmest 
affection of thousands. That was the only reward he valued ; 
if indeed he cared at all for reward. But the Bishop knew 
nothing of narrowness or exclusiveness. He cared for pitmen 
not as workers only, or mainly, but as men. Bounded by no 
sect or creed, his sympathies were all-embracing. He was 
greater far than any class or institution ; broader far than 
his own broad Church. 



3/6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

The late Bishop had scarcely been enthroned in his 
bishopric before he put himself in direct touch with the 
workers. By settling a great labour dispute he rendered to 
the Durham miners and to the community generally a 
memorable service. From time to time he convened con- 
ferences of employers and employed and of social reformers 
at Auckland Castle. Consider what all this meant. New 
to his great position, with advancing years, with no super- 
abundance of physical energy, with the exacting demands of 
a wide populous diocese, with a devout belief in his station 
and his mission, with a devouring zeal for his work, he held no 
sinecure; and he might well have been excused had he con- 
fined himself to his purely ecclesiastical functions. 

It was in 1892 that the great industrial conflict broke out 
and raged over the whole mining district of Durham. The 
struggle was long and bitter ; trade was paralysed ; suffering 
was keen and widespread. Through the Bishop's tact, 
temper, skill, mastery of the facts, peace was restored, and 
future disputes were made less likely by the formation of a 
Conciliation Board. 

For an outsider a comparative stranger w r ith no great 
commercial reputation to intervene with effect in such a 
struggle was exceedingly difficult. Passion ran high, pre- 
judices were rife, jealousies and suspicions were in the air. 
There were those on both sides who were not eager for a 
peaceful settlement, and who strongly resented extraneous 
interference. "What could a bishop know about industrial 
complications and the intricacies and exigencies of trade ? 
Let this high ecclesiastic look after his clergy and his 
churches ; let this scholarly recluse attend to his books and 
his studies ! Besides, was the Bishop himself wholly disin- 
terested ? Did not the Ecclesiastical Commissioners derive 
large revenues from mining royalties in Durham?" These 
were the querulous muuerings of the few, couched in language 
less polite, but not less emphatic than 1 have used. The 
miners generally as well as the employers welcomed the 
Bishop's mediation. They knew that he had no personal 
object to serve, and that no interest could bias him. By his 
action he earned the gratitude of a great industrial community. 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 377 

It was a splendid, an unforgettable service, -which only a 
strong, brave, true man could have rendered. 

The conferences at Auckland Castle were numerous and 
invaluable. 1 had the honour (a great honour 1 esteemed it) 
to be invited to many of them, I think to all, but only on two 
occasions was I able to be present. With the Bishop as 
convener and host, it is needless to say that the selection of 
the guests was dictated by no spirit of exclusiveness. Repre- 
sentative men of all classes and of every school of thought 
religious, political, and social -were there. Experienced 
arbitrators, employers of labour, captains of industry in nearly 
every department of trade large and small, agents and 
secretaries of trade unions connected with mining, ship- 
building, engineering, and other industries, were present ; as 
were also leading co-operators, and men who had been long 
and intimately associated with the administration of the poor 
laws, with the management of schools and colleges, and with 
the direction of the municipal life of the people. 

Happily, in mining, and in some other trades, the spirit 
and methods of conciliation had made some headway before 
the Bishop came to the North. Employers and workmen 
were accustomed to discuss their differences ; sliding scales 
and arbitration had been tried. Joint committees and wages 
boards had been established. Some of the Bishop's guests 
were well known to each other, and had often met in council 
or in combat. But, on the other hand, many men were 
brought together who met for the first time, and whose 
interests as employers and employed made it exceedingly 
desirable that they should become personally acquainted. 
Moreover, there was a freedom of discussion, a frankness of 
intercourse on these occasions hardly attainable when the 
same men met as partizans and advocates. 

I have spoken of those who attended the conferences as 
the Bishop's guests. I have called them representative men ; 
they were not delegates. Most of them coming from distant 
places arrived the night before the conference, sleeping at 
the Castle. A word as to the mode of procedure may be of 
interest. After dinner a paper was read by one of the guests. 
This was followed by conversation in which the//w and cons 



37S LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

were freely discussed. Next morning, at the conference 
proper, the proceedings were more formal. The Bishop 
presided and delivered a short address, in which he outlined, 
always with ample knowledge, with terseness and lucidity, the 
chief points for consideration. Further discussion followed, 
and usually a resolution expressing the views of the con- 
ference was formulated and adopted. A brief report was 
afterwards printed and circulated amongst those who had 
been present. All this obviously involved much corre- 
spondence and routine work. The Bishop himself supervised 
everything, and knew every detail. And he had always a 
willing, capable helper in Canon Moore Ede, who brought 
to all social and labour questions great knowledge and sym- 
pathy, a clear head and a facile pen to give fitting form and 
shape to the decisions. Between the Bishop and the Canon 
kindred spirits -the relationship was beautiful like that 
of father and son when at their best. 

As a host the Bishop was perfect ; every attention, no 
obtrusiveness. If any one was forgotten, it was himself. 
And himself his own needs he did sometimes forget. 
"Plain living, high thinking": that seemed his motto; it 
was certainly his practice. Yet the Bishop was no sour 
ascetic. He could not perhaps say, as Landor said of himself, 
that he 

warmed both hands before the fire of life, 

but he liked to see other people's hands warmed. He seemed 
to enjoy life, and was unaffectedly happy whenever he wit- 
nessed rational human wellbeing and enjoyment. 

The Bishop loved to show his visitors the relics, pictures, 
and works of art in the Castle. The fine old building is 
itself full of historial interest, carrying the mind far away into 
"the dark backward and abysm of time" when the Bishops 
of the Palatinate were princes and warriors, rather than 
spiritual overseers specially set apart to look after the souls of 
men. Hanging on the walls are portraits of many of those, 
and the Bishop knew the history of them all. It would take 
me far beyond the scope of these notes to dwell upon this, 
or to tell, if I could, the exquisite pleasure it gave to those 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 379 

privileged to hear this man of learning and of line artistic tastes 
talk at his best on subjects that were dear to him. But one 
incident I must mention, for it greatly impressed me. Going 
around the Chapel and pointing out its objects of beauty and 
interest, the Bishop paused at the grave of Dr. 1 jghtfoot. 
In touching words he spoke of his predecessor's great attain- 
ments and noble qualities of head and heart : of his learning, 
his manliness, his strength of character and purity of soul. 
" He was my friend," said the Bishop. I was reminded of 
another incident pathetic also, but not uninspiring. When 
I was looking at a portrait of Richard Cobden on one 
occasion, John Bright came and stood by my side. Never 
having myself seen Cobden, I asked Mr. Bright if the likeness 
was a good one. "Excellent," was the reply; "but come 
here," moving a few paces, " this is the view I like best." 
Then, with trembling lip and tearful eye, the great orator, 
looking again at the portrait, said, " My friend, one of the 
best men I ever knew ! " Bright's portrait now hangs beside 
Cobden's, as Westcott's body lies beside Lightfoot's. 

What shadows we are, what shadows we pursue. 

And yet I felt in listening to John Bright, as I felt afterwards 
in listening to Bishop Westcott, when :;peaking of their friends, 
that surely our human life, whether it be given for a day or for 
ever, can bring us nothing more precious than the communion 
and comradeship of true pure souls. 

But let no one imagine that business was forgotten. We 
were not at the Castle as tourists or antiquarians. The sight- 
seeing, though neither frivolous nor unprofitable, was a mere 
interlude, taking place in the very early hours of the morning. 
In truth externals, even the most significant and commanding, 
appeared to possess but little attraction for the Bishop. He 
valued them only so far as they carried a meaning and a 
message to humanity ; so far as they bore upon human eleva- 
tion and improvement. On this, the uplifting of man 
materially, morally, spiritually, all his deepest thoughts 
centred. 

Punctually at ten o'clock the Bishop took the chair, and 
an admirable chairman he was. Look at him for a moment. 



380 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

I wish I could picture him. The photographer's art has 
made tens of thousands familiar with his features, not 
wholly without success. The result is sometimes striking 
and pleasing yet always disappointing, to those who knew 
the man. How could it be otherwise? The photo- 
grapher may show in outline the form of the features ; 
the broad, lofty forehead, indicative of mental power. 
But what painter, what artist, could do justice to the 
expressive face ? Spiritual, gentle, kindly it was in every 
lineament, yet withal strong and masculine, showing power, 
resolution, determination, not less than benignity and good- 
will. Then the eyes, grave, yet without sadness, bright, clear, 
penetrating; peering, as it were, and seeing "into the very 
life of things " : eyes which seemed to behold things near and 
far, to pierce the outward material veil and to see 

Through life and death, through good and ill, through his 
own soul. 

The Bishop's business aptitude, his firm grip of the 
essential facts, his intimate knowledge of social economics 
and industrial life, must have astonished some of the clever 
practical men who attended these conferences. If any of 
them imagined that the Bishop was a mere amateur in social 
questions, endeavouring as a pupil to learn something of their 
intricacies and mysteries, such a person would be speedily 
undeceived. To have appeared in the role of a pupil would 
have been no discredit quite the reverse. Men were there 
who knew one or another ot these questions in every detail ; 
who had striven to master their underlying principles, and 
had been driven into sharp conflict at close quarters with the 
hard, stubborn facts of everyday life. Gladly would these 
men have told all they knew. But Dr. Westcott, the most 
teachable of men, had little or nothing to learn. It was soon 
apparent that he had for long years deeply studied all the 
great social problems of the day ; that he had dug to their 
very foundations. The doctrines and principles of political 
economy, as taught by its master exponents, were familiar 
to him. Idealist though he was, he was no visionary. He 
acted on Emerson's advice: he "hugged his fact," knowing 



XIV 



EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 38 



well that the reformer cannot without peril shut his eyes to 
the solid realities of existence. Mis highly-trained and acute 
intellect, and his quickness of perception, enabled the Hi shop 
to speedily master the facts, while his ready sympathy and 
his vivid imagination helped him to see the bearing of the 
facts upon the everyday life of the workers. 

Facts he soon mastered, science he knew ; but it was 
always apparent that the moral, the ethical side of things was 
what he cared for supremely. Surely there must be right and 
wrong even in commerce, even between buyer and seller, 
between employer and employed. Do the right, eschew the 
wrong. If the wheels are to run without creaking, if they 
are not to stop entirely, the human element, kindness, gentle- 
ness, as well as strict justice, must be seen and practised 
between man and man. That this aspect of political economy 
is being more and more recognised in our day is due largely 
to the teachings of gifted men like John Ruskin and Bishop 
Westcott. 

As an inspiring, as an educational force, the value of these 
conferences can hardly be exaggerated. Nor were they 
inspiring and educational only; results of vast practical im- 
portance emanated from them. An immense impulse was 
given to the movement for providing homes for the aged 
miners which from its beginning had the warmest sympathy 
and support of the Bishop. Still more powerfully did these 
conferences stimulate ideas and principles of conciliation 
between employers and workmen. That Hoards of Concilia- 
tion are in active operation to-day in Northumberland and 
Durham is due in no small measure to the Bishop's initiative 
and helpfulness. 

A requisition signed by employers and representatives of 
the workmen who had discussed at Auckland Castle the 
question " How to avoid Strikes ? " asked the Bishop to con- 
vene a general conference of representatives of the coal, iron, 
and steel trades. Promptly and cheerfully he acceded to the 
request. In his letter of invitation the Bishop said: " A full 
and frank exchange of opinion on the conditions of the 
problems to be solved will, I trust, contribute to the establish- 
ment of a Board or Boards of Conciliation, which will com- 



382 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

mand the lasting and intelligent confidence of all who are 
interested in our great local industries." 

To the Bishop's invitation the response was most gratifying. 

The Conference was held in the Miners' Hall, Durham, 
on 2oth January 1894, the Bishop himself presiding. 

The gathering was large and thoroughly representative, 
and included nearly every prominent trade union leader in 
Northumberland, Durham, and North Yorkshire. Employers 
of labour on a large scale, and officials of employers' associa- 
tions were present in considerable numbers. 

After the Bishop's address I was called upon to open the 
discussion. I was followed by Sir David Dale, who, himself 
an employer of labour, has had the unusual, if not the unique, 
honour of having been nominated more than once by work- 
men in his own trade as an umpire to settle serious differences 
between employers and employed. Subsequent speakers 
included Mr. John Wilson, M.P. (the worthy secretary of the 
largest miners' trade union in the world), Mr. William Whit- 
well (Chairman of the North of England Iron and Steel 
Conciliation Board), Mr. Gumming (working miner, Hetton), 
Mr. Robert Knight (Secretary, Boilermakers' Association), 
Mr. John Lee (miner, Leamside), Mr. E. Trow, Darlington 
(Secretary, Iron Workers' Association), Mr. J. Hugh Bell 
(Middlesbrough), and Mr. Johnson (of the Durham Miners' 
Association). 

The Bishop's opening speech was short and to the point. 
It was an impressive and eloquent plea for the application 
of reason to the settlement of industrial conflicts. The object 
aimed at was stated with that terseness, clearness, and pre- 
cision of which the Bishop was a master. 

"They desired to find some method of settling with 
substantial justice the grievous differences which arose in 
their industries, without interruption of work ; a method 
which should be permanent, authoritative ; a method which 
should rest on principles which were accepted alike by em- 
ployers and employed with full and intelligent conviction ; 
a method by which the strong organisations of both sides 
might co-operate and it was only through strong organisa- 
tions that such co-operation was possible for the main- 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 383 

tenance of peace and right by rational and exhaustive 
debate." 

The Bishop showed his familiarity with the great work 
in the promotion of harmonious industry which had been 
already accomplished in the iron trade, as well as in the 
Northumberland and Durham coal trade-. He spoke of the 
success which for more than twenty years had attended the 
labours of the Joint Committees in peacefully settling sectional 
disputes. With statesmanlike instinct he suggested that 
similar methods, with any necessary modifications, might be 
adopted for the adjustment of county or general differences. 

Sagacious, practical, showing a complete grasp and mastery 
of the subject, the Bishop's address was in every respect 
admirably fitted to the occasion. The poetic, the ideal side 
of the Bishop's nature came into play for a moment in the 
concluding sentences. " Let them then complete, at least 
in plan and purpose, the task which had been prepared 
through one and twenty years. In no way could they serve 
the cause of industry more effectually, and he could desire 
nothing better for those two counties which formed the old 
See of Durham than that they should still hold their place in 
the field of British industry till the end is reached. Till the 
end is reached ! Might he dare to express his hope ? till the 
passion for private gain is tempered, if not displaced, by the 
enthusiasm for public service; till employer and employed, 
gradually recognising their place, work side by side as fellow- 
workers for the good of the commonwealth in the strength 
and joy of one life ! " 

That was the first time I had heard the Bishop address a 
public meeting. Only once again did I hear him, and the 
speech then delivered was more striking and memorable still 
something to be enshrined in the heart and memory as a 
life-long possession. This was at the Northumberland Miners' 
Gala held at Blyth in 1894. r l" ne Annual Gala is a great 
event, a sort of red-letter day in the Northumbrian pitman's 
calendar. It is anticipated with eager expectation. The 
miners, young and old, male and female, troop to the trysting- 
place in their thousands. The term "gala" is suggestive of 
mirth, festivity, playfulness ; and truly the holiday -making 



384 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

spirit has scope and verge enough on that day. But the graver, 
the educational side of life is not wholly neglected. The 
great feature of the day is a mass meeting at which speeches 
on social and labour topics are delivered. In 1894 the 
Bishop was invited, and to the great joy of the miners the 
invitation was promptly accepted. This was the thirty-second 
anniversary. At one time or another over that long period 
successive meetings had been addressed by eminent statesmen 
and by great orators, by John Morley and Charles Bradlaugh ; 
by distinguished labour leaders, by Alexander Macdonald and 
Lloyd Jones ; and by many other men of note, some still 
living, others of them passed away. 

I had been present myself as a speaker at thirty-one of 
the galas. Many of them had been held, as was this, on the 
shores of the northern sea. In outward aspect, therefore, the 
scene was not unfamiliar. The day was brilliantly fine, a 
refreshing sea breeze tempering the burning rays of the July 
sun. Massed around the platform was a crowd of some five 
or six thousand intelligent listeners. 

The late Mr. John Nixon, the President of the Miners' 
Union a true brave man to the innermost core of his being 
was chairman. Other speakers were Mr. Clare (of the 
Newcastle Trades Council), Mr. Fenwick, M.P., and myself. 
The speakers were supported by the committees and the 
officials of the Association Mr. Ralph Young (secretary), Mr. 
J. H. Scott (treasurer), Mr. H. Boyle, who succeeded Mr. 
Nixon in the Presidency, being present. All this was accord- 
ing to use and wont. One thing only was new the presence 
of a Bishop. Never before had a Church dignitary, nor so 
far as I can remember any ecclesiastic, been invited as a 
speaker. To whatever cause the omission might be due, 
bigotry certainly had nothing to do with it ; since the miners 
justly pride themselves on the breadth and catholicity of their 
platform. As evidence of this it was only necessary to look 
at the rostrum that day. Catholic and protestant, episco- 
palian and nonconformists of every section, agnostic and 
secularist, crcedlcss men and men incapable of defining their 
creed, sat there side by side. And the platform was, I should 
say, in this respect fairly typical of the audience. Whatever 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 385 

the creed or profession, it may be safely said that the crowd 
was absolutely free from any taint of bigotry and narrow- 
mindedness. Yet the Bishop had probably never before 
addressed so large an assemblage of which churchmen formed 
so small a proportion. But a fairer, a more open-minded, 
a finer audience orator could not desire. Frankly democratic, 
with an appetite and a digestion for the strongest meat, it is 
nevertheless broadly tolerant of opinions other than its own. 
It would not perhaps be called an educated audience in the 
ordinary acceptation of the term, but it is certainly highly 
intelligent and keenly responsive to every noble utterance, 
to every appeal to freedom, to conscience and right dealing 
between man and man. 

As a rule the miners' meeting is not boisterously demon- 
strative, though by its hand-clapping and cheers it expresses 
unstintedly its appreciation of a fine sentiment, a great truth, 
or a telling phrase. Concentrated, quiet attention is its 
prevailing attitude. Now and then an ejaculation, hardly fit 
for fastidious ears, is thrown out by some enthusiast in the 
crowd. This is usually meant to imply agreement with the 
speaker, and is further intended to encourage him to higher 
flights of oratory. Translated into more polite language, its 
equivalent would be, " God bless you ! More power to your 
elbow ! " So it is interpreted alike by speaker and audience, 
being received with the utmost good-humour, as a contribu- 
tion from one who swears his benedictions as he does his 
anathemas, through inability to find in any extant dictionary 
or lexicon words emphatic enough to express his highly- 
charged feelings. Happily, however, the Bishop was sub- 
jected to no irregular interruptions, nor indeed to any avoid- 
able interruption whatever. 

Even with every advantage, with the finest of audiences 
and the best of weather, the surroundings of the Gala are not 
wholly favourable to effective oratory. Itinerant showmen, 
with their brass bands and loud -sounding organs, some of 
them apparently driven by steam, and shouters of wares of 
many kinds, are present in large numbers. Every effort is 
made by the Committee to keep them at a distance, but 
their clamorous, inharmonious noises break in upon speaker 

VOL. II 2 C 



386 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

and audience with startling and distracting effect. That the 
Bishop would receive every attention and appreciation no 
one doubted ; but it was desirable that he should have a 
quiet, orderly hearing. 

Those of us who had learnt to love and reverence him 
were not without our misgivings as to how he would discharge 
his task. That his mental equipment was perfect we knew, 
and we doubted not that a great moral and intellectual treat 
was in store for the audience provided he could make him- 
self heard. But would his voice reach the crowd ? Would 
he have physical strength and endurance to hold the atten- 
tion of the large audience to the end ? A glance at the 
somewhat frail, attenuated figure, after the wear and tear of 
its seventy years, showed that such misgivings were not 
wholly without reasonable foundation. Our doubts were 
soon dissipated. 

When the Bishop with beaming face rose to address the 
crowd, the very first sentence he uttered went straight 
to their ears, and to their hearts. In simple words, 
charged with deepest feeling, he told how pleased, how 
touched he was to receive the invitation of the Executive to 
be present. Why had they offered him such a privilege? 
It was, he thought, " because they believed his whole soul 
was turned to the desire to spread among men peace, good- 
will, and fellowship." The warm general applause which 
greeted the sentiment proved that every word had been 
heard. The Bishop spoke with animation, with fervour, 
indeed with vehemence, and one still wondered how long 
this high pressure could be sustained. Would there not be 
a collapse ? No, from beginning to end and the speech 
was not a short one sign there was none of faltering or 
feebleness. The audience hung upon the speaker's words, 
as indeed well they might, for they were; listening to a saint 
and prophet at a time when prophets and saints with a 
message and with courage to deliver it are not too plentiful. 

Called upon to address the assemblage immediately after 
the Bishop had spoken, I notice from the newspaper report 
that I characterised his speech as "perfect." In the heat 
and haste of impromptu speech one does not always select the 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 387 

most fitting word. " Perfect " is a strong epithet, one which 
should be sparingly used of any human performance or pro- 
duction. But I do not think the term was at all extravagant 
when applied to the Bishop's speech. Needless to say, there 
was no frothy declamation, there was no rhetoric, good or 
bad, there was indeed nothing that could be fairly called 
striking oratory, and yet oratory at its best seldom produces 
so profound an impression. It would be presumptuous for 
me to dwell upon its high intellectual qualities, but a plain, 
unscholarly man may remark on the beautiful simplicity of 
its phraseology. This great scholar, master of many languages, 
dead and living, uttered no word or phrase which was above 
the comprehension of the most illiterate hearer. 

No summary could do justice to such a speech, and indeed 
from its very terseness it would be difficult to summarise. I 
can only in roughest outline indicate some of its more salient 
points. There w r ere first two or three light autobiographical 
touches. The Bishop told how among his earliest recollec- 
tions of public events was when, a child of six, he went to a 
great meeting of the political unions at Birmingham just 
before the first Reform Bill. Afterwards he saw houses burnt 
down, and the streets of Birmingham occupied by soldiers. 
When at Cambridge for one of his examinations, the late 
Lord Derby came into the room and said, " Louis Philippe 
has landed in England." That was during the Revolution of 
1848. "The first time he went abroad he passed between 
the outposts of two contending armies in the insurrections of 
1849." He had therefore followed with interest the develop- 
ment of the popular cause. One great truth had been 
brought home to him: "the real nature of the nation, the 
idea that it is a social organism, a real body with a true life, 
the idea that humanity itself is 'a man who lives and irows 
for ever,' as Pascal said. Looking at this great fact, that the 
nation was a body of which they were all members, he had 
learnt three lessons amongst others, namely, that they must 
guard the treasures of the past for the sake of the present 
and the future ; that they must develop the powers of each 
man for the sake of the whole ; that they must cultivate asso- 
ciation, keeping in view 'the social destiny of every work.' " 



388 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

Then the Bishop paid a generous tribute to the splendid 
service rendered not only to the workers, but to the whole 
community, by friendly societies, co-operative societies, and 
trade unions. In all this the speaker carried the meeting 
entirely with him. But he did not shrink from uttering his 
innermost thought whether his audience agreed with him or 
not. Probably one of the hardest things for that democratic 
assemblage to listen to without protest was the Bishop's bold 
declaration in favour of inequality of social condition. " He 
believed it was well that some mt-n should have a high place 
and large means " ; but then, he hastened to add, such men 
were in the position of trustees and administrators who were 
bound to use their means " simply and solely for God and 
the nation, without any distinction of class/'' This trustee- 
ship, this responsibility for the proper use of wealth, was 
emphasised in other portions of the address. "All labour, 
labour of the head and labour of the hand, had a social 
destiny ; all that they had was committed to their steward- 
ship for the common service, and it was only in that way they 
could find peace." ..." Privileged inheritance should be 
regarded as a call to exceptional devotion/'' " The formation 
of character and not the accumulation of riches was the final 
end of the State, and he believed that co-operation was the 
real means to secure it." 

The Bishop concluded with an eloquent appeal to young 
men to cherish high thought, and to live strong, pure, noble 
lives. " Man truly lived only while he served ; let them not 
sacrifice the whole to the part, the future to the present, the 
spiritual to the temporal." 

The speech was certainly an unqualified success. It was 
a victory of intellect, of spirit, of soul over physical weakness 
and infirmity; something to strengthen one's wavering faith 
in man's immortality. 

Accompanying the Bishop on the way from the meeting, 
I personally thanked him, as the meeting collectively had 
done, for his speech, and I said how warmly his kindness 
and his utterances had been appreciated by the audience. 
"Yes," he responded with a smile, "it was indeed a fine 
audience. They were exceedingly kind ; but I don't think 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 389 

they believe strongly in Bishops, or in the doctrines they 
preach. I fear they partly suspect that I don't believe in 
them myself, but there they are mistaken." Yes, indeed ! 
If any one had come to that meeting doubting the strength 
and intensity of the Bishop's convictions, he could not 
possibly have left it with any such doubt. Dr. Westcott was 
perhaps right in supposing that the crowd had no great belief 
in Bishops or in their Church. But they did believe in him, 
in his absolute sincerity, in his unselfishness, and devotion to 
right. 

The Bishop's last address was delivered to the Durham 
miners in the Cathedral on their annual gala day. That 
address has a pathos of its own, since it was his last, and 
apparently felt by the speaker himself to be his last, public 
utterance. The discourse was as beautiful as it was touching 
and impressive. Brief, yet complete, and instinct with love, 
it reveals the man and indicates the secret of his power. 
"Men had a common heritage and a common duty; all were 
responsible in their measure for the formation of that public 
opinion which was the inspiration and strength of just laws." 
"The only abiding motive which would support them in 
the patient and resolute endeavour to use their heritage, to 
fulfil their duty, to fashion an effective Christian public 
opinion, was love." "Fear and hope passed away, but 
there was that which never passed away the love that never 
faileth." 

Then came a personal touch a reference to the resolu- 
tions he had formed and the promises he had made when he 
was installed as Bishop of Durham : " At the most solemn 
hour of my life I promised that, by the help of God, I would 
maintain and set forward, as far as in me lay, quietness, love, 
and peace among all men, and that I would show myself 
gentle and be merciful, for Christ's sake, to the poor and 
needy, the stranger and the destitute. I have endeavoured, 
with whatever mistakes and failures, to fulfil that promise.'' 
Never were solemn vows more faithfully kept. If there had 
been mistakes and failures, they were few and trivial, such as 
are inseparable from human weakness and fallibility. 

I am reminded of Shelley's self-imposed vow 



390 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

I will be wise, 

And just, and free, and mild, if in me lies 
Such power ; for I grow weary to behold 
The selfish and the strong still tyrannise 
Without reproach or check. 

Shelley was a true democrat and (despite some errors in 
his life) he is perhaps the most intensely spiritual and ideal, 
as he is certainly one of the most musical and melodious, of 
our poets. In the words I have cited there is none of the 
fierce aggressiveness of the revolutionist. Wisdom, justice, 
gentleness in a word, love these are to be the all-conquer- 
ing weapons of the reformer. They alone will bring ultimate 
and permanent victory. 

Let it shock no pious soul that I think of Shelley and 
Westcott at the same time. Shelley with his short, broken, 
not wholly spotless life ; Westcott with his fulness of years, 
through them all " wearing the white flower of a blameless 
life " ; consecrated by Heaven itself before ever hand of man 
had been laid upon him, as a great spiritual teacher. It is 
not for us to judge. In the pitying eye of Heaven allowance 
will be made for human frailty and failure. Shelley and 
Westcott were not wholly alien souls. What Mr. Stopford 
Brooke so finely says of Shelley may be said with equal truth 
of Dr. Westcott. " There was one thing at least that Shelley 
grasped and realised with force the moralities of the heart 
in their relation to the progress of mankind. Love and its 
eternity ; mercy, forgiveness, and endurance, as forms of love ; 
joy and freedom, justice and truth as the results of love ; the 
sovereign right of Love to be the ruler of the universe, and 
the certainty of its victory." 

Poet and divine thus deliver one message to humanity 
"That ye love one another." One sings it in song; the 
other preaches it in sermon. Too often the message is 
unheard, or unheeded. Yet let us take courage from what 
we have witnessed. We have seen that when a teacher lives 
and acts his creed, embodying it in a brave and selfless life, 
his message, despite all hindrances, will find its way to the 
hearts and consciences of men. 

In an age of materialism and mammon worship, when so 



xiv "EVERYBODY'S BISHOP" 391 

many men seem to have lost their faith in another world and 
their ideals in this ; in this " iron time of doubts, disputes, 
distractions, fears," it is something to have had such a high- 
souled prophet and saint among us as Dr. \Vestcott. He has 
riot lived in vain : his life has been an example and an 
inspiration to tens of thousands, fruitful now and charged 
with benediction and blessing to future generations. 

Creeds pass, rites change, no altar standeth whole, 

yet the human heart now, as of old, leaps with joyful alacrity 
to welcome messages of love and wisdom from a true, brave 
teacher. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE LAST WEEK 

THE Bishop had promised to preach to the miners at 
their annual service in the Cathedral on Saturday, 2Oth 
July, and being anxious not to disappoint them, and 
feeling far from well, he went to bed early on the 
Friday evening, hoping to feel better in the morning. 
The 2Oth was a very warm day, and knowing how 
greatly the heat tried the Bishop, his family felt very 
anxious as to the effect of this great exertion, though 
he himself was very cheerful. In the morning he 
wrote a letter to his eldest son : 

BISHOP AUCKLAND, zothjitty 1901. 

My dear Brooke I read the S.P.G. sermon 1 with great 
pleasure. It was delightfully fresh, and had just those 
personal touches which are most helpful. This heat nearly 
prostrates me, and I have to speak to the miners in the 
Cathedral this afternoon. Ever your most affectionate 
father, B. F. DUNELM. 

Latin Elegiacs do not flow just now. 

After an early lunch the Bishop, accompanied by 
his daughter, Mrs. Prior, and his son Henry, Domestic 

1 Sermon preached by Canon \\ estcutl in Sherbornc Abbey. 
392 



CHAP, xv THE LAST WEEK 393 

Chaplain, drove to Durham. The Bishop, as usual, sat 
with his back to the horses, and as it was very hot, an 
umbrella was held over him for protection from the 
sun. On arriv r al at Durham he went straight to the 
Chapter- house to robe. There he was joined by the 
Dean and all the members of the Chapter, except 
Canon Farrar, who was unfortunately indisposed. The 
procession then formed, the Bishop, supported by the 
Dean and the Archdeacon of Durham, and followed by 
his son, coming last. As this procession entered at the 
south-west door, a miners' band entered at the north- 
west door. This band was playing with much feeling 
" Abide with me : fast falls the eventide," and many of 
the large congregation assembled in the Cathedral were 
visibly affected by its moving strains. When the time 
came for the Bishop's address he ascended the pulpit 
and began his sermon in " a voice which for fulness and 
vigour 1 have never heard him use before." 

The concluding words of this last message were : 

One word more. About eleven years ago, in the prospect 
of my work here, at the most solemn hour of my life, 1 
promised that, by the help of God, " I would maintain and 
set forward, as far as should lie in me, quietness, love, and 
peace among all men " ; and that " I would show myself 
gentle and be merciful for Christ's sake to poor and needy 
people and to all strangers destitute of help." I have 
endeavoured, with whatever mistakes and failures, to fulfil the 
promise, and I am most grateful to you, and to all over whom 
I have been set, for the sympathy \vith which my efforts have 
been met. So I have been enabled to watch with joy a 
steady improvement in the conditions, and also, 1 trust, in the 
spirit of labour among us. At the present time Durham 
offers to the world the highest type of industrial concord 
which has yet been fashioned. Much, no doubt, remains to 
be done ; but the true paths of progress are familiar to our 
workers and our leaders, and are well trodden. While, then, 



394 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

so far I look back, not without thankfulness, and look forward 
with confident hope, I cannot but desire more keenly that 
our moral and spiritual improvement should advance no less 
surely than our material improvement. And therefore,, since 
it is not likely that I shall ever address you here again, I 
have sought to tell you what I have found in a long and 
laborious life to be the most prevailing power to sustain right 
endeavour, however imperfectly I have yielded myself to it 
even the love of Christ ; to tell you what I know to be the 
secret of a noble life, even glad obedience to His will. I 
have given you a watchword which is fitted to be the inspira- 
tion, the test, and the support of untiring service to God and 
man : the love of Christ constraineth us. 

Take it then, my friends, this is my last counsel, to home 
and mine and club : try by its Divine standard the thorough- 
ness of your labour and the purity of your recreation, and the 
Durham which we love, the Durham of which we are proud 
to repeat the words I used before will soon answer to the 
heavenly pattern. If Tennyson's idea of heaven was true, 
that "heaven is the ministry of soul to soul," we may 
reasonably hope, by patient, resolute, faithful, united en- 
deavour, to find heaven about us here, the glory of our 
earthly life. 

After the sermon, the hymn " Praise, my soul, the 
King of Heaven " was sung to the accompaniment of 
all the bands. 

Such was the Bishop's farewell to his Cathedral and 
his people. 

After the service, being very tired, he proceeded to 
the Archdeaconry, where he remained for some time in 
close conversation with the Archdeacon in his study, 
until he was summoned by his son to tea. 

On returning home, it was arranged that there 
should be a celebration of the Holy Communion in his 
invalid daughter's room on the following morning, and 
the Bishop retired early to rest. 



xv THE LAST WKKK 395 

On the next day, the Seventh Sunday after Trinity, 
which in the previous year had been the last Sunday 
of his youngest son on earth, the quiet service was held 
as arranged, his son Henry being the celebrant. In 
his anxiety not to overtire his father, the Chaplain 
omitted the Prayer of Humble Access, which, as will 
afterwards appear, rather troubled the Bishop. The 
Bishop took his place in the arm-chair by his daughter's 
bed, which had been his wife's customary scat, and he 
afterwards remarked, "' It seemed so strange being in 
mamma's place." 

The Bishop, being very tired, lay down in the 
afternoon until tea - time, after which he said a 
short Evensong with his daughters and went early 
to bed. 

On Monday, the 22nd, the Bishop kept to his room 
most of the day, as he was in pain and was more 
comfortable when lying down. He was able, however, 
to see Mrs. Watkins, who, according to an arrangement 
made on the previous Saturday, came over with some 
friends to see the Castle and Chapel. The last entry 
in his text-book was made on this day. It is barely 
legible, but I read it as : 

" In terrible (?) l pain and discomfort. Mrs. 
Watkins . . ." 

In the papers this day there were various comments 
on the Bishop's words of the previous Saturday, especi- 
ally as to the words " It is not likely that I shall ever 
address you again." The general line of comment was, 
" Are we about to lose the precious ministrations of our 
matchless Bishop ? " and the words were commonly 
interpreted as an indication of his approaching resig- 

1 This word "terrible" is not a likely word, for him to have used, hut 
I can make nothing else of it. The cause of death was peritonitis. 



39 6 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

nation ; for it was not until Friday that the report of 
his serious illness appeared in the papers. 

That night the Bishop could not sleep, and at about 
1.30 A.M. his invalid daughter was startled by a knock 
at her bedroom door. Her father came in, saying how 
sorry he was to disturb her, and hoping that he had 
not waked her. He had come to look for a spirit- 
lamp, to prepare himself a hot -water bottle for the 
relief of his pain. The spirit-lamp had, however, been 
lent to Mrs. Prior, and the Bishop insisted on going to 
find it himself. 

On Tuesday, the 23rd, the Bishop was much the 
same, but it was decided that he must not be left alone 
any more. He endeavoured to deal with his letters, 
but his Chaplain son found it advisable to keep away 
from him as much as possible, as he was too eager for 
business. 

On Wednesday, the 24th, the Bishop's condition 
was to all outward appearance unchanged. He was 
still anxious about his correspondence, and dictated 
some replies to letters in the afternoon. 

Thursday, the 25th, St. James's Day, found the 
Bishop very weak, and at the early service in the 
Chapel the household's prayers were asked for him. 
His medical attendant Dr. M'Cullagh, who had visited 
him three times on the previous day, was anxious for 
a second opinion, and Dr. Hume of Newcastle was 
summoned. The Bishop's children sat with him all 
day, and his invalid daughter vapourised him with 
eau-cle- Cologne, and held his hot hands within her 
cold ones, which comforted him much. He could 
hardly even now be kept from work, and insisted on 
writing a cheque, his last, to enable a poor clergyman 
to get a summer holiday. He was very urgent that 



xv THE LAST WEEK 397 

his son should take the carriage to the station to meet 
Dr. Hume. The physician arrived at five o'clock, and 
when the Chaplain went in to remind him of his train, 
he found the Bishop talking to him in an animated way 
about the Roman Wall and other Tyneside antiquities. 
On his way to the station, Dr. Hume wired for a nurse, 
who arrived that evening. The Bishop received the 
nurse with one of his most beautiful smiles, and hoped 
she would be able to amuse herself, and expressed his 
belief that he would give no trouble. 

In the course of that afternoon the Bishop made 
a parting present to his Domestic Chaplain, the Rev. 
C. H. Boutflower, who was leaving to take up work in 
Furness. As the Chaplain knelt at his bedside, the 
Bishop laid his hands on him and blessed him. 

On Friday, the 26th, the Bishop felt better, and was 
quite bright. Archdeacons W T atkins and Long came 
over in the morning to discuss what should be clone in 
the matter of the gathering of Lay-workers, which was 
to be held in the Castle on the Saturday. It was decided 
to postpone the meeting, but the Bishop was unable to 
see the Archdeacons, and was not informed of the post- 
ponement. Several telegrams of inquiry were received 
during this and the following day. In the evening the 
Bishop, who had taken a sudden change for the worse at 
about 5.30, rallied, and would discuss his correspondence 
(of some days previous) and the arrangements for the 
Meeting of Lay-workers on the morrow with his son. 

Telegrams were dispatched that evening summon- 
ing the Bishop's eldest daughter, Mrs. King, and his 
eldest son, Canon Brooke Westcott, who were the only 
other children in England at that time. The doctor 
returned late in the evening and remained with the 
Bishop during the night. 



398 LIFE OF BISHOP VVESTCOTT CHAP. 

The Bishop rested well that night, and was cheer- 
ful in the morning, though very weak. When the 
nurse came in early she found him lying with his 
hands folded, saying over quietly the iO3rd Psalm: 
" Praise the Lord, O my soul : and all that is within me 
praise His holy Name. Praise the Lord, O my soul : 
and forget not all His benefits." 

Canon Westcott arrived at about mid-day, having 
travelled all night from Sherborne. The Bishop was 
very pleased to see him, and remarked how good it was 
of him to have come to take his place at the Lay- 
workers' Meeting. In the morning the Bishop dictated 
the following message to the clergy of the Diocese : 
" The Bishop of Durham, who is lying seriously ill at 
Auckland Castle, desires that the prayers of all the 
congregations of the Diocese may be offered on his 
behalf." 

On this day the Bishop received a message of sym- 
pathy from the Wesleyan Conference, then sitting at 
Newcastle, to which he listened with pleasure, and said, 
" It is very kind of them." l 

In the afternoon his invalid daughter had been 
carried to the Bishop's room to sit with him. He 
asked her for some water, saying, " There is nothing so 
nice as cold water." For a long time his daughter sat 
holding her father's hands and leaning on his bed, and 
then she lay down on her mother's little sofa to have a 
quiet Evensong. This the Bishop noticed, and said, 
" Could you give me mamma's old Prayer Book, if you 

1 The Rev. D. T. Young, in proposing this Resolution, said: "He is 
the Bishop of all the Christian Churches, and \ve are all indebted to his 
scholarship and his saintly influence.'' The Rev. J. IT. Moulton, the son 
of the Bishop's old friend and fellow- worker, seconded the Resolution, 
which, after a few sympathetic words from the President, was carried 
unanimously. 



XV 



THE LAST WEEK 399 



are not using it ? " So she returned to the bedside 
with the book in her hand, but gave him a lighter one, 
which had been given to our mother by her youngest 
son. He then asked for the Psalms, and said, " Let me 
have the book, that I may lose none of it " ; and added, 
" Some people think that the Psalms arc so sad : but to 
me they are full of praise and thanksgiving." So they 
read all the Psalms, morning and evening, for the 2/th 
day of the month. At first the Bishop tried to say 
alternate verses, but this was more than he could do, so 
he listened and joined in the Gloria. When this 
reading was finished the Bishop, after thanking his 
daughters very lovingly, added, " All I can do is a little 
bit of praise. Just a little bit of praise." 

Mrs. King arrived that evening, and though the 
same change had come over her father as on the previous 
evening, he recognised and welcomed her. He seems 
now for the first time to have realised how near the 
end was, for he remarked at this time, " Now we are all 
together, as we were before," referring to the gathering 
two months previous, when his wife fell asleep. 

Mrs. King had not been there long when through 
the open window the Bishop heard a church bell ring- 
ing, and concluding that it was supper-time, turned to 
her and said, " You ought to go to supper." " She 
replied, " Oh, father, I have not been here very long, 
and would like to stay." The Bishop then addressed 
the same words to his third daughter, Mrs. Prior, but 
she replied, " Oh, father, it is not quite time yet." He 
then caught sight of his son at a little distance and 
said, " Then, Harry, you ought to go." The son con- 
sented. Then the Bishop, in a very weak voice, was 
heard to say, speaking slowly and with great difficulty, 
" The family discipline seems to me to leave much to 



400 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

be desired." His children had often heard him humor- 
ously make similar laments ; and the words clearly 
showed how much he was even then his own old self. 

So his children had to leave him and go to supper. 
When they returned from their meal, they were informed 
that the end was near. They gathered round his bed, 
and his eldest son offered prayer. The Bishop asked 
that he would first say the Prayer of Humble Access 
(which he had missed on the previous Sunday) and 
then the General Thanksgiving. After these prayers, 
the Bishop asked for each of his children by name. 
His eyes were dim now, and he could not see them ; 
but as each answered to his name the Bishop greeted 
their voices with an answering smile. The Bishop 
then asked for the Psalms. His son Henry proceeded 
to read the I2ist Psalm, one of the Morning Psalms 
for the 2 /th day. The Bishop was not satisfied : he 
wanted the Evening Psalms. They were read, and how 
beautiful they were. " Before the morning watch, I 
say, before the morning watch. . . . Lord, I am not high- 
minded : I have no proud looks." Then his children 
began to sing some of his favourite hymns, and first of 
all, " O God, our help in ages past." The hymns 
seemed to comfort the Bishop greatly, for, until he 
finally lost consciousness, he was uneasy at any pause. 

As the Bishop lay unconscious, the members of the 
household were brought in to take a last look at their 
faithful friend and pastor. Besides the Bishop's 
children, Miss A. Prior, the Rev. C. H. Boutflower, the 
Rev. E. Price, Vicar of Bishop Auckland, and Dr. 
M'Cullagh were present. Gathered round the bedside, 
they continued singing hymns. Once, when they paused, 
the nurse said, " Sing on, please : it comforts him " ; and 
so the old familiar hymns went on. The Prayer of 



xv THE LAST WEEK 401 

Commendation and the Collect for All Saints' Day were 
said by the Vicar. So at about I i.io the good Bishop 
peacefully fell asleep and entered into rest. 

The following clay being Sunday, the sad news of 
the Bishop's death became known by the tolling of 
many bells, which, both at Newcastle and Durham 
Cathedrals, and in many towns and villages throughout 
the North, took the place of the ordinary chimes. 
There were many pulpit references made that day, both 
in Churches and Nonconformist Chapels, to the loss 
sustained by the whole body of Christians. 

Messages of sympathy from individuals and public 
bodies poured in daily from all sides, and bore testi- 
mony, if such were needed, to the affectionate esteem in 
which the saintly prelate had been held. 

The Bishop's body rested in its coffin in the great 
entrance hall from Wednesday evening until Thursday 
night ; it was then removed into the centre of the 
Chapel on a wheeled bier, and left between the graves 
of Bishop Cosin and Bishop Lightfoot, in the centre of 
the Chapel. So it remained during Evensong in Chapel, 
and during the service on the following morning. 

On the Friday morning the Bishop of Exeter, Dr. 
Llewellyn Davies, Mrs. Hort, with her eldest son and his 
wife, arrived at the Castle, Mrs. Prior's elder children 
having arrived on Thursday evening. At the celebra- 
tion of Holy Communion in Chapel at 8 A.M., all 
the guests in the house were present, and the members 
of the household met once more around the altar in the 
Chapel. It was an impressive service. Canon West- 
cott celebrated, assisted by his brother Henry. In the 
early afternoon the bier with the coffin on it was rever- 
ently removed through the main entrance and brought 
in at the side door into the smaller entrance hall. 
VOL. II 2 D 



40 4 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

being said by the Master of Trinity (Dr. Butler). The 
Dean of Durham (Dr. Kitchin) read the Lesson. The 
committal sentences were very impressively said by the 
Rev. Canon Westcott, and during this solemn committal 
of a father's body to the earth by a son it was felt that 
the very climax of the whole ceremony was reached. 
This portion of the service concludes with the words 
"They rest from their labours "-words which exactly 
express what was in each man's mind as he stood in 
the bright, pleasant Chapel in itself by no means sug- 
gestive of the tomb. " Now the labourer's task is o'er " 
having been sung, the Rev. H. Westcott said the re- 
maining collects, and the hymn " Peace, perfect peace " 
followed. The Archbishop of York pronounced the Bene- 
diction, after which the Nunc Dimittis and the Doxology 
were sung. The service over, the congregation filed 
past the open grave, the organist meanwhile playing 
" Oh rest in the Lord " and the Hallelujah Chorus. 

The Bishop's body was laid in the same grave to 
which he had committed his wife's body two months 
before. It is now covered by a slab, surmounted by 
St. Cuthbert's Cross, and bearing the following inscrip- 
tion, composed by the Bishop : 

H1C REQUIESCUNT IN SPE 
STUDIORU.M AFFECTUUM FIDEI CONSORTES 

I'.ROOKE FOSS WESTCOTT, S.T.I'. 
I-:i J ISC. DUNELM. MDCCCXC-MCMI 

ET 
SARA LOUISA MARIA 

CONJUX EJUS 
DUORUM ALTER NATUS MUCCCXXV 

OH I IT AICMI 
ALTER A NATA MDCCCXXX 

OBIIT MCMI 
EGO VENI UT VITAM HABEANT 



xv THE LAST WEEK 405 

On the following day (Saturday) the Chapel was 
open from 9.30 A.M. until 6 P.M., when a continuous 
stream of visitors, including many miners and other 
working-men friends, reverently passed by the late 
Bishop's open grave, and read the inscription prepared 
to mark the final resting-place of the bodies of the 
Bishop and his wife. 

It was my father's express wish that there should 
be no subscription for any public memorial to him, to 
which request both his family and friends have affec- 
tionately yielded. 

I do not know that anything remains to be said. 
My purpose in writing this memoir of my father will 
have singularly failed if those who have followed the 
story of his life do not feel that it was a life grand in 
its consistency, full in its achievement, and beautiful in 
its earthly close. Our Christian Faith assures us that 
it is not ended yet. He is, as he was, " in Christ." 



404 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT CHAP. 

being said by the Master of Trinity (Dr. Butler). The 
Dean of Durham (Dr. Kitchin) read the Lesson. The 
committal sentences were very impressively said by the 
Rev. Canon Westcott, and during this solemn committal 
of a father's body to the earth by a son it was felt that 
the very climax of the whole ceremony was reached. 
This portion of the service concludes with the words 
" They rest from their labours " words which exactly 
express what was in each man's mind as he stood in 
the bright, pleasant Chapel in itself by no means sug- 
gestive of the tomb. " Now the labourer's task is o'er " 
having been sung, the Rev. H. Westcott said the re- 
maining collects, and the hymn " Peace, perfect peace " 
followed. The Archbishop of York pronounced the Bene- 
diction, after which the Nunc Dimittis and the Doxology 
were sung. The service over, the congregation filed 
past the open grave, the organist meanwhile playing 
" Oh rest in the Lord " and the Hallelujah Chorus. 

The Bishop's body was laid in the same grave to 
which he had committed his wife's body two months 
before. It is now covered by a slab, surmounted by 
St. Cuthbert's Cross, and bearing the following inscrip- 
tion, composed by the Bishop : 

HIC REQUIESCUNT IN SPE 
STUDIORUAI AFFECTUUM FIDKI CONSORTES 

BROOKE FOSS WESTCOTT, S.T.I'. 
EPISC. DUNELM. MDCCCXC-MCMI 

ET 
SARA LOUISA MARIA 

CONJUX EJUS 
DUORUM ALTER NATUS MDCCCXXV 

OBIIT AICMI 
ALTER A NATA MDCCCXXX 

OBIIT AICMI 
EGO VENI UT VITAM HABEANT 



XV 



THE LAST WEEK 405 



On the following day (Saturday) the Chapel was 
open from 9.30 A.M. until 6 P.M., when a continuous 
stream of visitors, including many miners and other 
working-men friends, reverently passed by the late 
Bishop's open grave, and read the inscription prepared 
to mark the final resting-place of the bodies of the 
Bishop and his wife. 

It was my father's express wish that there should 
be no subscription for any public memorial to him, to 
which request both his family and friends have affec- 
tionately yielded. 

I do not know that anything remains to be said. 
My purpose in writing this memoir of my father will 
have singularly failed if those who have followed the 
story of his life do not feel that it was a life grand in 
its consistency, full in its achievement, and beautiful in 
its earthly close. Our Christian Faith assures us that 
it is not ended yet. He is, as he was, " in Christ." 



APPENDIX I 

PUBLIC TRIBUTES TO THE MEMORY OF 
BISHOP WESTCOTT 

MANY Resolutions and Minutes of Public Bodies relating to the 
services rendered to the community by Bishop Westcott were 
kindly forwarded to the surviving members of his family. A 
representative selection from these is here added. 

CONVOCATION OF THE PROVINCE OF YORK 

Proposed by His Grace the President, seconded by the Pro- 
locutor, and carried in silence, the members of the Convocation 
rising in their places. 

The Convocation of York, assembled in full Synod, desires to 
record its sense of the signal loss which has been sustained by 
the Church of England, and especially in its Northern Province, 
by the recent departure of the late Bishop of Durham, Dr. Brooke 
Foss Westcott. A man mighty in the Scriptures and deeply 
learned in Christian philosophy, he was able to bring out of his 
treasures things new and old, and to apply to the needs and 
circumstances of his own generation the great principles of the 
doctrine of Christ. His earnest desire and endeavour were to 
promote the highest welfare of the human family by proclaiming 
the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. His words 
of wise counsel and calm judgment, and, above all, his ever- 
welcome presence and charming personality, were a continual 
strength and comfort to those who were associated with him in 
the Upper House of Convocation, and made their impression, 
beyond all doubt, on the whole Northern Synod. 

407 



408 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 



DURHAM DIOCESAN CONFERENCE 

Proposed by the Archdeacon of Durham, seconded by Lord 
Barnard, and resolved unanimously : 

That this Diocesan Conference, at its first meeting since the 
lamented death of its late President, Brooke Foss, by Divine 
Providence Lord Bishop of Durham, desires with reverent affec- 
tion to place on record an expression of its devout thankfulness 
for the singular benefits conferred upon the Diocese during the 
eleven years of his Episcopate, and of its sense of the loss which 
the Church at large and this Diocese in particular has suffered by 
his removal from the sphere of his earthly ministry. 

Succeeding to the labours of his great predecessor and life-long 
friend, Dr. Westcott devoted to the work of the Diocese rich and 
rare natural gifts, wide learning, deep thought, exact scholarship, 
courage which never faltered, energy which never slackened, 
generous munificence in which the left hand knew not what the 
right hand did, and above all the attractive power of a spiritual 
personality which knew not self and lived for God and for 
mankind. 

"A learned man" and "mighty in the Scriptures," he "con- 
tended earnestly for the faith once for all delivered to the Saints," 
and found in the revelation of God in Christ, in the Bible and in 
the Church, the explanation of the past, the interpretation of the 
present, and sure confidence for the future; for "he was a good 
man and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith. " 

It is characteristic of his work among us that his last public 
utterance was addressed to a great congregation of miners 
welcomed to his Cathedral Church, and that half an hour later 
he was reading the proof-sheet of a note to Bishop Lightfoot's 
essay on 77/6' Christian Ministry. 

It is only the late Bishop's written injunction which has 
restrained his Diocese from offering to his memory some material 
monument. Nothing can restrain us from cherishing and profiting 
by the spiritual monument of his illustrious work and inspiring life. 



DEAN AND CHAPTER or DURHAM 

The Dean and Chapter of Durham cannot assume the charge 
of the Spiritualties of the vacant See of Durham without recording 
the deep sense which they entertain of the most serious loss the 



i PUBLIC TRIBUTES 409 

Cathedral, the Diocese, and the University of Durham have 
sustained by the death of their revered Bishop and much -loved 
friend Dr. Brooke Foss Westcott. 



DEAN AND CHAPTER OF PETERBOROUGH 

Profoundly deploring the great loss to the Church of England 
and to Christendom of the Lord Bishop of Durham, we, the 
members of the Chapter of Peterborough Cathedral, of which he 
was for fourteen years a most distinguished Canon, desire to 
tender to the family of the late Bishop our sincere and most 
respectful sympathy. 

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE 

The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge desires to put 
on record the loss which it has sustained through the lamented 
death of the Right Reverend Dr. Brooke Foss Westcott, Bishop 
of Durham, one of its official Vice- Presidents and one of its 
Episcopal Referees. 

In common with the Church at large, the Society remembers 
with gratitude his singular gifts as a devout scholar, an inspiring 
teacher, and a wise interpreter with matchless spiritual insight. 
It further recognises that it was given to him largely to influence 
the cause of peace at home and the extension of Christ's kingdom 
abroad. 

His interest in the Society was manifested by many public 
utterances, notably in its Bicentenary Year ; and his earnest 
advocacy of the Lay Workers' College at Stepney at a meeting in 
the Society's House will long be remembered. 

The Society thanks God for the life and work of this great 
Bishop, and at the same time desires to offer its sincere sympathy 
to his family in their bereavement. 

SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL IN 
FOREIGN PARTS 

At its first meeting after the decease of the Right Rev. 
Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., D.C.L., late Lord Bishop of 
Durham, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts desires to place on record its sense of the loss 
which it thus sustains. 



410 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

While the Church generally is honouring the memory of a 
great prelate, and sacred scholarship retains the prints of his 
toil among its most valued treasures, the Society cannot forget 
that the life of Bishop Westcott has had a missionary influence 
of exceptional range and force. It was as an expert that he 
wrote or spoke on Missionary subjects. When Regius Professor 
of Divinity at Cambridge he was one of the leaders connected 
with the brotherhood of that University at Delhi ; as a father 
he gave no fewer than four of his own sons to the Society's 
missions in India ; and as Bishop he encouraged his clergy to 
listen to the call to engage in work abroad, and laboured to foster 
the missionary spirit among the people of his diocese. 



CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

The Committee have heard with profound regret of the death 
of the Right Reverend Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., Bishop of 
Durham, and a Vice-President of the Society. Ripe in years 
and honours, he has passed to his rest, having enriched the 
Church of Christ in every land not less by the sincere simplicity 
of a saintly life than by the rare stores of learning, as varied as 
they were profound. Of his distinguished career as a master, 
professor, and bishop it does not become the Committee to 
speak. But they bear thankful witness to the noble example 
which he has left of earnest and intelligent interest in Foreign 
Missions, and how willingly he gave four of his sons to be 
missionaries in India. The Committee recall with gratitude the 
frequent occasions when he publicly advocated the cause of the 
Society in memorable addresses which were marked not only by 
their breadth of view but by the accuracy of the information 
which they contained. 

The committee respectfully offer the expression of their 
deep sympathy with the family of the late Bishop, now mourning 
a third bereavement within so few months. 



CAMBRIDGE MISSION TO DELHI 

The Committee, at this their first meeting after the death ol 
Bishop Westcott, desire to place on record, however inadequately, 
their sense of the vast debt of gratitude which they owe to that 
great and admirable man. His inspiring counsels from the 



i PUBLIC TRIBUTES 41 i 

very birth of the Mission, his constant and minute devotion to 
its welfare and its operations so long as he remained at Cam- 
bridge, and the commanding position which he held in the 
Church, made us proud of his leadership while he lived, and now 
leave us thankful for his holy and beautiful memory. The 
Delhi Brotherhood will not forget the services either of the 
father or of the son. 



THE DELHI BROTHERHOOD 

The members of the Cambridge Mission desire to express 
their deep sense of the loss which they have sustained in the 
death of the Bishop of Durham. While it would hardly become 
them to attempt to estimate the measure of the loss to the whole 
Anglican communion of one who by common consent had come 
to be recognised as its greatest living theologian, and whose 
life and character during his long career as a teacher, author, and 
leader had won for him so unique an influence in the Church 
and realm of England, they feel they may venture to record the 
magnitude of the debt they owe him both as a mission and in 
many cases as individuals bound to him by such intimate ties 
of affection and regard. They cannot forget that it was to his 
inspiring influence and suggestion that the Cambridge Mission 
owed its origin, and that in all the stages of its history he 
was ever foremost in aiding and shaping its development, its 
counsellor in difficulty, its sympathiser in times of trouble and 
bereavement. They believe that to him more than to any other 
churchman of his day was due the marked revival of the mission- 
ary spirit, of the recognition that the cause of Missions is " not 
only" (to use his own words) " a duty of Christian obedience, 
but the condition, the sign, the support of our Christian 
growth." They desire to express their thankfulness to Almighty 
God for His goodness in sparing so long to the service of the 
Church a life of such pre-eminent gifts and graces, and they 
offer their deepest sympathy to the surviving members of his 
family, the youngest member of which they cannot but ever 
thankfully remember laid down his life here in Delhi in the 
service of the Mission to which his father so readily spared him. 

The INDIAN CHURCH AID ASSOCIATION also, through their 
President, Bishop Johnson, expressed " our strong sense of 



412 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

the loss which India has sustained in the death of your 
honoured father. His interest in India was of an almost 
romantic character. . 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY 

The death, on Saturday evening, 27th July, of the Right Rev. 
Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., Bishop of Durham, removes from 
the list of the Society's Vice-Presidents one of its most distin- 
guished and most honoured names. To the expressions of 
profound regret which the news of his death has evoked not 
only in the Church and from the people to which he himself 
belonged, but from all branches of the Protestant Church, at 
home and abroad, the Committee of the Bible Society add their 
tribute of appreciation and high regard. They join in gratitude 
to Almighty God for the memory of a prince among men, whose 
talents and personality were at all times reverently and patiently 
devoted to the cause of truth and righteousness. 

In every part of his career no one could fail to recognise the 
dedication of his gifts to Him from Whom they were received. 

The brilliant scholarship which made his name famous, and 
added so much to the storehouse of truth, received its comple- 
ment in the strenuous and sympathetic labours with which his 
later years were associated. Whether engaged in academic 
studies or in the patient unravelling of social problems, he was 
conspicuous for the clearness of his vision and the perfect 
courage of his convictions. " He leaves a name behind him 
that his praises should be reported." 

To the British and Foreign Bible Society the late Bishop of 
Durham was a warm and devoted friend. When in 1883 the 
Committee appointed him a Vice-President, they were, even then, 
only in part acknowledging a debt of gratitude for his public 
utterances on behalf of the Society and his more personal 
support. 

That debt has been vastly increased since then, and the 
Committee, in paying respect to his memory, gratefully put on 
record their feelings of thankfulness for the long association of 
his name and life-work with the aims of the Bible Society. 

To those nearer to him in ties of kinship the Committee tender 
their warmest sympathy. 



PUBLIC TRIBUTES 413 



WESLKYAN METHODIST CONFERENCE ' 

My Lord The Wesleyan Conference now in Session at New- 
castle-on-Tyne has heard with deep regret of your Lordship's 
serious illness, and has instructed us by a unanimous vote to 
assure you of its heartfelt and prayerful sympathy. 

Your Lordship's writings have for man)- years been an inspira- 
tion to our ministers and people, and your latest volume has conic 
to us as a message from our common Master. 

We have always regarded your life as a great gift from the 
Head of the Church to our own people as well as to your Lord- 
ship's own communion, and we desire to assure you of our pro 
found esteem, and our earnest hope that a life so valuable may 
be prolonged to the glory of C.od. -- Believe us, my Lord, on 
behalf of the Conference, yours faithfully, 

\V. T. DAYISON, President. 
MARSHALL HARTLEY, Secretary. 

SUNDERLAND FREE CHURCH COUNCIL 

We recognise, with deep gratitude to the great Head of the 
Church, the many Christian qualities and eminent graces \\hich 
were patent to the most casual observer of the life of Bishop 
Westcott. His love to Christ, his genuine piety, his reverent 
manner, his catholic spirit, his spiritual instinct, his social interest, 
his practical help, his ripe scholarship, and his humble bearing, 
are a few of the traits \\hich were manifest in him, and which 
call for our praise to God. 

The Episcopal Church has sustained a great loss in his de- 
parture, and not only the Episcopal Church, but, what is larger 
than any sect, the Church universal mourns his absence. 

The Sunderland Division of the Salvation Army also for- 
warded a resolution of sympathy. 

BOARD OF CONCILIATION FOR THE DURHAM COAL TRADE 

This meeting desires to record its profound sorrow at the 
death on Sunday last of the Right Reverend Dr. Westcott, 
Bishop of Durham. 

1 This is the message which was received and welcomed by the Bishop 
on the day on which he died. See p. 398. 



414 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

He had, by his earnest desire and active efforts to promote 
peace and harmony in the great industries of the county, and 
especially in the coal trade, won the high esteem and the con- 
fidence of both employers and employed. 

His mediation contributed largely to the settlement of the 
Coal Trade Strike in 1892, and his influence aided the establish- 
ment of the Conciliation Board in 1895. 

He evinced sympathy with all that concerned the material 
wellbeing of the wage-earning community throughout the county, 
and gave to efforts to promote such wellbeing encouragement 
and practical aid. 

It was a remarkable and appropriate conclusion to his life 
that his last public appearance, within a very few days of his 
death, was to preach in Durham Cathedral to the miners of the 
county on their Annual Demonstration day. 

Capital and labour, equally represented by this Board, desire 
to preserve his memory and to cherish his precepts, and they 
now unite in tendering to his family their deep and respectful 
sympathy. 



DURHAM MINERS' ASSOCIATION 

We, the Executive Committee of the Durham Miners' Associ- 
ation, in the name of our members, express our universal sorrow 
at the death of our respected Bishop and friend, the late Bishop 
Westcott. We recognise that we have lost a sympathiser, coun- 
sellor, and helper in all our efforts for better conditions, both in 
our home surroundings and our working life. From the first day 
of his residence amongst us, we felt that it was his desire to be 
Bishop of the Diocese in the truest and best sense of the term ; 
and as the years have passed, that feeling has been strengthened 
by the words of kindly counsel he has given us, and by his 
generous and helpful actions. While, therefore, we share in the 
loss that has fallen upon the whole community, we join in the ex- 
pression of regret and sorrow which will be felt in every portion 
of the sphere in which he moved ; and we tender our sympathy 
to the relatives of the truly great and kindly Christian who has 
been taken from a life in which he lived usefully and well to 
a reward which awaits all who try to correct the wrongs and 
brighten the darkness of this life. 



PUBLIC TRIBUTES 415 



NORTHUMBERLAND MINERS' MUTUAL CONFIDENT 
ASSOCIATION 

Death of Bishop \Vestcott 

Resolved, that on behalf of our Association \vc express our 
deep sympathy and condolence with the family of the late Bishop 
of Durham in their sorrowful bereavement. We feel that we 
have ourselves lost a warm and sincere friend, whose sympathies 
with and helpfulness to everything calculated to raise the char- 
acter and improve the condition of the workers were ever active 
and ever wisely directed. By personal effort and by the influence 
of his high position the Bishop at all times strove to encourage 
industrial peace and to promote those sentiments of goodwill 
and those principles of equity between employers and workmen 
which are the only sure foundations of peaceful industry. 

Bishop IVcstcotfs Portrait 

Resolved, that considering the eminent services rendered by 
the Bishop to the workers of the North in general, and to the 
miners in particular, by his powerful advocacy of conciliation for 
the prevention of disputes between employers and employed, and 
of all other methods and movements calculated to promote their 
welfare, our agents be authorised to obtain a suitable portrait of 
him for our hall. 



NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM MINERS' PERMANENT 
RELIEF FUND 

The General Committee of the Northumberland and Durham 
Miners' Permanent Relief Fund desire to express their sorrow at 
the loss that their Society has sustained by the lamented death of 
the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Durham (Dr. Westcott , 
who was an honorary member and supporter of their Society. 

And they offer to the members of the late Bishop's family an 
expression of their deepest sympathy and condolence with them 
in their sad bereavement. 



DURHAM COUNTY COUNCIL 

That the sincere condolence of this Council be offered to the 
family of the Right Reverend Brooke Foss, late Lord Bishop of 



416 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

Durham, on the occasion of his lamented decease ; and that a 
copy of this resolution be forwarded to his son, the Rev. F. B. 

Westcott. 



COUNTY BOROUGH OK SUNDERLAND 

It was resolved, on the motion of the Mayor, that this Council 
desires to place on record its sense of the severe loss sustained by 
the Diocese owing to the death of the Right Reverend Brooke 
Foss Westcott, D.D., its Lord Bishop, whose wise, gentle, yet 
powerful administration has in a marked degree advanced the 
cause of Christianity in the diocese and county of Durham. 

The Council bears witness to the great love of humanity which 
his Lordship so eminently evinced, his sympathy with all good 
works, the great labour he bestowed for the good and welfare of 
every, and especially the working, class, and, above all, to the 
exemplification of true Christian character given by his noble life. 

Resolutions of sympathy were also received from the 
governing bodies of Durham, Darlington, Gateshead, Hartle- 
pool, Jarrow, and Stockton. 

Also the following : 

At a coroner's inquest held in the Borough Buildings of the 
ancient Royal Borough of Hartlepool this day, the coroner, fore- 
man, jurors, and witnesses, all standing, in solemn silence, passed 
a resolution which they desired should be transmitted to the 
bereaved family of Dr. Westcott now assembled at Auckland 
Castle. They desire to testify their high appreciation of the lofty 
piety, the noble consistency, and the truly Christian liberality in 
thought, word, and deed whereby the late Dr. Westcott exalted 
all the infinitely great things respecting which Christian people 
are agreed, while exhibiting the comparatively infinite littleness of 
those things which are matters of difference. They also desire to 
assure his mourning relatives that they see in the life and death of 
him they mourn a lesson and an example whose influence for good 
will long survive the earthly career that has shed no common 
lustre on the name of Westcott and the annals of the Diocese of 
Durham. J. HYSLOP Bf.i.i,, County Coroner. 



PUBLIC TRIBUTES 417 



KlNGSTON-UPON-HULL CO-OPERATIVE SOCIKTY 

This meeting" desires to express their deep sympathy with the 
family of the late Bishop of Durham in their sad and sudden 
bereavement in the death of their illustrious father. 

We trust that the universal expression of the nation will some- 
what alleviate the great blow that has fallen upon you. 



BISHOP AUCKLAND CO-OPERATIVE SOCIKTY 

That we, the members of the Bishop Auckland Industrial 
Co-operative Flour and Provision Society (Limited), in quarterly 
meeting assembled, do herewith express our sincere sorrow and 
deep sense of loss occasioned by the death of the late Right 
Reverend Dr. Westcott, Lord Bishop of Durham, by which the 
world has lost a great scholar and divine, the diocese of Durham 
a devoted and faithful Bishop, the cause of co-operation an 
advanced and earnest advocate, and all great industrial and social 
movements of reform a true and wise friend. 

We also desire to express to the family of the late Bishop our 
sincere sympathy with them in this hour of their bereavement and 
sorrow. 

DARLINGTON INDEPENDENT LABOUR PARTY 

That we, the members of the Darlington branch of the Inde- 
pendent Labour Party, in monthly meeting assembled, desire to 
record our deep sense of the great loss the cause of social reform 
has sustained by the death of Dr. Westcott, Bishop of Durham ; 
to express our highest appreciation of the earnestness and zeal 
with which he sought to improve the social conditions of the 
masses ; and desire to convey to his family our sincere sympathy 
with them in the loss they have sustained. 



ROYAL INFIRMARY, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE 

The House Committee of the Royal Infirmary, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, desire to place on the record of their minutes an 
expression of their sense of the loss the institution has sustained 
by the lamented death of the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of 
Durham, Dr. Brooke Foss Westcott, the Grand Visitor of the 

VOL. II 2 E 



4i8 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT ATP. i 

Infirmary, and to offer to the members of the late Bishop's family 
a tribute of sincere sympathy and condolence with them in their 
bereavement and trying dispensation. 

A similar resolution was also received from the Sunderland 
Infirmary. 

UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, 
NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE 

The members of the University of Durham College of Medicine, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, at this the annual meeting of the College, 
desire to place on the record of their minutes an expression of 
their sense of the loss the University of Durham has sustained by 
the lamented death of the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of 
Durham, Dr. Brooke Foss Westcott, the Visitor of the University, 
and to offer to the members of the late Bishop's family a tribute 
of sincere sympathy and condolence with them in their bereave- 
ment and trying dispensation. 

Resolutions were also received from the Church Historical 
Society, the State Children's Association, Durham Diocesan 
Branch of C.E.T.S., the Church of England Zenana Missionary 
Society, the Governors of the North-Eastern County School 
(Barnard Castle), the Governors of King James I. Grammar 
School (Bishop Auckland), Weardale Naturalists' Field Club, 
South Shields Burial Board, Sunderland Y.M.C.A., Oaken 
shaw Colliery Y.M.C.A., West Hartlepool Coroner's Jury, 
Bishop Auckland Urban District Council, Board of Guardians 
of the Chester-le-Street Union, Hudson Lodge of Freemasons 
(Towlaw), the Auckland Musical Society, the National Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (Bishop Auckland 
Branch), Bishop Auckland Petty Sessions, Consctt Church 
Council, Coundon Church Council, Shildon Church Council. 



APPENDIX II 

PRAYERS 
BY B. F. WESTCOTT 

THE following Common Prayers for family use were originally 
written for Evening Prayers in my father's house at Harrow, 
but they were in continuous use at the household family 
prayers until the move to Bishop Auckland. Even in the 
Castle Chapel my father used a few Collects from these 
Prayers in the latter part of Evensong (after the Third 
Collect and Hymn), which he always took himself. 

COMMON PRAYERS 

J0raj> tuitljout ceasing. 

tJT'fic effectual ferbcttt Prapcr of a rtgljtcotus man auat(ctl) mud). 
CCJIjatSoeucr tljingss pe ncgirc tuljcn )>e ptap, 
tljat pc rccctticti djcm ann vc sljall Ijavic tijcm. 
prap for ujs. 



SUNDAY 
$allotoeti fac Zljv 

^[ Psahn, or Lesson. 

Reader. The secret of the LORD is among them that fear i lim 
Answer. And He will sliew them His Covenant . 
R. Let us pray. 
410 



420 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

U THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

R. Teach us Thy way, O LORD : 

A. And knit our hearts unto Thee, that we may fear Thy 

Name. 

R. Grant us true understanding and knowledge : 

A. So shall we keep Thy law. 

R. Open our eyes that we may see Thy wondrous works : 

A. And let our mouth be filled with Thy praise all the day 
long. 

R. O help us to give Thee the honour due unto Thy Name : 
A. And to worship Thee with a holy worship. 

U Collect for a devout reverence of all the works 0/GOD. 

O Almighty GOD, Who has made us in Thy image, and given 
unto us the enjoyment of many excellent gifts, enable us by Thy 
Holy Spirit to use these Thy blessings to Thy glory. Grant unto 
us a devout reverence for all Thy works. Pour into our hearts a 
true love for all who are called by Thy Name. Quicken our souls 
that we may at all times be sensible of Thy presence ; and make 
us, day by day, more fit to see Thee hereafter as Thou art in 
heaven, through JESUS CHRIST our Lord. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the 6th Sunday after the Epiphany '.] 
^[ Collect for a devout reverence of GOD'S Word. 

Blessed LORD, by Whose Providence all Holy Scriptures were 
written and preserved for our instruction, give us grace to study 
them each day with patience and love. Strengthen our souls with 
the fulness of their divine teaching. Keep from us all pride and 
irreverence. Guide us in the deep things of Thy heavenly wisdom; 
and, of Thy great mercy, lead us by Thy Word into everlasting 
life, through JESUS CHRIST our Saviour. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the 2nd Sunday in Advent.~\ 
IT Collect for a devout reverence of Divine Sennces. 

O Eternal GOD, by Whom the whole Body of CHRIST is 
sustained and governed, we thank Thee that Thou hast called us 



PRAYERS 421 

to worship Thee in Thy Holy Church. Grant to us each clay 
to feel more deeply the privileges of Christian fellowship. liless 
to us all the services of Thy public worship. Reveal Thyself to 
us, according to Thy promises, in the appointed means of grace, 
and especially in the Holy Sacraments. Give a rich increase to 
each seed of good sown in our hearts ; and by Thy almighty 
power keep us steadfast in the faith once delivered to the Saints, 
through CHRIST our Lord. Amen. 

[Or Collect for All Saints' Day.'} 

[^[ Special Collect before or after Holy Communion ; or for 
the Day or Season,^ 

R. Set up Thyself, O GOD, above the heavens : 

A. And Thy Glory above all the earth. 

R. Serve the LORD with fear : 

A. And rejoice unto Him with reverence, 

R. Let us pray. 

We give Thee humble and hearty thanks, O most merciful 
Father, for all the blessings of the past day. Teach us to praise 
Thee not only with our lips, but with our works and with our 
lives. We are Thine : O sanctify us wholly. 

Bless our King and all who are put in authority under him. 
Guide and strengthen those who are here set over us. Shield all 
in this place who are in temptation or danger. Guard with Thy 
gracious protection our families and friends. Forgive us our 
many offences and failures and negligences throughout this day ; 
and defend us, of Thy great love, from all the perils of the night. 
for the sake of JESUS CHRIST. Amen. 

The LORD bless us and keep us : 

The LORD make His face to shine upon us and be gracious 
unto us : 

The LORD lift up the light of His countenance upon us and 
give us peace. Amen. 



422 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 



MONDAY 



*[[ Psalm, or Lesson. 
R. The kingdom is the LORD'S : 
A. And He is the Governor among the people. 

R. Let us pray. 
IT Collect for the spread of the Gospel among the Heathen. 

O Almighty and most merciful Father, Who didst send Thy 
beloved Son to die for the sins of the whole world, look down, 
we beseech Thee, upon all the nations who have not known His 
name, and in Thine own good time lead them to His Cross. 
Strengthen with the comfort of Thy Spirit all who bear abroad 
the message of the Gospel. Raise up among us a lively sympathy 
with their labours. Take away from those who hear them all 
hardness of heart and pride and impenitence ; and so move them, 
Blessed LORD, with Thine infinite love, that the day may speedily 
come when all the ends of the world shall be turned unto Thee, 
and there shall be one flock and one Shepherd. We ask all for 
CHRIST'S sake. Amen. 

[Or Third Collect for Good Friday.'} 
H Collect for the spread of the Gospel in our Nation. 

We humbly thank Thee, O Almighty GOD, for the many bless- 
ings which Thou hast given to our country : and add this, O 
LORD, to Thy other mercies that we may be enabled to use them 
better in Thy service. O, take from among us all contempt of 
Thy Word and commandments. Break down all the barriers of 
selfishness and ignorance which keep men from Thee. Convince 
the impenitent of the misery of sin, and comfort the broken- 
hearted with the assurance of Thy love. Teach us all to be 
Evangelists not in word only but in everything which we do. 
This we ask for JESUS CHRIST'S sake. Amen. 

[Or Second Collect for Good l i "riday.~\ 



ii PRAYERS 423 

^f Collect for the power of I lie Gospel within us. 

O LORD Gon, Who by Thy Almighty power canst subdue all 
things to Thyself, have mercy upon us, we beseech Thee, and 
pardon the imperfection of our service. We acknowledge Thee 
as our only King; and do Thou, O LORD, subdue every power 
within us which is not obedient to Thy Law. Hallow and purify 
our souls and bodies with Thy Holy Spirit, that we may offer to 
Thee the reasonable sacrifice of our lives. (.) LOUD, hear us ; 
O LORD, pardon us; O LORD, strengthen us; for His sake Who 
was born and died and rose again for us. 

[Or Collect for Easter Even.} 

O CHRIST, hear us. 
O CHRIST, hear vs. 
LORD, have mercy upon us. 
CHRIST, have mercy upon its. 
LORD, have mercy upon us. 

IT THE LORD'S PRAYKR. 

R. O LORD, gather unto Thee a people from among the heathen : 

A. TJiat they may give thanks imio Tfiy J foly Name. 

R. Sanctify those that are called by Thy Name : 

A. And give Thy blessing unto Thine inheritance. 

R. Thou art our Helper and Redeemer : 

A. Haste Thou, O GOD, to deliver us. 

R. O let the wickedness of the ungodly come to an end : 

A. But guide Thou t lie just. 

R. Let us pray. 

[IF Special Collect. \ 

We give Thee humble and hearty thanks, O most merciful 
Father, for all the blessings of the past day. lie with us and 
guard us during the defenceless hours of the night. 

Bless our King and all who bear rule over us. Hasten the 
time when peace, truth, and justice shall be established through- 
out the world. [Reveal Thyself in Thy great mercy to those who 



424 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

are afflicted by war, and cast down the unrighteous cause.] 
Support and relieve all who are distressed in mind or body, 

[especially ]. Shield all in this place who are 

in temptation or danger. Guard with Thy gracious protection 
our families and friends. Forgive us our many offences, and 
failures, and negligences throughout this day. And help us day 
by day to serve Thee better and love Thee more sincerely, for 
JESUS CHRIST'S sake. 

The grace of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and the love of GOD, 
and the fellowship of the HOLY GHOST, be with us all evermore. 
Amen. 

TUESDAY 
&f>2 W>.\\\ fce Done* 

^[ Psa/m, or Lesson. 

R. The salvation of the righteous cometh of the LORD : 
A. Who is also their strength in the time of trouble. 
R. Let us pray. 

R. O LORD, have mercy upon us : 

A. O LORD, have mercy upon us. 

R. O LORD, make Thyself known unto us : 

A. O LORD, make Thyself know?i unto us. 

R. O LORD, teach us to pray to Thee as we ought : 

A. O LORD, teach us to pray to Thee as we ougJit. 

IT THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

R. Into Thy hands we commend our souls : 

A. For Thou Jiast redeemed us, O LORD, Thou God of Truth. 

R. Unto Thee do we lift up our cry : 

A. O let us not be confounded. 

R. Let Thy merciful kindness, O LORD, be upon us : 

A . Like as we do put our trust in Jlice. 

R. O stablish us according to Thy word : 

A. And let us not be disappointed of our hope. 



ii I'KAYKKS 425 

TT Collect for /;*////. 

O LORD GOD, in Whom we live, and move, and have our 
being, open our eyes that we may behold Thy Fatherly Presence 
ever about us. Draw our hearts to Thee with the power of Thy 
Love. Teach us to be careful for nothing ; and when we have 
done what Thou hast given us to do, help us, () GOD, our 
Saviour, to leave the issue to Thy wisdom. Take from us all 
doubt and distrust Lift our thoughts up to Thee in heaven ; 
and make us to know that all things are possible to us through 
Thy Son, our Redeemer. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the ^th Sunday after Easter.} 
^f Collect for Courage. 

Blessed LORD, Who wast tempted in all things like as we arc, 
have mercy upon our frailty. Out of weakness give us strength. 
Grant to us Thy fear, that we may fear Thee only. Support us 
in time of temptation. Embolden us in the time of danger. 
Help us to do Thy work with good courage, and to continue 
Thy faithful soldiers and servants unto our life's end. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the tfh Sunday after the Epiphany^ 
^ Collect for Truthjti'.ness. 

Almighty GOD, Who hast sent the Spirit of Truth unto us to 
guide us into all truth, so rule our lives by Thy power, that we 
may be truthful in word, and deed, and thought. O keep us, 
most merciful Saviour, with Thy gracious protection, that no fear 
or hope may ever make us false in act or speech. Cast out from 
us whatsoever loveth or inaketh a lie, and bring us all into the 
perfect freedom of Thy truth : through JESUS CHRIST, Thy Son, 
our Lord. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the yd Sunday after Easter.'} 

^[ Collect for Labour. 

O LORD, our Heavenly Father, by Whose Providence the 
duties of men are variously ordered, grant to us all such a spirit 
that we may labour heartily to do our work in our several stations, 
as serving one Master and looking for one reward. Teach us to 



426 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

put to good account whatever talents Thou hast lent to us. Help 
us to overcome all sloth and indolence ; and enable us to redeem 
our time by patience and zeal : through Thy Son, our Saviour. 
A men. 

[Or Collect for tJic ^f,h Sunday after Trinity.} 
IT Collect for Purity. 

O Eternal GOD, who hast taught us by Thy Holy Word that 
our bodies are temples of Thy Spirit, keep us, we most humbly 
beseech Thee, temperate and holy in thought, word, and deed, 
that at the last we, with all the pure in heart, may see Thee, and 
be made like unto Thee in Thy heavenly kingdom : through 
CHRIST our Lord. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the 6th Sunday after the Epiphany} 
[IF Special Collect.} 

We thank Thee, O LORD, for all the blessings of the past day. 
Be with us and guard us throughout the night. Forgive us our 
manifold sins, ignorances, and negligences, that so we may rest at 
peace with Thee : through the merits of Thy Son, our Saviour, 
JESUS CHRIST. Amen. 

The grace of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and the love of GOD, 
and the fellowship of the HOLY GHOST, be with us all evermore. 
A men. 

WEDNESDAY 

(gibe 110 tjn0 3Dap our Dailp 33reatu 
IF Psalm or Lesson. 

R. All things wait upon Thee, O LORD : 

A. Thou opencst Thy /iani<\ <wd they are filled with good. 

R. Let us pray. 

R. () Gou, the Father, Creator of the world, have mercy 
upon us : 

A. O GOD, the Father, etc. 



ii PRAYKKS 427 

R. O GOD, the Son, Redeemer ot mankind, have inert y 
upon us : 

A. O GOD, the Son, etc. 

R. O GOD, the Holy Ghost, Sanctificr of Thy people, have 
mercy upon us : 

A. O GOD, the Holy Ghost, etc. 

R. Hear us, O LORD GOD, and be merciful unto us for Thy 
Name's sake. Thou knowest our wants : teach us to feel them. 
Thou knowest our ignorance : teach us how to pray. Thou 
knowest our weakness : teach us to look to Thee for strength : 

A. We beseech Thee to hear us, good LORD. 

That it may please Thee to bless our King and nation : to 
prosper the cause of peace, truth and righteousness throughout 
the word ; and to hasten the coming of Thy kingdom : 

We beseech TJice to hear its, good LORD. 

That it may please Thee [to bless our school;] to increase 
among us self-denial and labour ; and to hallow all our work by 
Thy Holy Spirit : 

We beseech TJice to hear us, good LORD. 

That it may please Thee to make us bold to confess Thee in 
our daily life ; to enable us to check -'vil and to support good, 
and to look to Thee in all the dangers and temptations by which 
we are beset : 

We beseech Thee to hear us, good LORD. 

That it may please Thee [to preserve us from the perils of 
wealth and station ;] to make us tender-hearted and pitiful ; to 
teach us to help all who are in distress, or necessity, or want : 

We beseech Thee to hear us, good LORD. 

That it may please Thee to give us a true love for Thee and 
for Thy service : to enlarge our sympathy for those who , ire- 
farthest removed from us : to pardon and enlighten those who 
condemn us wrongfully, or injure us : 

We beseech Thee to hear //.v, goi>tt LORD. 

That it may please Thee to reveal Thyself to those who do not 
know Thee : to support and prosper those who bear Thy gospel 
to heathen countries : to bless the labours of those who work in 



428 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



APP. 



our own land : to convert the erring, to quicken the ignorant, and 
to draw to Thee the impenitent : 

We beseech Thee to hear us, good LORD. 

That it may please Thee to continue to us the blessings of 
health and vigour and prosperity, and of Thy Holy Word and 
ordinances, and to help us to use them all to Thy glory : 

We beseech Thee to hear us, good LORD. 

O LORD, hear us : 

O LORD, hear us. 

O CHRIST, hear us : 

O CHRIST, hear us. 

O LORD, hear us : 

O LORD, hear us. 

IF THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

R. Be not Thou far from us, O LORD : 

A. Thou art our succour : haste Thee to Jiclp us. 

R. Show Thou us the way that we should walk in : 

A. For "we lift up our souls unto Thee. 

R. Help us, O GOD of our salvation, for the glory of Thy 
name : 

A. O deliver us, and be merciful unto our sins, for Thy 
Nanitfs sake. 

[IF Special Collect.'} 

We thank Thee, O most merciful Father, for Thy kindness to 
us during the past day. Teach us to praise Thee always in deed, 
and not in word only. Pardon our manifold sins and negligences, 
and give us grace to live more worthily of our Christian profession. 
Receive these our imperfect prayers, and grant us what we need 
for our souls and bodies, for JESUS CHRIST'S sake, Thy Son our 
Saviour. A men. 

The LORD bless us and keep us : 

The LORI) make His face to shine upon us, and be gracious 
unto us : 

The LORD lift up the light of His countenance upon us, and 
give us peace. A men. 



ii PRAYERS 429 

THURSDAY 

Jforgifce uj3 our re0pa00c0 
II Psa/m, or Lesson. 

R. In Thee, O LORD, have I put my trust : 

A. Thou shall answer for mc^ O LORD, my GOD. 

Confession to he said by all kneeling. 

Almighty GOD, Father of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, we humbly 
acknowledge our manifold sins and offences against Thee by 
thought and deed. We have neglected opportunities of good 
which Thou, in Thy love, gavest unto us. We have been over- 
come by temptations, from which Thou wast ready to guard us. 
We have looked unto men, and not unto Thee, in doing our daily 
work. We have thought too little of others, and too much of our 
own pleasure, in all our plans. We have lived in forgetfulness 
of the life to come. But Thou art ever merciful and gracious to 
those who turn to Thee. So we now come to Thee as those 
whom Thou wilt not cast out. Hear, O LORD, and have mercy 
upon us. O Almighty GOD, heavenly Father, Who forgivest 
iniquity and transgression ; O LORD JFSUS CHRIST, LAMB OF 
GOD, Who takest away the sin of the world ; O HOLY SPIRIT, 
Who helpest the infirmities of those that pray : receive our humble 
confession. Give us true repentance and sincere faith in Thee. 
Do away our offences, and give us grace to live hereafter more 
worthily of our Christian calling, for the glory of Thy great name. 
A )>icn. 

R. Hear, O LORD, and have mercy upon us : 
A. LORD, be Thou our Helper. 
R. Turn Thy face from our sins : 
A. And put out all our misdeeds. 
R. Cast us not away from Thy presence : 
A. And take not Thy Holy Spirit from us. 
R. O give us the comfort of Thy help again : 
A. And stablish us with Thy free Spirit. 



430 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

H THE LORD'S PRAYER. 
R. Let us pray. 

II Collect for Union. 

O LORD GOD, Who by Thy Providence hast ordered various 
ranks among men, draw them ever closer together by Thy Holy 
Spirit. Teach us to know that all differences of class are done 
away in CHRIST. Take from us and from our countrymen all envy, 
jealousy and discontent. Unite us one to another by a common 
zeal for Thy cause ; and enable us by Thy grace to offer unto 
Thee the manifold fruits of our service, through CHRIST our 
LORD. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the day of St. Simon and St. Judc.} 
^1 Collect for Sympathy. 

Blessed LORD, who for our sakes was content to bear sorrow 
and want and death, grant unto us such a measure of Thy Spirit 
that we may follow Thee in all self-denial and tenderness of soul. 
Help us, by Thy great love, to succour the afflicted, to relieve the 
needy and destitute, to comfort the feeble-minded, to share the 
burdens of the heavy-laden, and ever to see Thee in all that are 
poor and desolate. Amen. 

[Or Collect for the Sunday next before Eastcr.~\ 
U Collect for Love. 

Almighty and most merciful Father, Who hast given us a new 
commandment that we should love one another, give us also grace 
that we may fulfil it. Make us gentle, courteous, and forbearing. 
Direct our lives, so that we may look each to the good of others 
in word and deed. And hallow all our friendships by the blessing 
of Thy Spirit, for His sake, who loved us and gave Himself for 
us, JESUS CHRIST our Lord. Amen. 

[Or Collect for O,uinquagesima.~\ 
[*1 Special Collect.} 

We give Thee humble and hearty thanks, O most merciful 
Father, for all the blessings of the past day. Be with us and 
guard us during the defenceless hours of the night. 



ii PRAYERS 431 

Bless our King and all who bear rule over us. Hasten the 
time when peace, truth and justice shall be established throughout 
the world. [Reveal Thyself in Thy great mercy to those who are 
afflicted by war, and cast down the unrighteous cause.] Support 
and relieve all who are distressed in mind or body, [especially 

]. Shield all in this place who are in temptation or 

danger. Guard with Thy gracious protection our families and 
friends. Forgive us our many offences and failures and negligences 
throughout this day. And help us day by day to serve Thee 
better and love Thee more sincerely, for JKSUS CHRIST'S sake. 
Amen. 

The grace of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and the love of COD, 
and the fellowship of the HOLY GHOST, be with us all evermore. 
A men. 

FRIDAY 

Heat) us not into temptation, but uelirjrr us from tl;e (fftil SDnc, 
51 Psalm, or Lesson. 

R. The LORD be with you : 
A And iuit/1 T/iy Spirit. 

51 Let us pray. 

LORD, have mercy upon us : 
LORD, Jtai'e. mercy upon us. 
CHRIST, have mercy upon us : 
CHRIST, Jiai>e mcrcv upon us. 
LORD, have mercy upon us : 
LORD, liave mercy upon us. 

Have mercy upon us, O GOD, after Thy great goodness ; and 
guide us by Thy Holy Spirit : in all the perils and dangers of our 
daily life, 

Guide us, good LORD. 

In times of happiness and joy : in times of sorrow and dejec- 
tion : in our pleasures and in our cares, 

Guide us, good LORD. 



432 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT A pp. 

In times of labour and study : in times of relaxation and 
repose : in our work and in our amusements, 

Guide us, good LORD. 

In the pursuit of noble aims : in the flight from known evil : 
in success and disappointments, 

Guide us, good LORD. 

In the common intercourse of life : in the choice of companions : 
in the society of friends, 

Guide us, good LORD. 

From all outward evils, from sickness, from suffering- : from 
loss, if it be Thy will, 

Good LORD, deliver us : 

From all hardness of heart and irreverence : from all uncharit- 
ableness, envy and jealousy : from all pride and selfishness, 

Good LORD, deliver us. 

From all indolence and sloth : from all self-indulgence and 
intemperance : from all impurity in thought, word and deed, 

Good LORD, deliver us. 

From all deceit and untruthfulness : from all unworthy ends : 
from all undue anxiety and distrust in Thee, 

Good LORD, deliver us. 

From neglect of Thy Word and promises : from neglect of 
prayer : from forgetfulness of Thee, 

Good LORD, deliver us. 

O GOD the Father, Who hast promised forgiveness to all who 
turn to Thee, 

Pardon our sins and negligences. 

O GOD the Son, Who knowest the frailty of our nature, 

Strengthen our weakness. 

O GOD the Holy Ghost, Who canst hallow all things by Thy 
power, 

Renew us to TJiy sen.>icc. 



ii PRAYERS 433 

U THE LORD'S PRAYKR. 

R. Hear us, O GOD, in the multitude of Thy mercies : 

A. After Thy great goodness do au'ay our offences. 

R. O, remember not the offences of our youth : 

A. Nor cast TJiy servants away in displeasure. 

R. Set a watch, O LORD, before our mouth : 

A. And keep the door of our lips. 

R. O cleanse Thou us from our secret faults : 

A. And prcsen>c us from presumptuous sins. 

O Almighty and most merciful GOD, receive these our humble 
prayers. We are weak ; but Thou art strong and gracious. We 
have left undone this day many things which we ought to have 
done, and done that which we ought not to have done ; but Thou 
art faithful and just to forgive the sins of those who confess them 
unto Thee for CHRIST'S sake. 

O show us the light of Thy countenance, and we shall be 
whole. Guard us through the coming night. Bless our nation 
[our school, our house, or our families], our friends ; and grant 
unto us those things which we have faithfully asked according to 
Thy will, and whatever else we need, for the merits of Thy Son 
our Saviour JESUS CHRIST. Amen. 

The grace of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and the love of GOD, 
and the fellowship of the HOLY GHOST, be with us all ever- 
more. Amen. 

SATURDAY 

&ine 10 ti>e ftinefcotn, tlje ipotoer anU tf?e Iorp 

IT Psalm, or Lesson. 

R. Give thanks unto the LORD, for He is gracious : 
A. And His mercy cndurcth for ever. 

^T Thanksgiving, all kneeling. 

We give Thee humble and hearty thanks, O most merciful 
Father, for all Thy goodness and loving - kindness to us and to 
VOL. IT 2 F 



434 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

all men, for the blessings of this life, and for the promise of 
everlasting happiness. And, as we are bound, we specially 
thank Thee for the mercies which we have ourselves received 
from Thee during the past week. 

For health and strength, for outward prosperity and well- 
being-, for the manifold enjoyments of our daily life, and the 
hopes of the future ; 

We thank Thee, O (700. 

[For the opportunities of learning, for the discipline of sound 
instruction, for the exercise of free independence, 

We thank Thee, GOD.] 

For the knowledge of Thy will, for the means of serving Thee 
in Thy Holy Church, for the love which Thou hast revealed to us 
in thy Son, our Saviour, 

We thank Thee, O GOD. 

We thank Thee, O GOD, for every blessing of soul and body ; 
and add this, O LORD, to Thy other mercies, that we may praise 
Thee not with our lips only, but with our lives, always looking 
to Thee as the Author and Giver of all good things. We ask 
all for JESUS CHRIST'S sake. Amen. 



H THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

R. O LORD, satisfy us with Thy mercy : 

A. So shall luc rejoice a?id be glad all the days of our life. 

R. (standing.'} Hear the blessings which CHRIST Himself 
hath pronounced on those who love Him : 

Blessed are the poor in spirit. 

A. O LORD, rule our Jicarts that we may inlicrit tin's blessing. 
R. Blessed arc they that mourn. 
A. O LORD, rule our hearts, etc. 
R. Blessed are the meek. 
A. O LORD, rule our Jiearts, etc. 

R. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after 
righteousness. 

A. O LORI), rule our hearts, etc. 



PRAYERS 435 

R. Blessed are the merciful. 

A. O LORD, rule our hearts, etc. 

R. Blessed are the pure in heart. 

A. O LORD, rule our hearts, c/>; 

R. Blessed are the peacemakers. 

A. O LORD, liave mercy upon ?/.v, and rule (>?(r I/cart* thai ice 



R. (kneeling.} We thank Thee, () LORD, for this revelation 
of Thy will which Thou hast given us. Send to us Thy Holy 
Spirit to guide and teach us, that we may be made worthy of 
Thy heavenly kingdom, and live now as fellow - citizens of the 
Saints. O LORD, hear us : O LORD, have mercy upon us : () 
LORD, make us like unto Thee. A men. 

[IT Special Collect.'} 

O Almighty GOD, pardon, we beseech Thee, our sins and 
negligences during the past week. Help us in future to struggle 
more successfully with the temptations by which we have been 
overcome. Confirm and strengthen in us the good habits which 
Thou hast enabled us to begin or carry out. [Prosper the 
whole work of this place to the increase of godliness and good 
learning in our nation.] Bless to us the repose and services of 
Thy Holy Day. Teach us to look on each week as a stage in 
our homeward journey ; and ever draw us, O LORD, nearer to 
Thee in heart and soul, for JESUS CHRIST'S sake. Amen. 

IT Doxology said by all. 

Glory be to Thee, O GOD, the Father, the Maker of the World. 
Glory be to Thee, O GOD, the Son, the Redeemer of mankind. 

Glory be to Thee, O GOD, the Holy Ghost, the Sanctifier of 
Thy people. Amen. 

The LORD bless and keep us : 

The LORD make His face to shine upon us, and be gracious 
unto us : 

The LORD lift up the light of his countenance upon us and 
give us peace. Amen. 



436 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 



U Collect before Communion. 

Almighty GOD, Who hast again called us to the Communion 
of the Body and Blood of Christ, help us to meditate on that 
Holy Mystery and examine ourselves, that by Thy grace we may 
be received as worthy guests at Thy Holy Feast, in humble 
dependence on Thy Word. Grant to us such a spirit that we 
may not offend Thee by lightly regarding Thy command or 
neglecting Thy promises. But so teach us, Blessed LORD, that 
we may come to Thy Table with faithful and penitent hearts, 
and there obtain remission of our sins, and strength for a new 
life : through Thy Son, our only Lord and Saviour, JESUS 
CHRIST. Amen. 

1T Collect after Communion. 

Almighty GOD, Who hast given Thine only Son to die for 
us, grant that we [all] who have this day been united in the 
Communion of His most precious Body and Blood, may be so 
cleansed from our [their] past sins, and so strengthened to follow 
the example of His most Holy Life, that we [they] may hereafter 
enjoy everlasting fellowship with Thee in heaven, through Him 
Who loved us and gave Himself for us, JESUS CHRIST. Amen. 

Keep innocency, and take heed unto the thing that is right j for 
that shall bring a man peace at the last. 

II ARRO\\, January 1864. 



A PRAYER FOR SUNDAY MORNING 

O LORD, our Heavenly Father, at the beginning of another 
week we come to Thee for help and light. Grant, we beseech 
Thee, that we may hallow this day of rest to Thy service and find 
in Thee all peace and strength. Quicken our devotion that we 
may serve Thee in spirit and in truth, and lay a good foundation 
for our coming work. Be with us in all the public services of 
Thy Church, that we may join in them with heart and soul, and 
receive the blessings which Thou hast promised to all who sincerely 
pray to Thee and faithfully hear Thy word. This we ask, for 
the sake of JESUS CHRIST, our Lord. Amen. 



ii PRAYKRS 437 

A COLLECT FOR THE DELHI MISSION 

O Eternal LORD, Father of mercies and ("ion of hope, who 
hast in Thy love joined us together in one brotherhood that we 
may labour to bring the Gospel of the Kingdom to the many 
peoples of India, we humbly beseech Thee that Thou wouldest 
enable us to offer to Thee the perfect sacrifice of ourselves, our 
souls and bodies, and each to receive from the fulness of our 
common life in Thee that which we severally need for our work, 
the gift of patience and faith, the gift of confidence and hope, 
the gift of sympathy and love; and so to enlighten, O LORD, 
the eyes of our hearts that we may discern Thy presence both in 
failure and in success and evermore rejoice in Thy peace, through 
JESUS CHRIST our Lord. Amen. 



A COLLECT FOR A TRAINING COLLEGE 

Almighty GOD, the Father of Lights, and the Giver of all 
good gifts, who hast put into our hearts the desire to serve Thee 

T -,, ( children 1 
by leading Thy - ... - to the knowledge of all things true 

and just and lovely, we beseech Thee so to guide us in this time 
of our preparation, that we may use with patient devotion the 
manifold helps which Thou hast provided for our instruction and 
discipline, and find in every increase of knowledge and power 
fresh signs of Thy love and will for us; and so till us, O LORD, 
with the spirit of Thy grace that we may find perfect peace in 
Thee, and be enabled to bring to those who shall hereafter be 
committed to our charge what we have ourselves found, through 
Thy Son, our only Lord and Saviour, JESUS CHRIST. A men. 
RUGBY, y.st March 1887. 

1 add a few prayers which 1 have found among the manu- 
scripts of my father's later years. I have not always been 
able to determine the occasion on which the prayer was 
used : 

PRAYER AT THE OPENING OF THE RESTORED CHAPTER- 
HOUSE IN DURHAM CATHEDRAL, 23 RD MARCH 1895 

O Almighty GOD, Who hast knit together Thine elect in one 
communion and fellowship, in the mystical body of Thy Son 



438 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

CHRIST our Lord : we bless Thee for all Thy servants departed 
this life in Thy faith and fear, and especially for him in whose 
memory this house hath again been made meet for solemn uses, 
beseeching Thee to give us grace so to follow their good ex- 
amples, that with them we may be partakers of Thy heavenly 
kingdom : grant this, O Father, for JESUS CHRIST'S sake, our 
only Mediator and Advocate. Amen. 



PRAYER AT THE DEDICATION OF A CHURCH CLOCK AT 
STAINDROP, SIST OCTOBER 1896 

O Almighty GOD, from Whom come all good gifts and all 
holy desires, we humbly beseech Thee to accept the offering 
which Thy servants have made to Thy Sanctuary in thankful 
acknowledgment of faithful ministrations among them for fifty 
years ; and grant that all who shall hear the voice which pro- 
claims the passing hours may lift up their thoughts to Thee, and 
learn so to number their days that they may apply their hearts to 
that wisdom which is life everlasting : through JESUS CHRIST our 
Lord. Amen. 

PRAYER AT THE LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION STONE OF 
THE SHIRE HALL, DURHAM 

Almighty GOD and heavenly Father, Who didst teach the 
hearts of Thy faithful people by the sending to them the light of 
Thy Holy Spirit, grant the same Spirit to all those who shall 
hereafter meet together in this house for counsel and action, that 
having a right judgment in all things, they may both by word and 
deed set forward Thy glory and the good of Thy people : through 
Thy Son, JESUS CHRIST, our Lord, Who liveth and reigneth with 
Thee in the unity of the same Spirit world without end. Amen. 

PRAYER AT THE OPENING OF THE SHIRE HALL, DURHAM, 
26TH JULY 1898 

O Almighty GOD, by Whom kings reign and princes decree 
justice, hallow, we beseech Thee, this Hall by Thy presence to 
those who shall meet here in the years to come. Pour down 
upon them the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of 
counsel and ghostly strength, the spirit of knowledge and true 
godliness ; and fill them, O LORD, with the spirit of Thy holy 



PRAYKKS 439 



fear, that by their endeavours peart 1 and - 
righteousness, prosperity and happiness, may he: e^labh^l 
increased among us, to the glory of Thy name and the 
Thy people: through JESUS CHRIST our Lord. Au^n. 



O LORI), our heavenly Father, the (ioh of peace, enable Thy 
servants, we most humbly beseech Thee, to seek through faith 
in the Incarnation of Thy Son JKSUS CHRIST in thought and word 
and deed that every nation of men may be led to bring to Thee 
the manifold gifts of their service, and may hasten in the power 
and spirit of one brotherhood the times of the restoration of all 
things, which Thou hast promised by Thy holy pro] diets since 
the world began. We ask all in His Name Who lo\ed us and 
gave Himself for us, JESUS CHRIST, to Whom with Thee and the 
HOLY SPIRIT be all honour and glory, world without end. Anu'ii. 

A PRAYER FOR THE ROCKHAMPTON BROTHERHOOD 1 

Almighty and most merciful Father, Who hast knit us together 
as a brotherhood in CHRIST to set forth of Thy glory and to pro- 
claim the Gospel to Thy children scattered abroad : grant us, we 
beseech Thee, the manifold gifts of Thy Spirit, that we may be 
gentle to the ignorant and to the erring, wise in counsel, patient 
under disappointment, and unwearied in love : strengthen in us 
the grace of mutual affection and of unceasing prayer : enable us to 
do all things in the Name of Thy dear Son, and to commend our 
message by the fruits of the life which He came to give. Guard 
us, guide us, sustain us ; and, if it be Thy will, hasten through 
our ministry the coming of Thy Kingdom. We ask all for JKSUS 
CHRIST'S sake, Who with Thee and the HOLY GHOST liveth and 
reineth one GOD world without end. A men. 



A MISSIONARY PRAYER - 

O LORD, our heavenly Father, almighty and eternal GOD, in 
Whom we live and move and have our being, and Who hast so 

1 Written at the request of the Rev. (1. I). Ilalford. 

2 Written by request of the Committee of the Cambridge University 
Church Society for inclusion in their Manual. 



440 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. n 

ordered the world that all nations should seek Thee, we humbly 
pray that Thou wouldest be pleased to reveal Thyself to those 
who have not yet acknowledged Thy love. 

Upon Thy faithful servants who bear the Gospel to our fellow- 
subjects in India, and especially . . ., pour out the spirit of 
sympathy and wisdom and patience, that they may in all things 
discern the signs of Thy Counsel and follow the teaching of Thy 
Spirit, and be strengthened and sustained by Thy Presence. 
Grant to those who hear them a true knowledge of their own 
wants, and grace to believe that Thou art waiting to bless all who 
look for Thy help. 

Unite us with their work in heart and soul, that we in them 
and they in us may learn more and more the power of that 
fellowship which is perfected in Thee. And hasten, O LORD, by 
their ministry, the time of the restitution of all things, when Thou 
shalt receive from the nations which Thou hast made the offerings 
of their manifold service, and Thy sheep scattered abroad shall 
become one flock under the one Shepherd. We ask all in the 
name of Thy Son, our Lord and Saviour, JESUS CHRIST. Amen. 



APPENDIX III 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 

* Writings so marked were subsequently published or reprinted in 
a later volume. 

1851. *THE ELEMENTS OF THE GOSPEL HARMONY: with a 
Catena on Inspiration, from the writings of the Ante- 
Nicene Fathers. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 8vo. 

1855. A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF THE CANON 
OF THE NEW TESTAMENT DURING THE FIRST FOUR 
CENTURIES. Macmillan and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1859. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GOSPEL MIRACLES. Sermons 

preached before the University of Cambridge, with Notes. 
Macmillan and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1860. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i. Articles on 

" Canon," " Herod," etc. 

1860. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE GOSPELS. 
Being the second edition of THE ELEMENTS OF THE 
GOSPEL HARMONY. 

1863. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, vols. ii. and iii. Articles 

on " New Testament," "Vulgate," etc. 

1864. THE BIBLE IN THE CHURCH. A popular account of the 

collection and reception of the Holy Scriptures in the 
Christian Churches. Macmillan and Co. Pott Svo. 

1865. "La Salette in 1865." Article written for publication in 

Macmillan >s Magazine. Not published. 

1866. THE GOSPEL OF THE RESURRECTION : Thoughts on its 

Relation to Reason and History. Macmillan and Co. 
Ext. fcap. Svo. Later editions cr. Svo. 
441 



442 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

1866. ^Crises in the History of the Church. A Sermon preached 
in Harrow School Chapel. Not published. 

1866. *"The Myths of Plato." An Article published in The 
Contemporary Review. 

1866. *"The Dramatist as Prophet: Aeschylus." An Article 

published in The Contemporary Review. 

1867. The Resurrection as a Fact and a Revelation. A Tract 

written for the S.P.C.K. Not published. 

1867. *" Euripides as a Religious Teacher." An Article pub- 
lished in The Contemporary Review. 

1867. *" Aspects of Positivism in relation to Christianity." An 

Article published in The Contemporary Review. 

1868. A GENERAL VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH 

BIBLE. Macmillan and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1868. ^Disciplined Life. A Sermon preached in Harrow School 

Chapel. Not published. 

1869. *The Spiritual Office of the Universities. A Sermon 

preached in the Chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
at the Commemoration of Benefactors, December 1868. 
Macmillan and Co. 

1869. THE CHRISTIAN LIFE, MANIFOLD AND ONE. Six 

Sermons preached in Peterborough Cathedral. Mac- 
millan and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1870. On Cathedral Work. Two Articles published in Mac- 

millaris Magazine (January and February). 

1870. The Constructive Work of the Christian Ministry. An 

Ordination Sermon preached in Peterborough Cathedral. 
Macmillan and Co. Svo. 

1871. Our Attitude towards the War. A Sermon preached in 

Peterborough Cathedral. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 
Svo. 

1871. ^Clerical Education in Connexion with the Universities 

and Theological Colleges. A Paper read at the Church 

Congress at Nottingham. 
2YNA6AOYNTK1\ An Address to the Cambridge 

University Church Society. Not published. 
Cathedral Foundations in Relation to Religious Thought. 

Essay V. in Essays on Cathedrals. Edited by J. S. 

Howson, Dean of Chester. 

1872. *Our Universities: their Future as Places of Religious 

Education. A Paper read at the Church Congress at 
Leeds. 



in 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 443 



1873. ON SOMK POINTS IN TIM, RKUCHHIS OK KICK <>K TIM. 

UNIVERSITIES. Macmillan ami Co. C'r. ovo. 

1874. Missions and the Universities. A Sermon preached in 

St. Mary's, Oxford. Published in Mission l.ijc (Feb- 
ruary). 
1877. A Lecture on Benjamin Whichcote, contributed to Masters 

in English Theology, edited by Alfred Harry. John 

Murray. Cr. 8vo. 
1877. Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, 

vol. i. Articles on the Alexandrian Divines, " Clement/' 

" Demetrius," " Dionysius." 
1877. The Faith One and Progressive. An Ordination Sermon 

preached in All Saints', Cambridge. Macmillan and 

Co. 
1877. A Few Words on Supernatural Religion. A Preface to 

the fourth edition of A General Survey of the Il'^tory 

of the Canon of the New Testament. Macmillan and 

Co. Cr. Svo. 

1877. Scepticism: Critical. A Speech at the Church Congress 

at Brighton. 

1878. The Spirit and the Blessing of Church Work. An Address 

to Church Workers in Peterborough Cathedral. Not 
published. 

1878. An Address to the Members of the Peterborough Choral 
Society. Reprinted from 'J.7ic Peterborough and Hunt- 
ingdonshire St< uidard. 

1878. *"Origeri and the Beginnings of Christian Philosophy." 

An Article in 77/6' Contemporary Rcviciu. 

1879. Our Debt to the Past. T\vo Sermons preached in Peter- 

borough Cathedral. Geo. C. Caster, Peterborough. 
Cr. Svo. 

1879. *From Strength to Strength. Sermon preached in West- 
minster Abbey at the Consecration of Bishop Lightfoot. 
Macmillan and Co. Svo. 

1879. THE PARAGRAPH PSALTER. Arranged for the use 

of Choirs. Cambridge University Press. 4to and 
3 2 mo. 

1880. Steps in the Christian Life. S.P.C.K. Cr. Svo. 

1881. The Lesson of Biblical Revision. A Sermon preached in 

the Chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge. Macmillan 
and Co. Cr. Svo. 
1881. May. (With Dr. Hort.) THE NEW TESTAMENT IN THE 



444 LIFE OF BISHOP VVESTCOTT APP. 

ORIGINAL GREEK. TEXT. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 
Svo. 

1 88 1. Aug. (With Dr. Hort.) THE NEW TESTAMENT IN THE 
ORIGINAL GREEK. INTRODUCTION AND APPENDIX. 
Macmillan and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1 88 1. THE REVELATION OF THE RISEN LORD. Macmillan and 

Co. Cr. Svo. 

1882. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN : THE AUTHORISED 

VERSION WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES. Reprinted 
from The Speaker's Commentary. John Murray. 

1882. *The Communion of Saints. A Paper read at the 

Church Congress at Leicester. 

1883. THE EPISTLES OF ST. JOHN: THE GREEK TEXT WITH 

NOTES AND ESSAYS. Macmillan and Co. Svo. 
1883. THE HISTORIC FAITH: Short Lectures on the Apostles' 

Creed. Macmillan and Co. Cr. Svo. 
1883. Waiting for Power from on High. A Sermon preached in 

the Chapel of Peterhouse, Cambridge. Deighton, Bell 

and Co. Svo. 

1883. *" Dionysius the Areopagite." Published in The Con- 

temporary Review. 

1884. Faithful is He that Calleth. A Sermon preached in West- 

minster Abbey at the Consecration of Bishop Barry. 
Macmillan and Co. Svo. 

1884. A Sermon preached in Westminster Abbey. 27th April. 
Church Missionary Society. 

1884. THE REVELATION OF THE FATHER: Short Lectures on 
the Titles of the Lord in the Gospel of St. John. Mac- 
millan and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1884. Some Thoughts from the Ordinal. Macmillan and Co. 

Globe Svo. 

1885. The Mission of the Schoolmaster. A Sermon preached in 

the Chapel of St. Mark's College, Chelsea. Macmillan 
and Co. Crown Svo. 

1885. (With Dr. Hort.) The New Testament in the Original 
Greek. (Small edition with a new Appendix). Mac- 
millan and Co. Pott Svo. 

1885. The Teaching Work of the Church. A Speech at the 

Church Congress at Portsmouth. 

1886. (With Archbishop Benson.) Two Sermons preached at the 

Dedication Festival of All Hallows, Barking. Macmillan 
and Co. Cr. Svo. 



in BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 445 

1886. The Bible the Charter of Hope. A Sermon pi curbed in 
Westminster Abbey. The Hible House. <Sv<>. 

1886. CHRISTUS CONSUMMATOK : Some Aspects of the \\oik 
and Person of Christ in relation to Modern Thought. 
Macmillan and Co. Cr. 8vo. 

1886. ^Disciplined Life. Three Addresses. .Macmillan and Co. 

Cr. 8vo. 

1887. A Speech at the Anniversary Meeting of the C.M.S. 

Church Mission House. Cr. 8vo. 
1887. The Bearing of the Epistle to the Hebrews upon the Study 

and Use of Holy Scripture. A Speech at the Church 

Congress at Wolverhampton. 
1887. Smith and Ware's Dictionary of Christian Biography, 

vol. iv. Article on " Origen." 
1887. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHRISTIANITY. Macmillan and Co. 

Cr. 8vo. 

1887. (Stephen Phillips.) THOUGHTS ON REVELATION AND 

LIFE. Selections from the writings of B. F. Westcott. 
1887-1889. Sermons preached in Westminster Abbey. Published 
in The Christian World Pulpit. The following are the 
titles of some : "Revealing the Father," "The Christian 
Idea of the Universe," "The Christian Idea of Man," 
"The Christian Idea of the Unseen," "Private Prayer," 
"Our Christian Aim," "Constraining Love," " Imperfect 
Knowledge," " Individuality,'' "Fellowship," "Sympathy," 
" Tenderness," " Watchfulness." 

1888. THE VICTORY OF THE CROSS. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 

8vo. 

1888. Foreign Missions. A Tract. S.P.C.K. 

1889. THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS: THE GREEK TEXT 

WITH NOTES AND ESSAYS. Macmillan and Co. 8vo. 

1889. Gifts for Ministry. Addresses to Ordination Candidates. 
Macmillan and Co. Globe 8vo. 

1889. The Spirit and Blessing of Work for the Poorest. An 
Address to St. Saviour's, Southwark Branch of the Metro- 
politan Association for Befriending Young Servants. 
Women's Printing Society. 

1889. *A Sermon. Preached at the Consecration of the Church 

of St. Ignatius the Martyr, Sunderland. Not pub- 
lished. 

1890. From Strength to Strength. Three Sermons on Stages in 

a Consecrated Life. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 8vo. 



446 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. 

1890. A Prefatory Note to Bishop Lightfoot's Apostolic Fathers. 

Part I. 

1891. ESSAYS IN THE HISTORY OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT IN 

THE WEST. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 8vo. 

1891. The National Church and the Nation. A Speech in 
Westminster Town Hall. The Church Defence Institu- 
tion. Svo. 

1891. *A Sermon (Our own Poor in India). On behalf of 
the Indian Church Aid Association. Not published. 

1891. Presidential Address. Church Congress, Hull. 

1891. ^Socialism. A Speech delivered at the Church Congress 
at Hull. 

1891. Gambling. A Tract. R.T.S. 

1892. The Idea and Work of the Church of England. A Speech 

delivered at Darlington. The Church Defence Institu- 
tion. 

1892. 6EOY SYNEPrOI. Harrow School Chapel. Not 
published. 

1892. THE GOSPEL OF LIFE: Thoughts introductory to the 
Study of Christian Doctrine. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 
Svo. 

1892. The Incarnation. A Tract. S.P.C.K. 

1892. A Preface to Witnesses of These Things. Griffith, Farran 

and Co. 

1893. *The Manifold Revelation of Truth. A Sermon preached 

in Newcastle Cathedral before the British Medical 
Association. Not published. 

1893. A Prefatory Note to Dr. Hort's Hulsean Lectures. Mac- 
millan and Co. 

1893. A Prefatory Note to a Memoir of Bishop Lightfoot. Mac- 
millan and Co. 

1893. ^Master and Scholar: a Memory and a Hope. An 
Address at the Opening of the Grammar School for 
Girls, Camp Hill, Birmingham. 

1893. ^"Citizenship, Human and Divine. Sermon at the Church 
Congress at Birmingham. 

1893. THE INCARNATION AND COMMON LIFE. Macmillan and 
Co. Cr. Svo. 

1895. The Christian Social Union. The Presidential Address at 
the Annual Meeting of the C.S.U. at Cambridge (1894). 
Rivington, Percival and Co. 

1895. (With Canon Body.) Two Addresses delivered to the 



in BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 447 

Durham Diocesan Lay Helper.-,'' Association at Am k 
land Castle. 

1896. *Some Conditions of Religious Life. A Visitation Charge, 
1896. Not published. 

1896. (With Canon Scott Holland and Canon C. (lore.) Three 

Addresses. Delivered at the Meeting of C.S.U. at iirihtol. 
W. Crofton Hcmmons. 

1897. SOME LESSONS OF THE REVISED VERSION OF THE .\i \v 

TESTAMENT. II odder and Stoughton. 

1897. CHRISTIAN ASPECTS OF LIFE. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 
Svo. 

1897. Lessons of the Reign. A Paper contributed to 77v 

Commonwealth (June). 

1898. A Prefatory Note to Dr. E. G. King's Psalms, Part 1. 
1898. A Preface to Our Heritage in the Church. Sampson Lo\\, 

Marston and Co. 

1898. The S.P.C.K. Bicentenary. A Sermon. S.P.C.K. Cr. 
Svo. 

1898. *The Organisation of Industry. An Address to the 

Macclesfield Branch of S. C.S.U. Published in '/'//< 
Economic Rei'lcw. 

1899. An Appreciation of the late Christina Georgina Rossctti. 

S.P.C.K. 
1899. *The Study of the Bible. An Address to the Durham 

Junior Clergy Society. Not published. 
1899. The Glory of a Nation. A Paper contributed to 77r 

News. 
1899. The Rest Day of the Heart. A Paper contributed to 

Guard your Sundays. 
1899. Biblical Criticism and Social Problems. Paper contributed 

to The Churchman (November). 

1899. "^International Concord. A Sermon preached in St. 

Margaret's, Westminster. Published in T/ic Common- 
wealth. 

1900. Introductory Note to a Book of Comfort by V. \V. Duck- 

worth and Co. Cr. Svo. 

1900. *The Position and Call of the English Church. Visitation 

Charge. Not published. 

1901. The Copartnership of Labour. An Address delivered 

before the Co-operative Congress at Middlesbrough. 
Reprinted from 77/6' Northern \\ T eckly Gazette. 
1901. LESSONS FROM WORK. Macmillan and Co. Cr. Svo. 



448 LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT APP. m 

1901. *Life. A Sermon preached in the Chapel of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, at the Commemoration of Bene- 
factors, nth December, 1900. Cr. 8vo. Not published. 



1902. WORDS OF FAITH AND HOPE. Macmillan and Co. Cr. 
8vo. 

It may interest the reader to know that the total circulation 
of my father's more important writings, including the Westcott 
and Hort Greek Testament, amounted, up to 3ist December 
1901, to about 280,000 volumes. This total does not include 
single sermons or other brief writings, of which the S.P.C.K. 
alone have circulated about 31,000. 



NOTE ON 
BISHOP WESTCOTTS HANDWRITING 

As in the course of this work several references, fluttering and 
otherwise, have been made to my father's handwriting, a few 
words concerning it may possibly be pardoned. The- re is no 
disguising the fact that on occasion, particularly in his earlier 
years, his writing was not remarkably legible ; but only once 
during the course of a year mainly devoted to studying his 
written words have I consciously failed to decipher a word. In 
extenuation of my incompetence on that occasion, I must plead 
that the phrase which defied my efforts was a Latin botanical 
term, and although I looked up in my botanical authorities all 
probable terms, I was compelled eventually to give it up and 
substitute a feeble, and, I fear, inappropriate, word of my own 
devising. His signature at times was especially illegible, and I 
have before me now fifty bona fult conjectural interpretations of 
a signature which he appended to a letter to a friend. In for- 
warding the interpretations, my father's correspondent says : " I 
began in all innocence, but, finding the first few interpretations 
bewildering in their variety, a scientific impulse (perhaps 1 should 
rather say a mixture of malice and curiosity) got the upper hand, 
and I thought I would ascertain what was the complete cycle of 
possible interpretations. Clearly, however, we are far from 
having any such limit at present, as is shown by the fact of there 
being only three repetitions out of the fifty. It is amusing to 
observe the contrast between the timid minds that cling to known 
and recognised names and the hardy thinkers who follow their 
reason even though it lead them to Rontish or Slontish. But I 
will leave the philosophy to you." 
VOL. II 2 G 



450 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 




Here follow the fifty interpretations 



N. Bowtell. W. Nontiott. 


W. Wartell. 


W. F. Coutauld. 


W. F. Northcote. 


W. J. Watcott. 


\V. Frontith. W. Nuntell. 


W. Watell. 


W. Frountell. 


W. Rontish. W. F. Watell. 


W. J. Hewlett. 


W. Rowstick. 


W. H. Watell. 


W. Honteth. 


W. Slontish. 


W. J. Waterloo. 


W. Hewlett (2 ce ). 


W. Slowtite. 


J. H. Water ton. 


W. Howtett (2 ce ). 
W. Howtite. 


W. Stontell. 
W. Stontide. 


W. J. Watett. 
W. T. Watiote. 


J. Menteith. 


W. Stontcote. 


J. F. Watitt. 


W. Matock. 


W. Swatiott. 


W. F. Watitt. 


J. Monteith. 


W. Sweetett. 


W. F. Westroll. 


W. Monteith (2 ce ). 


W. Swintott. 


W. S. Whitworth. 


W. Nontall. 


W. Swintull. 


W. F. Writesth. 


W. Nontick. 


W. Trontide. 


W. J. Wortell. 


W. Nontioll. 


W. S. Untill. 





Several of my father's working-men correspondents complained 
to him of the difficulty they experienced in reading his letters. 
One writer says that he and a friend spent hours over the letter, 
and in the end achieved only a partial apprehension of its 
contents ; another, after long study, took his letter to the Vicar 
for decipherment, and suggested to the Bishop that when writing 
to working-men he should write as a working-man, i.e. in childish 
copperplate. I have further noticed that several educated 
correspondents have referred to the Bishop for the elucidation of 
single phrases in his letters to them. The facsimile given at p. 13 
of this volume represents, in my opinion, my father's best writing, 
and is placed there on that account. His episcopal signature 
was far more legible than that which previously concealed his 
family name. 

The mention of working-men correspondents induces the re- 
mark that such writers seem more prone than others to express 
themselves in verse. My father was the recipient of several 
poetical letters from working-men, and as I have quoted one of 



NOTE ON HANDWRITING 451 

the uncomplimentary kind, it is only fair that I should furnish a 
specimen of the other sort. I am confident that the simple words 
were dear and welcome to the Bishop, and they form a pleasing 
if inapt conclusion to this brief excursus : 

1. Our great Bishop of Durham,' 

2. You are in threat spirituality ; form 

3. For lecturing we can see. 

4. You are spcacking out stright, 

5. To give the people Light, 

6. On pure Christinity. 



1 Pronounced Dor'm (see p. 106). 



INDEX 



Alder, H. R. , i. 104, 109, 408 

Letters to, i. 148-153 
Allegories, Adams', i. 162 
Apocrypha, Revision of, i. 397 ; ii. 

236 ff. 

Arbitration, International, ii. 122, 235 
Argles, Marsham, i. 310 
"Armed Europe" (letter), ii. 16 
" Armenian Atrocities," ii. 205 
Arnold, Dr. ; i. 52, 94, 248, 332 
Arnold, Matthew, ii. 58 
Ashcombe, Lord. See Cubitt 
Atonement, doctrine of the, i. 231, 

239 ; ii. 12, 226 
"Attitude towards the \Y'ar, Our," 

ii. 289 
Austen, Canon, letter to, ii. 289 

Balfour, A. J., ii. 210, 330, 335 
Baptist ministers (visit Auckland), ii. 

233 

Barnard Castle, visit to, ii. 326 
Barnard, Lord, ii. 326, 408 
Barrington, Bishop, ii. 275 
Barry, Bishop, i. 37, 45, 117, 202 ; 

ii. i, 100, 102 
Beatson, H. W. , i. 122 
Bedford school, i. 406 
Bell, J. H., ii. 416 
Bell, Mackenzie, ii. 262 

Letters to, ii. 262, 263 
Benson, Archbishop, i. 107, 117, 

120, 125, 127, 176, 199, 202, 

210, 238, 248, 254, 258, 293, 

295- 37. 3 l6 - 3 2 5. 348, 3 86 < 
415, 418 ; ii. 5, 26, 92, 98, 
in, 113, 135, 208, 209, 215, 
271. 353- 366 
Letters to, Chaps. III. -XI. 



Benson, Mrs., ii. ^9, i^o, 101, 272 

Benson, A. ('., ii. 40, 272 

Bible Commentaries : Macnnlian's, i. 

204-208 ; Sir \\'m. Smith':-, 1. 

204; The .S'/rc/CvvV, i. 20 :,, 

282 f. , 319 

jliblc in tlic Church, Th,\ \. 244 f. 
Bible Society, Brit, and For., ii. 412 
" Biblical Criticism," ii. 20.) 
Bickersteth, Bishop I 1 '.. II., i. 3:-! 
Birmingham, later visits to, ii. 34, 

139, 174, 261 
Body, Canon, ii. 339 
Boer \Var, ii. 287 ; letter on, ii. 311 
Booth, " General," i. 348 
Bottle-workers (visit to Auckland), i, 

263 
Boutrlo\\cr, C. II., ii. 1^9, 342, 300, 

397, 400, 403 
Bcmttlower, I). S. , ii. 344 
Bradlaugh, C. , ii. 108 
Bradley, Dean, ii. 2, 6, 10, 26, 3(1, 

100 
Letters to, ii. 44, 46, 50, v" 1 , >/ 

2f>o, 322, 340 

Bradshaw, II., i. 117, ^41 ; ii. 46 
Brooke, Mailha, i. 4 
Brown, Bishop Harold, ii. 104 
Browne, Sir Benjamin, ii. nj" 
Browning, Robert, i. 3(>_> ; ii. 4, 35, 67 
Bunyan, John, i. 406 
Bunyon, Miss, ii. 225 
Burgon, Dean, i. 399, 404 
Burns, Juhn, ii. 294 
Burl, T., ii. 196, 300, 373 
Bute, Marquess of, i. IOQ, 29^ ; ii. 43 
Butler, Dr. (Master of Trinity), i. 

209, 237, 272, 320, 419, 429; 

ii. 99, 100, 182, 329, 404 



453 



454 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



Cambridge, Browning Society, i. 

362 ; ii. 5 

Church Society, i. 383, 424 
Clergy Training School, i. 382 f. ; 

11. 51, 147, 269 
Companion to the Bible, ii. 47 
Delhi Mission, i. 383, 435 ; ii. 53, 

155, 204, 319, 410 

Divinity School, i. 371, 373, 387 

House, ii. 210 

Memorial on Church Reform, i. 
414 

Motto, ii. 328 

Theological Board, i. 376 

University Commission, i. 201 

University Extension, i. 411 
Canon of fhe New Testament, His- 
tory of the, i. 180, 244, 290, 

335 

Cathedral Work, i. 307; ii. 135 
Chaplaincies, Examining, i. 266, 

277, 322, 325 ; ii. 5, 49 
Characteristics of the Gospel Miracles, 

1. 202, 235 

"Cherry Ripe," i. 357 ; ii. 152 

Cheyne, Dr. , ii. 45 

Christian Art, ii. 143 

Christian Aspects of Life, ii. 174, 181, 

214 
"Christian Doctrine, Study of," i. 

373- 382 

Christian Knowledge, Society for Pro- 
moting, ii. 181, 252, 409 

Christian Life, Manifold and One, i. 

304 

"Christian Policy of Peace, A," ii. 21 

Christian Social Union, The, ii. 16, 
182, 197, 210, 227, 250, 258, 
260, 281, 309, 326, 367 

Christus Consummator, ii. n, 29 

Church Army, The, ii. 193 

Church Congress, i. 312, 376 ; ii. 

12, no, 113, 151, 174, 289, 

3 2 5. 3 66 

Church Defence, ii. 171 
Church History, Lectures on, i. 373 
Church Missionary Society, The, ii. 

2, 103, 155, 181, 189, 266, 410 
Church Pastoral Aid Society, The, ii. 

103, 139 

Church Reform, i. 414 ; ii. 249 
Church Reform League, ii. 214 
Clarabut, W. , i. 327 



Clark, Sir A., ii. 4 
Ccenobium, i. 263 ff. , 267, 305 
Communion of Saints, The, i. 312 
Compton, Bishop Alwyn, i. 22 ; ii. 

269 

Compulsory Greek, i. 413 
Conciliation Board, ii. 295, 376, 381, 

413 
Conditions of Religious Life, Some, 

ii. 210 
Conferences, Aged Miners' Homes, 

ii. 275 

Armaments of Europe, ii. 16 
Commercial Morality, ii. 175 
Conciliation, ii. 382 
Co-operation, ii. in, 272 
Industrial, ii. 273 
Merchant Seamen, ii. 278 
Missionary (London, 1894), ii. 

1 80 

National Insurance, ii. in 
Peace, ii. 23 
Private, at Auckland Castle, ii. 

377 ff. 

Profit-sharing, ii. 135 
Unemployed, ii. 195 
Wages (Durham Strike), ii. 123 
Confession, private, ii. 304 
Confessions, Coleridge's, i. 54 
Consett, ii. 289, 296 
Continental trips, i. 112, 176-180, 
182-189, 2 44> 2 53> 35 ff- ' ii- 
178 

Convocation, Church, i. 389 ff., 417; 
ii. 152, 170, 290, 295, 313, 
332, 355 

Co-operation, ii. 109, in, 289, 375 
Cordeux, Miss, ii. 239, 353 

Letters to, 239 ff. 
Cremer, Canon, letters to, ii. 308, 

313. 3i8 

Crimean War, i. 229 
Cross, Viscount, i. 339, 408 ; ii. 108, 

158 

Crucifix, The, ii. 81 
Cubitt, G. (Lord Ashcombe), i. 127, 

238, 308, 408 ; ii. 156 
Letters to, i. 339, 435 ; ii. 51, 53, 

95 
Cyril, ii. 162 

Dale, Sir David, ii. 123, 129, 196, 

382 



INDEX 



455 



Dale, Dr. R. W., li. 140, 305 
Dalrymple, Sir Charles, i. 197, 199, 

39 6 - 43i 
Letters to, i. 209, 3S4. 2 94. 3^8 ; 

li. 43, 224, 283, 310 
Darlington, visits to, ii. 104, 157, 

190, 213, 325 
Davidson, Archbishop, ii. 93, TOO, 

102, 271, 300, 309, 335, 352, 403 
Davies, Dr. J. LI., i. 37, 43, 46, 55, 

232 ; ii. 41, 164, 401 
Letters to, Chaps. V.-XIII. 
Deceased Wife's Sister Bill, i. 332 ; 

ii. 304 
Degrees, Honorary (of B. F. W. ), 

D.C.L. (Oxford), i. 407; D. D. 

(Durham), ii. 107 ; (Edinburgh), 

ii. 2 ; (Dublin), ii. 254 
De Varreux, Celestine, i. 2 
Dicky Bird Society, ii. 183 
Dictionary of the Bible. (Sir Win. 

Smith), i. 203, 207, 236, 241, 

244 
Dictionary of Christian Biography 

(Smith and Wace), i. 298, 319, 

329 

Didache, The, ii. 37 
Diocesan Conferences, ii. 192, 249, 

278, 331 

" Disciplined Life, " i. 194,277; ii, 12 
"Disestablishment," i. 294 
Dublin, visit to, ii. 254 
Durham, visits to, ii. 106, 188, 201, 

208, 256, 258, 262, 287, 331, 

344 
Durham Artillery Militia, letter to, ii. 

287 

Durham, Earl of, ii. 344 
Durham, University, ii. 52,65, 106, 136 

Ecce Homo, i. 289 

Ecclesiastical Courts Commission, i. 

315 f., 340, 440 ; ii. 75 
Ede, Canon Moore, ii. 196, 294, 

303. 378 

Eden, Bishop, ii. 102, 159 
Edinburgh, visits to, i. 320 ; ii. 2 
Education of Women, i. 413 ; ii. 140, 

295 
1 ' Elementary Truths of the Christian 

Faith, Some," i. 314 
Ellicott, Bishop, i. 380, 392 f. , 431 
Ely Cathedral, i. 72, 83, 149 



EUHTSOH'S /*Vw/)M. 11. 40 

English IHble, History cj Ihr, i. 2^2 f. 

I'.p^tles i>f St. John, \. ^7^, n. .\\ 

' ' Franus " Club, i. $8^ f. 

Essays and Reviews, i. 212-215, ' J <" ; " 

Eucharist, the Holy, ii. 4!-!, 274, ,H'' : 

355 

"Expenditure, Christian Rule of," 
ii. 281, ^09 

Farmer, II., i. 191 

Farrar, Canon A. S. , i. 2<>i ; ii. JO;, 

393 
Farrar, Dean, i. 174, 2^0, 27^, }8i ; 

ii. 148 
Letters to, i. 335, 337, 370. 4p ; 

ii. 37, 56, 145. \.\n, 152, i $b 
Femviek, R. , ii. 192 
ffolkes, Sir William, i. 19=; 
Flint, Prof., ii. 2 
" Flower Service," ii. 203 
Foreign Service, letter on, ii. [98 
Framley Parsonage, i. 241 
Franco-German War, i. 30';, 3 \n 
From Strength to Strength, ii. 29 

Garfit, A. , i. 260 

Gateshead, visits to, ii. 170, 213 

" Ghostlie " Guild, i. 117-120 

(lifts for Ministry, ii. <> 

Girls' Friendly Society, ii. 148, 2;<> 

Gladstone, W. F. , i. 297, 315, 3'\->. 

408 ; ii. i, 7, 59, 155, 222, 25'-, 

300 

" Glory of a Nation, The," ii. 283 
Goethe, i. 224 
Goodwin, Bishop Harvey, i. 111, 

199, 380 ; ii. 100 
Gordon, Hon. A. (Lord Stanmorci, 

i. 117, 120, 174 
Gore, Bishop, i. 194, 270; ii. 147. 

198, 211 

i Gorham, G. M. , i. 202 
! Gospel ILirmonv, Elements of the. i. 

4 

! Gospel of Life, The, i. 373, 385; ii. 

in f . 
! Gospel of St. John, i. 237, 289, 319, 

373 : 6 9 
Gospel of the Resurrection, '1 he. i. 

249 ff., 256, 262, 371 ; 11. 63 
Gospels, An Introduction to the Study 

of, i. 114, 231, 235 f. 



456 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



Grant, Sir A. , ii. 4 

Greek Testament, i. 42, 43, 237, 285, 

2 9 6 . 3 X 9> 39 8 ff -. 43; ij - 43. 

iS3 
Grey, Hon. J., ii. 103, 227 

Halifax, Viscount, ii. 151, 302 
Hampden, Bishop, i. 52, 94, 98, 

169 f. 

Harmer, Bishop, ii. 40 
Hartlepool, visit to, ii. 278 
Hatch, Dr., ii. 3 f., 38 
Heaton, Miss, ii. 181 
Heberden, C. B. , i. 191 
Hebrews, Epistle to the, i. 374 ; ii. 

29. 55 
Hensley, Sir Robert, i. 182, 185 ; ii. 

234- 309 

Hicks, Bishop, ii. 181 
Historic Faith, The, i. 314 ; ii. 308, 

35 2 
Holland, Canon Scott, i. 310 ; ii. 

15, 198, 211, 269 
Holyoake, G. J., ii. 375 
Hort, Professor, i. 108, 117, 127, 

202, 208, 212, 329, 385, 398, 

421 ; ii. 100, 102, 137, 175, 
176, 215 

Letters to, Chaps. III.-X. 
Hort, Mrs., ii. 401 

Letters to, ii. 169, 176, 340 
Hort, Sir Arthur, ii. 340, 401 
Howson, Dean, i. 37, 308 f. 
Hughes, M. J., letter to, ii. 63 
Hulsean Professorship, i. 218, 366 
Hume, Dr., ii. 265, 338 
Humphrey, Prof., i. 418 
Hyacinthe, Le Pere, ii. 375 

" Immortality," ii. 337 
"Incarnation, The, a Revelation of 

Human Duties," ii. 135 
fncar?iation and Common Life, The, 

ii. 106, in, 141, 174 
Inge, W. R., i. 409 
In His Steps, ii. 308 
" International Concord," ii. 267 
" lo Triumphe," i. 191, 275 

Jackson, H., i. 385 

Jacob, Bishop, ii. 151, 291, 403 

Jane Eyre, i. 144, 314 

Jebb, Prof., ii. 269 



Jersey College, i. 127 ff. 
John Inglesant, i. 314 
Johnson, Bishop, ii. 156, 411 
Jowett, Dr., i. 215, 233 

Keble (Christian Year], i. 44, 51, 

60, 65, 73, 77, 79, 86 
Keeton, Dr. Hadyn, i. 313 
Kempthorne, J. A. , ii. 403 
Kennaway, Sir John, ii. 189 
Kibblesworth Brass Band, ii. 337 
King, Dr. E. G. , i. 381 ; ii. 87 

Letters to, ii. 299, 305, 310, 358 
King, Bishop G. L. , ii. 221, 271 
King's College, Fellowship, i. 409 

423 ; Hon. Fellowship, i. 409 
Kingsley, Charles, ii. 109 
Kitchin, Dean, ii. 314, 343, 393, 

404 
Knight, A. M., ii. 403 

Lady Margaret Professorship, i. 

290 

Lake, Dean, ii. 54 
La Salette, i. 254 ff. 
Lee, Bishop Prince, i. 5, 14, 17-28, 

44, 56, 86, 91, 116, 121, 143, 

166, 180, 212, 232, 248 f . , 

287 ; ii. 140 
Lefroy, Bishop, ii. 53 
Lessons from Work, ii. 294, 345 
Lessons of the R. V. of the N.T., ii. 

12 

Lightfoot, Bishop, i. 107, 116, 125, 

127, 173, 202, 205-208, 212, 

218, 254, 295, 304, 316, 361, 
366, 371, 377, 383, 385, 386, 
388 ; ii. 5, 26, 138, 176, 188, 
215, 225, 362, 368 
Letters to, Chaps. III. -IX. 

Long, Archdeacon, ii. 96, 397 

Lords, House of, ii. 107, 156 

Lux Mundi, ii. 68, 226 

Lyra Innocentium, i. 69 

M 'Clemens, f . , ii. 403 
M'Cullagh, Dr., ii. 338, 396, 400 
Macdonald, F. C. , ii. 348 
MacDonnell, Dean, i. 326 
Mackenzie, Bishop, i. 37 
Maclagan, Archbishop, ii. 331, 346, 

403, 404, 407 
Letters to, ii. 331, 340, 354 ff. 



INDEX 



457 



Maclagan, Hon. Mrs., ii. 304 
Letter to, ii. 341 

Macmillan, A., letters to, i. 180, 
205, 206, 228, 242, 250, 2^3, 
278, 288, 304, 335, 375 

Magee, Archbishop, i. 266, 277, 304, 
322, 325 f., 341, 380, 394 ; ii. 

7i. 159 

Maine, Sir Henry, ii. 2 
Mann, Tom, ii. 162, 294 
Marriage (of B. F. W.), i. 17^ 
Marshall, Prof., i. 385; ii. 165 
Maurice, Prof. F. D. , i. 229, 3^7, 

369 ; ii. ii, 37, 109, 160 
Maxwell, Prof. J. Clerk, i. 385 
Mayor, Prof. ). E. B., i. 37, 47, 

221 

Medd, J. C., ii. 259, 311 
"Mep," i. 317 ; ii. 147, 160 
Methodist preachers (visit Auck- 
land), ii. 191 

Middlesbrough, visit to, ii. 343 
Milligan, Prof., i. 396 
Miners' Gala, ii. 185, 383 
Miners' Services, ii. 246, 256, 293, 

348, 389. 392 
"Monastic Life," i. 318 
Monteagle, Lord, ii. 269 
Montgomery, Bishop, ii. 341, 359 
Moule, Bishop, i. 421 ; ii. 315 
Moulton, Dr., i. 397; ii. 137, 236, 

300 
Letters to, 220, 227, 230, 234, 

236 f., 297 
Moulton, J. H., ii. 398 

Letter to, ii. 357 
Murray, Graham, i. 199, 320 
Music, i. 51, 84, 93, 144, 153, 191, 
337 ', ii- 32, 37 

National Portrait Gallery, ii. 231 
Natural Science, teaching of, i. 259 
Newcastle, visits to, ii. 136, 1^1, 
174, 183, 189, 213, 289, 292, 

325 
Newman, Cardinal, i. 57, 71, 163, 

248, 285 ; ii. 293 
Nixon, John, ii. 384 
Norrisian Professorship, i. 245 ft". 
Northbourne, Lord, ii. 384 

Obligations of Empire, ii. 287 
Old Testament Criticism, ii. 60, 68 



Organisation of Industry 

Origcn, i. yjo f- 

Oxven, Humphreys 

Oxford, visits to, i. 216, 407; ii. 



Paget, Sir Jame,, n. .j 

Paragraph Psait,-r, The, i. 314, 3^7 f. ; 

ii. 9 

I'asch;il, i. 103 
Peace Congress, International Parli- 

mentary, ii. 107 
Pelham, Prof. , i. 270 
Pelham, F. G. , ii. 96 
Perowne, Bishop, i. 3^8, 386 
Perrott, F. i). , letter to, i. 439 
Peterborough Cathedral, i. 83, i i i 

353 : ' '33- l6 S 
Phillips, Dr. S. , i. 313, 314, 322, 

Chap. VII. ; ii. 9 
'Philological Society, The," i. 47 
Pictures, i. 41, no, 182, 2^1; ii. 

289, 365 
Poetry (of B. F. \V.), i. 90, no, 

129-134, 148-150, 152, 162, 

230, 257 
Portrait (of 15. F. \V.), i. 418 ; ii. 

30 
"Position and Call of the English 

Church," ii. 325 

Positivism, i. 262, 260; ii. ii, 284 
Prayer, ii. 28^ 
Prayers for the Dead, ii. 341) 
Preliminary Examination for Holy 

Orders, i. 376, 378 ft".; ii. 298 
Price, E. , ii. 116, 400, 403 

Letters to, ii. 60, ii'> ft". ; 1^1, 

153, 286, 315 
Princess, The, i. v2, 99 
Prior, C. II., i. 349; ii. 182, 210 
Letters to, ii. 39, 167, 233, 279 
Prior, Miss A. , ii. 400 
" Progress," ii. 327 (cf. 370) 
Propagation of the Gospel, Society 

for, ii. 103, 157, 290, 325, 359, 

409 
Pusey, Dr. , i. 63, 217 

Queen's Jubilee ( 1887), ii. 13, (1897), 
245 



458 



LIFE OF BISHOP WESTCOTT 



Ravensworth, Earl of, ii. 336 
Religious Office of the Universities, i. 

.375. 43 
Religious Thought in the West, i. 

262, 321 ; ii. 5, 143 
Rendall, F. , i. 23, 174, 268 
Rendall, G. H., i. 196, 270, 314 
"Rest Day of the Heart, The," 

ii. 282 

Revelation of the Father, The, i. 326 
Revelation of the Risen Lord, The, 

i. 3M 

Revision of the New Testament, i. 

333- 3 8 9' 39 1 ff -. 4* I " 12, 83 

Richmond, Sir William, i. 420 ; ii. 

30, 161 

Ritual Controversy, ii. 273, 303 
Robinson, Dean Armitage, ii. 35 
Romola, i. 314, 335 
Rooper, F. G., i. 192 
Ropner, R. , ii. 174, 196 
Rossetti, Christina, ii. 224, 262 
Ruskin, John, ii. 248, 306, 312, 

317. 381 

Ryle, Bishop H. E., i. 421 ; ii. 50, 
314, 401, 403 

Sabin, Mrs., ii. 140 

Sacred Books of other Faiths, ii. 48 

Salisbury, Marquess of, i. 409 ; ii. 

8, 92 

Salmon, Provost, ii. 256 
Saunders, Dean, i. 304; ii. 7, 181 
Saunders, Miss A. , ii. 181 
Saunders, Miss F. , ii. 7 
Savage, Canon, ii. 330, 403 
Scarlet Letter, The, i. 314 
Schiller, i. 155 

Schoolmasters' Quiet Day, ii. 113 
Scott, C. B. , i. 37, 42, 47, 117, 

202, 232 ; ii. 331 
Scrivener, Dr., i. 399, 403; ii. 84 
Seaham Harbour, ii. 190, 263 
Seeley, Prof. Sir J. R. , i. 385 ; ii. 3 
Selwyn, Prof., i. 368, 377, 387 
Sidgwick, Prof. Henry, i. 384 
Social Aspects of Christianity, ii. TO 
" Socialism," ii. in 
"Social Responsibilities," ii. 329 
Somersham Rectory, i. 408, 431, 439 
South Shields, visits to, ii. 165, 206, 

249, 277, 330 
Spencer, Earl, ii. 108 



" Spiritual Organ of the Nation, The 

Idea of a," ii. 172 
Stanley, Dean, i. 53, 60, 212, 233, 

237, 266, 332, 391, 394, 407 ; 

ii. 9, 176 
Stanley, Hon. E. H. (Lord Derby), 

i- 37 I ii- 387 

Stanmore, Lord. See Gordon 
Stanton, Prof., i. 370, 375, 383, 

385, 410, 421 

Steps in the Christian Life, i. 384 
Stockton, visits to, ii. 148, 174, 192, 

254. 325 
Stokes, Prof. Sir G. G., i. 385; ii. 

270, 281 

Strike, Durham Coal, ii. 115 ff. 
Strong, Dean, ii. 265, 403 
Stuart, Prof., i. 411, 419 
Stubbs, Bishop, ii. 161, 234, 314, 352 
"Study of the Bible, The," ii. 266 
Sunday School, Jesus Lane, i. 49, 

73. 383 
Sunderland, visits to, ii. 171, 213, 

277- 325. 329, 348 
Supernatural Religion, ii. 60 
Swainson, Prof., i. 377, 418 
Swete, Prof., ii. 269, 347 

Tait, W., i. 6 
Talbot, Bishop, ii. 403 
Talbot, R. T. , letter to, ii. 205 
Tate, Archbishop, i. 266, 440 
Taylor, Prof. Sedley, ii. 

Letter to, ii. 328 
Temperance, ii. 177, 189, 202, 218, 

238, 258, 325 
Temple, Archbishop, i. 212; ii. 189, 

202, 300, 311, 335 
Textual Criticism, letter on, ii. 83 
"Theotokos," ii. 54 
Thompson, W. H. (Master of 

Trinity), i. 121 
Thomson, Archbishop, i. 380, 416 ; 

ii. 99, 102, no 
Thomson, Sir W. , ii. 4 
Thoughts from the Ordinal, Some, 

ii- 5 

Tischendorf, Const., i. 180 
Todhunter, I. , i. 37 
Tracts for the Times, i. 223 
Tricycle, i. 321, 348 
Trinity College, Commemoration, i. 

45, 269, 278 ; ii. 327 



INDEX 



459 



Trinity College, Fellowship, i. i i 3 

Fellows' Protest, i. 201 

Fire at, i. 85 

Hon. Fellowship, i. 409; ii. 147 

Scholarship, i. 43 
Tripos, Classical, i. 53, si 

Mathematical, i. 53, 101 

Theological, i. 376 
Tristram, Canon, ii. 304 
Trotter, Coutts, i. 385 
" True Aims and Methods of F.duca- 

tion, The," ii. 211 
Tupper, C. L., ii. 156 
Tyndall, Prof., ii. 89. 
Tyrrell, Prof., ii. 255 

Unemployed, The, ii. 194 
Usury, letter on, ii. 317 

Vaughan, Dean, i. 129, 172, 174, 
204, 209, 268, 282, 331, 396, 
408, 430 ; ii. 9, 95, 148, 208, 
233- 248 

Vaughan, D. J., i. 37, 41, 47, 232 ; 
ii. 37, 224, 321, 331 

Victory of the Cross, The, ii. 12, 
226, 243 

Villette, i. 314 

Vinet, i. 95 

Voluntary Choir, Peterborough, i. 
358 if. 

Watkins, Archdeacon, ii. 100, 393 f . , 

397. 403, 407 
Letters to, ii. 95, 131, 146, i ^3, 368, 

221, 294, 332, 334, 344, 354 
Watkins, Mrs., ii. 354, 395, 403 

Letter to, ii. 160 

Watson, Dr. H. \\ r . , i. 174; ii. 
140, 224 



i , i i .4 

4, 106, 



Watson, Miss. ii. 224 
Welhy, Hon. V. Lady. i.. ( 

1 .i-tters to, ii. h<;-o.u 
Welldon, Bishop, i. 405, 

42, 162 

Westcott, B. F. (sen.), i. i 
Westcott, !'()> s (sen. ), i. .: : 
Westcott, !'. P.. (sen. ), i. i , 

1 ,etters to, i. ^8-3.) 
Westcott, G. F. (sen. ), 
| Westcott, Mrs. , i. i . i i 

I Betters to, i. ^n, '2 \.\ 
Westcott, Philip, i. an 
j Weston, Miss, ii. 202 
i Whewell, Dr. (Master of ' 

i. 45, 68, 108 
Whipple, Bishop, ii. 229, 24' 

Letters to, ii. 150, 296 
! Whithard, T. Middlemore-, i 

127 

Letters to, Chap. I. 
I \Vhithard, Mrs., letter to, i. 28 
! Whithard, Miss, i. 7 

Letters to, i. (.'haps, l.-l I I. 
Whitley, Bishop, i. 7 
Whitwell, W., ii. 382 
Wiekcnden, F. W. , i. 104, 112, 

127, 407 
Letters to, i. 161, 168, 215, 229, 

2 33. 2 37. 2 4 2 . 2 79 
Willson, \\'alter, ii. 196 
\\ r ilson, f'^hn, ii. 122, 129, 196, 

276, "382 

Wood, Sir Lindsay, ii. 120 
Wordsworth, Bishop )., i. 26=,. 295; 

ii. 161, 300, 309, 316, 352, 403 
Wright, Dr. Aldis, i. 263 
Wright, J. \\. T. , ii. 156, 323 

Young, Ralph, ii. 384 



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